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Michigan  Pioneer  and  Historical 

.    XXII 



Entered  according  to  Act  of  Congress,  in  the  year  1894,  by  the 

In  the  office  of  the  Librarian  of  Congress,  at  Washington,  D.  C. 



The  committee  of  historians  take  pleasure  in  presenting  to  the  public 
this,  the  twenty-second  volume  of  Pioneer  and  Historical  Collections, 
feeling  confident  that  it  will  be  found  equal  to  any  which  have 
preceded  it  in  the  value  and  interest  of  the  historical  matter  here 

Let  it  be  borne  in  mind  that  these  volumes  are  not  designed  as 
complete  histories  of  the  whole  or  scarcely  -  any  one  portion  of  the 
State.  They  are  simply  intended  to  serve  as  storehouses  of  history 
from  which  future  historians  can  select  appropriate  materials  for  the 
construction  of  such  finished  historic  edifices  as  may  hereafter  be 

Our  aim  then  is  to  "gather  up  the  fragments  that  nothing  be  lost,'7 
and  preserve  them  in  our  published  Collections;  and  by  disseminating 
them,  to  place  them  in  the  reach  of  all. 

It  is  not  always  easy  to  foresee  precisely  what  character  of  facts 
will  hereafter  be  most  wanted  and  consequently  most  sought  for  in  our 
volumes.  Probably  all  classes  of  information  relating  to  our  State  will 
have  their  interest  and  value  and  to  a  far  greater  extent  than  we  are 
apt  to  imagine.  Therefore  it  is  that  our  present  volume  will  be  found 
to  contain  quite  a  variety  of  subjects. 

This  volume  contains  the  proceedings  of  the  Annual  Meeting  of 
1893  and  the  papers  read  at  that  meeting,  together  with  other  histor- 
ical papers. 

A  valuable  contribution  to  the    history    of    Detroit  will  be  found    ini 


the    article    upon    By-Gones    of    Detroit    showing    the    changes   there 
during  the  past  fifty  years. 

The  committee  tender  the   thanks  of   the  Society  to  all  who  have  so 
generously   assisted   in   preserving   and   presenting  the  valuable  papers 

published  in  this  volume. 



Committee  of  Historians. 

Secretary  of  the  Committee. 



Preface iii 

Contents _ v 

List  of  officers  elected  Jane  7, 1893 vii 

Errata - 720 

Minntes  of  Annaal  Meeting,  1893 1 

Report  of  Recording  Secretary 19 

Report  of  Corresponding  Secretary 22 

Report  of  Treasurer 24 

Report  of  the  Committee  of  Historians 25 

Report  of  the  Memorial  Committee: 

Allegan  county— Don  C.  Henderson _ 36 

Barry  county— Daniel  Striker 89 

Bay  county—  Wm.  McCormick 42 

Branch  county— Harvey  Haynes 43 

Calhoun  county — John  F.  Hinman 45 

Cass  county— George  T.  Shaffer : 65 

Clinton  county— Ralph  Watson 71 

Eaton  county—  W.  B.  Williams 77 

Genesee  county— Josiah  W.  Begole . 79 

Hillsdale  county—  Wm.  Drake 89 

Ingham  county— C.  B.  Stebbins 92 

Ionia  county — Albert  F.  Morehouse 97 

Jackson  county— Josiah  B.  Frost 102 

Kalamazoo  county— Henry  Bishop 118 

Kent  county—  Wm.  N.  Cook 120 

Lenawee  county— S.  C.  Stacy 129 

Monroe  county 1 . _ 138 

Muekegon  county— Henry  H.  Holt 138 

Oceana  county— E.  T.  Mugford 143 

Ottawa  county— A.  S.  Kedzie 143 

Saginaw  county— C.  W.  Grant 146 

Shiawassee  county— Alonzo  H.  Owens 162 

St.  Clair  county— Mrs.  Helen  W.  Farrand 166 

St.  Joseph  county — Hiram  Draper... 175 

Tuscola  county—  Wm.  A.  Heartt 186 

Wayne  county— J.  Wilkie  Moore 187 

President's  Address— Alpheus  Felch 198 

Memoir  of  Dr.  T.  C.  Abbot— O.  Clute 206 

Memoir  of  Francis  R.  Stebbins— Mormon  Geddes 214 

Memoirof  Anson  DePeuy  Van  Buren— Stephen  D.  Bingham 217 

Memoir  of  Charles  M.  Croswell-Judj/e  T.  M.  Cooley... 222 



Memoirs  of  distinguished  members  of  the  Bay  county  Bar— Judge  A.  C.  Maxwell _ 226 

James  Birney - —  227 

Theophilus  C.  Grier.. 230 

Hon.  Sidney  T.  Holmes 232 

fieminiscenses  of  Oceana  county— Hon.  Enoch  T.  Mugford 23& 

Keminiscenses  of  Oceana  county  -Mrs.  Nancy  B.  White 240 

Early  French  Missions  on  the  Saginaw— .FVed  Carlisle 244 

Sketch  of  John  Tanner,  known  as  the  "White  Indian  "—Judge  Joseph  H.  Steere .  246 

Poem-When  I  was  a  Boy  with  a  Head  like  Tow-E7.  B.  Webster 255 

Settlement  and  Natural  History  of  Manchester  and  Vicinity— L.  D.  Watkins 262, 

Fifty-two  years  of  itinerant  life  in  the  Michigan  Conference  of   the  M.  E.  Church— Rev.  R.  C. 

Crawford _ - 266 

Progress  in  Transportation  and  Mails  in  the  last  fifty  Years— C.  T.  Mitchell 281 

Comparative  Sketches  of  E.  B.  Ward,  James  F.  Joy,  Lewis  Cass  and   Wm.  Woodbridge— Fred 

Carlisle - - 283 

Railroad  History  of  Michigan— James  F.Joy - 292 

Bygones  of  Detroit— Hon.  Geo.  C.  Bates - 305 

Settlement  of  Oakland  county— John  M.  Norton 404 

History  of  Oakland  county— Hon.  Thomas  J.  Drake 408 

Biographical  Sketch  of  John  Roberts— Levi  Bishop —  427 

Some  of  the  Benefits  that  accrued  to  Detroit  from  the  devastating  Fire  of  1805— C.  M.  Burton 431 

Battle  and  Massacre  at  Frenchtown,  Mich.,  January,  1818— Rev.  Thomas  P.  Dudley 436 

Early  Saginaw  Con  stables- Jud»e  Albert  Miller 44* 

Pioneer  Beminiscenses— Mrs.  Azuhah  L.  Jewett _ 447 

A  Pioneer's  Reminiscenses— Contributed  by  Judge  Albert  Miller _ 450 

The  Pioneer  Schools  of  the  State— Judge  A  Ibert  Miller 454 

Sixty-two  Years  Ago— An  old  map  of  the  late  Captain  Marsac  unearthed—  Contributed  by  Judge 

Albert  Miller 457 

Recollections  of  a  Pioneer  of  Early  Michigan— Judge  Albert  Miller 461 

Response  to  Dr.  Wight's  Anniversary  Sermon— Judge  Albert  Miller. 464 

Laying  of  the  Corner  Stone  of  the  New  First  Presbyterian  Church,  Bay  City— Contributed  by  Judge 

Albert  Miller 466 

The  Medical  Profession  in  Michigan— Dr.  O.  C.  Comstock 471 

Fifty  Years  of  Growth  in  Michigan— Hon.  Byron  M.  Cutcheon.... 479 

Pioneer  History  of  the  Settlement  of  Eaton  county— By  early  Settlers 502 

Personal  Reminiscenses— Rev.  W.  B.  Williams —  526 

Early  History  of  the  Township  of  Davison— Goodenough  Townsend 542 

Some  Lenawee  county  History— Judge  Norman  Gfeddes --  556 

Some  Lenawee  county  History— A.  L.  Millard 560 

History  of  the  Hastings  M.  E.  Church— Hon.  Daniel  Striker 565 

Fiftieth  Anniversary  of  the  First  Congregational  Church,  Portland,  Mich _ 624 

Sketch  of  Barnch  G.  Cooley— A.  F.  Morehouse 625 

Historical  Sermon— Rev.  L.  P.  Spelman 62£ 

A  Biographical  Sketch  of  Levi  Hamilton  Goodrich— Enos  Goodrich 651 

Story  of  the  drowning  of  Dr.  Douglass  Honghton  and  sketch  of  Peter  McFarland,  the  last  survivor 

of  the  expedition ,               662: 



ELECTED  JUNE   8,   1893. 


Ex-Gov.  Alpheus  Felch _ Ann  Arbor 


George  H.  Greene Lansing 


Merritt  L,  Coleman Lansing 


Allegan Don  C.  Henderson _ Allegan 

Barry Daniel  Striker _ Hastings 

Bay _ Andrew  C.  Maxwell -Bay  City 

Berrien Thomas  Mars Berrien  Centre 

Branch Harvey  Haynes ___ Coldwater 

Calhoun John  P.  Hinman _ __ Battle  Creek 

Cass George  T.  Shaffer _ Redfield 

Clare Henry  Woodruff _ Parwell 

Clinton Ralph  Watson South  Riley 

Crawford Dr.  Oscar  Palmer... Grayling 

Eaton. __W.  B.  Williams _ Charlotte 

Emmet.. Isaac  D.  Toll... _ .Petoskey 

Genesee Josiah  W.  Begole. _ Flint 

Grand  Traverse Reuben  Goodrich __ Traverse  City 

Gratiot Wm.  S.  Turck ; Alma 

Hillsdale Wm.  Drake. _ Amboy 

Houghton ...Thomas  B.  Dunstan _ ..Hancock 

Ingham C.  B.  Stebbins _ Lansing 

Ionia. A.  F.  Morehouse... __  Portland 

losco __.H.  C.  King ..Oscoda 

Jackson Josiah  B.  Frost _ Jackson 

Kalamazoo Henry   Bishop Kalamazoo 

Kent.. Wm.  N.  Cook Grand  Rapids 


Lapeer.._ ..John  Wright ..Lapeer 

Lenawee S.  C.  Stacy _ — __Tecumseh 

Livingston Albert  Tooley.. Howell 

Macomb __ Chauncey  G.  Cady__ Mt.  Clemens 

Manistee T.  J.  Ramsdell Manistee 

Marquette- ._ _ __Peter  White Marquette 

Menominee __James  A.  Crozier.__ Menominee 

Monroe Gouveneur  Morris Monroe 

Montcalm J.  P.  Shoemaker _ _ __Amsden 

Muekegon Henry  H.  Holt._ _ _ ___Muskegon 

Oakland Mark  Walters.. _____ ^__Pontiac 

Oceana E.  T.  Mugford Hart 

Otsego  ___ ..Charles  F.  Davis _ ___ _.Elmira 

Ottawa John  V.  B.  Goodrich Grand  Haven 

Saginaw Chas  W.  Grant ____. Saginaw,  E.  S. 

Shiawassee Alonzo  H.  Owens Venice 

St.  Clair _ Mrs.  Helen  W.  Farrand Port  Huron 

St.  Joseph Hiram  Draper Findley 

Tuscola Wm.  A.  Heartt __ _ _Caro 

Van  Buren Kirk  W.  Noyes Paw  Paw 

Washtenaw Wm.  H.  Lay : Ypsilanti 

Wayne J.  Wilkie  Moore Detroit 


Judge  Albert  Miller _ __.Bay  City 

Hon.  O.  M.  Barnes __ __ , _ ..Lansing 

Daniel  Striker _ ___ Hastings 


Col.  M.  Shoemaker Jackson 

Hon.  John  H.  Forster __ _ ___Williamston 

Ex-Lt.  Gov.  H.  H.  Holt __ _ ..Muskegon 

L.  D.   Watkins _ _ ..Manchester 

J.  Wilkie  Moore ..Detroit 


ANNUAL  MEETINGS,  JUNE   7    AND    8,  1893. 

The  nineteenth  annual  meeting  of  the  Michigan  Pioneer  and 
Historical  Society,  convened  in  the  senate  chamber  of  the  capitol  at 
Lansing,  on  Wednesday,  June  7,  at  2  o'clock,  p.  m. 

The  president,  ex-Governor  Alpheus  Felch,  called  the  meeting  to 
order  and  the  session  was  opened  with  prayer  by  Rev.  Wm.  H.  Haze 
and  singing  of  America  by  the  audience. 

The  following  officers  were  present: 

President — ex-Governor  Alpheus  Felch,  of  Ann  Arbor. 

Recording  and  Corresponding  Secretary — Geo.  H.  Greene,  of  Lansing. 

Treasurer — Merritt  L.  Coleman,  of  Lansing. 

Executive  Committee — Judge  Albert  Miller,  Bay  City,  and  Rev.  R. 
C.  Crawford,  Grand  Rapids. 

Committee  of  Historians — Col.  M.  Shoemaker,  Jackson,  Hon.  Henry 
H.  Holt,  Muskegon,  and  Fred  Carlisle,  Detroit. 

Vice  Presidents — Hon.  Daniel  Striker,  Barry;  Ralph  Watson,  Clinton; 
Rev.  Wolcott  B.  Williams,  Eaton;  C.  B.  Stebbins,  Ingham;  Albert  F. 
Morehouse,  Ionia;  Hon.  Henry  H.  Holt,  Muskegou;  Hon.  Enoch  T. 
Mugford,  Oceana;  Alonzo  H.  Owens,  Shiawassee;  and  J.  Wilkie  Moore, 

There  were  also  delegates  from  county  societies  as  follows: 

Allecjan,    Dr.    Osman    E.    Goodrich;    Kent,    Thomas   D.    Gilbert   and 

2  ANNUAL,  MEETING,  1893. 

Noys  L.  A  very;  Lenawee,  Alfred  L.  Millard  and  Norman  Geddes, 
Wayne,  Francis  I.  Clark,  J.  Wilkie  Moore,  David  Parsons,  Stephen  B. 
McCracken  and  Fred  Carlisle. 

The  reading  of  the  minutes  of  the  annual  meeting  of  1892  was,  ,pn 
motion  of  Col.  M.  Shoemaker,  dispensed  with. 

The  reports  of  the  recording  secretary,  the  treasurer  and  the  corres- 
ponding secretary  were  then  read  and  on  motion  each  was  accepted 
and  adopted. 

A  quartette,  "While  the  Years  are  Boiling  On,"  was  then  sung  by 
the  Plymouth  church  quartet. 

Col.  Michael  Shoemaker,  chairman  of  the  committee  of  historians, 
submitted  his  report  for  the  committee,  which  was  also  accepted  and 

Geo.  H.  Greene,  chairman  of  the  memorial  committee,  called  the  roll 
of  counties  for  a  memorial  report  when  the  following  counties  responded 
through  their  vice  presidents  either  in  person  or  by  letter,  viz.: 
Allegan,  by  Don  C.  Henderson;  Barry,  Daniel  Striker;  Branch,  Harvey 
Haynes;  Calhoun,  John  F.  Hinman;  Cass,  Geo.  T.  Shaffer;  Clinton, 
Ralph  Watson;  Eaton,  Rev.  Wolcott  B.  Williams;  Genesee,  Josiah  W. 
Begole;  Hillsdale,  William  Drake;  Ingham,  C.  B.  Stebbins;  Ionia, 
Albert  F.  Morehouse;  Jackson,  Josiah  B.  Frost;  Kalamazoo,  Henry 
Bishop;  Kent,  William  N.  Cook;  Lenawee,  S.  C.  Stacy;  Livingston, 
Albert  Tooley;  Muskegon,  Henry  H.  Holt;  Oceana,  Enoch  T.  Mugford; 
Ottawa,  Rev.  A.  S.  Kedzie;  Saginaw,  Chas.  W.  Grant;  Shiawassee, 
Alonzo  H.  Owens;  St.  Clair,  Mrs.  Helen  W.  Farrand;  St.  Joseph, 
Hiram  Draper;  Wayne,  J.  Wilkie  Moore. 

C.  T.  Mitchell  of  Hillsdale  read  a  paper  on  "  The  Progress  in 
Transportation  and  Mails  in  the  last  Fifty  Years." 

A  solo,  "The  Last  Rose  of  Summer,"  was  then  sung  by  Miss 

President  O.  Clute,  of  the  Agricultural  College,  then  read  a  well 
prepared  memoir  of  President  Theophilus  C.  Abbott. 

A  paper  entitled,  "A  Picture  of  Memory — Settlement  of  Oakland 
County,"  was  then  read  by  John  M.  Norton  of  Rochester,  after  which 
the  chair  appointed  a  committee  of  three,  consisting  of  Col.  M.  Shoe- 
maker, M.  D.  Osband,  and  Albert  F.  Morehouse  to  nominate  officers 
for  1893-4. 

Five  minute  speeches  were  then  called  for  and  responded  to  as 

Stephen  D.  Bingham,  Lansing — I  want  to  say  a  few  words  in  regard 
to  the  best  man  the  society  ever  had,  A.  D.  P.  Yan  Buren.  I  can  say  in 


behalf  of  all  the  old  members  of  this  society,  that  they  never  had  a  man 
who  has  done  more  for  the  Pioneer  Society  than  Mr.  Van  Buren.  His 
intense  interest  in  this  society,  and  the  place  he  filled,  could  be  filled 
by  no  other  man  who  ever  belonged  to  us.  I  trust  that  there  is  some 
member  of  this  society  who  will  write  a  sketch  of  this  man,  who  has 
placed  on  record  the  sketches  of  so  many  men  of  the  original  pioneers 
of  Michigan.  I  can  say,  as  we  can  say  of  many  others,  that  his  place 
in  the  society  can  never  again  be  filled. 

Judge  Albert  Miller,  Bay  City — I  got  married  in  Detroit  the  6th  of 
February,  1838,  and  the  verse  which  I  quote  serves  to  give  a  description 
of  the  railroads  at  that  time. 

"The  rails  were  of  wood,  but  the  coaches  were  fine, 
For  there  were  two  seats  in  each  on  which  to  recline. 
The  horses  then  hied  us  with  speed  and  much  strength 
Over  that  railroad  which  was  twelve  miles  in  length. 
At  the  end  of  the  railroad  then  we  there  found 
A  stage  coach  in  waiting  for  Pontiac  bound. 
But  I  must  confess  that  at  that  early  day, 
A  stage  coach  was  nothing  but  an  open  sleigh. 
But  in  a  day's  journey  we  succeeded  so  well, 
That  before  night-fall  we  reached  Judge  Bagley's  hotel." 

Judge  Andrew  Howell,  of  Detroit,  was  then  called  for  and  responded 
as  follows:  I  came  here  to  listen  and  not  to  make  any  remarks  in 
regard  to  pioneer  matters.  I  can  say  only  a  few  words  in  regard  to 
Lenawee  county  where  my  life  has  been  spent.  There  in  those  early 
days  our  people  settled  in  a  thickly  wooded  country  and  heavy  forests. 
They  came  there  young  men  and  young  women  from  New  York  and 
New  England,  and  filled  up  the  county  of  Lenawee.  They  were  young 
people,  not  rich,  or  not  the  poorest,  but  in  those  days  when  it  took 
three  weeks  to  journey  from  central  New  York  to  Monroe,  and  three 
or  four  days  from  Monroe  back  into  the  wooded  portions  of  Lenawee 
county,  it  took  a  pretty  sturdy  set  of  young  men  and  young  women  to 
do  it.  They  were  all  alike,  there  were  no  idlers  among  them;  when 
they  got  there  together  they  were  a  moral,  industrious  set  of  young 
men  and  women.  Their  children  grew  up  like  them,  and  they  were  as 
good  a  population  of  people  as  ever  existed  in  this  country  or  ever  will 
exist.  They  were  all  alike  then.  They  were  all  good  and  industrious, 
and  so  it  has  been  with  a  large  portion  of  Michigan,  but  especially 
with  the  southern  part. 

L.  D.  Watkins,  Manchester — I  recollect  when  the  circuit  court  was 
organized  there  was  a  judge  from  the  eastern  part  of  the  State  sent 

4  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

out  to  organize  the  court  in  the  county  where  .1  then  lived.  I 
happened  to  be  on  the  grand  jury,  and  he  gave  us  a  very  voluminous- 
charge  on  various  matters  that  would  need  our  attention,  and  among 
the  rest,  gambling,  which  was  very  common  in  our  new  counties.  One 
evening  I  went  into  the  office  of  a  friend  of  mine  and  found  the  judge 
and  half  a  dozen  lawyers,  that  had  congregated  from  the  adjoining 
counties,  and  two  or  three  citizens  seated  around  the  table  playing 
poker,  [and  my  friend  dragged  me  into  the  game.  I  did  not  know 
anything  about  it,  and  he  told  me  to  put  up  a  little  something,  and 
we  played  until  there  was  about  five  dollars  in  the  pool;  and  the 
judge  took  all  the  good  money  I  had  in  the  world.  I  think  if  I  would 
not  have  implicated  myself  I  should  have  taught  that  judge  a  lesson .. 
Two  choruses,  one  entitled  "  Fancies  "  and  the  other  "  Sleep,  Baby, 
Sleep,"  were  sung  by  the  pupils  from  the  central  school,  and  the  meet- 
ing adjourned  until  7  o'clock  in  the  evening. 


The  society  met  pursuant  to  adjournment  and  was  called  to  order  by 
the  president.  Prayer  was  offered  by  Rev.  C.  H.  Beale. 

A  solo   "  I  Heard  the  Voice  of  Jesus  Say"  was  sung  by  L.  A.  Baker. 

The  president  delivered  his  annual  address  for  which  a  vote  of  thanks 
was  tendered  him  on  motion  of  S.  B.  McCracken,  followed  by  music 
"  Softly  now  the  Shadows  Fall "  sung  by  the  high  school  ladies  trio. 

A  memoir  of  Francis  E.  Stebbins,  by  Hon.  Norman  Geddes  of  Adrian,, 
was  then  read  by  him. 

The  high  school  male  quartet  sang  "  The  Owl  and  the  Pussy  Cat" 
and  responded  to  an  encore  with  "  Tinker's  Song "  from  Kobin  Hood. 

A  paper  entitled  " Eeminiscences  of  Oceana  County"  was  then  read 
by  Hon.  Enoch  T.  Mugford  of  Hart. 

Five  minute  speeches  were  then  called  for  and  responded  to  a& 
follows : 

The  secretary  announced  that  he  had  just  received  a  letter  from  Hon. 
S.  W.  Fowler  of  Manistee,  which  he  would  read  as  a  five  minute 
speech  from  him,  as  follows: 

Manistee,  Mich.,  June  5,  1893. 
Geo.  H.  Greene,  Esq.,  Secretary  of  Michigan  Pioneer  and  Historical 

Society,  Lansing: 

DEAR  SIR— Allow  me  to  thank  you  for  your  kind  invitation  to  attend 
the  coming  annual  meeting  of  your  society.  I  hoped  to  have  been 


present  but  unforseen  events  may  prevent.  I  am  interested  in  the 
early  history  of  the  state  of  my  adoption.  I  first  landed  in  Michigan 
at  Detroit  fifty-two  years  since,  a  boy  twelve  years  old  without  an 
acquaintance  in  the  State.  Detroit  was  a  small  French  settlement  with- 
out a  paved  street  or  a  sidewalk  that  I  saw.  The  mud  up  Jefferson 
avenue  was  something  fearful  and  if  there  were  any  carriages  I  failed 
to  find  them.  The  aristocracy  of  the  place  made  their  evening  calls, 
went  to  mill  and  to  market  in  small  French  carts  that,  to  me,  looked 
funny  as  they  went  bobbing  up  and  down  the  streets.  The  Michigan 
Central  R.  E.  was  being  built  west.  I  first  arrived  at  Lansing  in  1848 
in  a  stage  coach  from  Jackson,  and  stopped  at  the  Lansing  House, 
then  a  wooden  building  located  nearly  opposite  where  the  Hotel 
Downey  is  now  located. 

The  constitutional  convention  was  then  in  session,  and  there  were 
few  if  any  buildings  between  the  capitol  and  upper  and  lower  Lansing. 
The  trees  had  just  been  cut  down  and  a  wilderness  of  stumps  met  the 
gaze  in  every  direction. 

The  Battle  Creek  road  had  just  been  cut  out  but  the  logs  prevented 
travel  and  there  was  not  a  house  within  ten  miles  in  that  direction  and 
no  possible  way  to  go  through  except  on  foot,  and  as  I  was  bound  for 
Albion  College  I  took  to  the  woods  afoot  and  alone,  and  after  two 
days  of  the  hardest  and  worst  travel  I  ever  had,  I  succeeded  in  reach- 
ing Albion.  There  was  no  house  within  ten  miles  of  Albion  in  that 
•direction,  and  the  musquitoes  were  thicker,  larger  and)  hungrier  than 
the  celebrated  Jersey  musquitoes,  and  I  was  evidently  the  first  morsel 
they  had  had  in  a  long  time,  they  improved  their  opportunities;  while 
I,  half  crazed  with  pain,  became  lost  and  wandered  miles  out  of  my 

I  afterwards  took  my  revenge,  in  part,  by  introducing  a  bill  in  the 
senate  which  became  a  law,  improving  the  road  from  Lansing  to  Char- 
lotte, making  it  at  the  time  one  of  the  best  roads  in  the  State.  When 
I  located  in  Charlotte  in  1853  and  commenced  practicing  law,  the  fourth 
Michigan  Report  had  just  been  published,  now  there  are  about  ninety- 
four  volumes.  Detroit  has  become  one  of  the.  finest  cities  in  the 
northwest,  the  •  wilderness  around  Lansing  has  been  made  to  blossom 
like  the  rose,  and  Michigan  has  over  2,000,000  educated  and  thriving 
people.  The  pioneers  of  the  State  may  well  be  proud  of  the  progress 
made,  and  of  the  part  they  took  in  this  advancement. 

I  would  like  to  send  greeting  to  the  members,  and  hope  this  will  be 
a  very  pleasant  and  profitable  meeting. 

Yours  sincerely, 

S.  W.  FOWLER. 

6  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

Hon.  Enoch  T.  Mugford,  Hart— When  I  settled  in  the  place  where* 
I  now  live,  it  was  a  wilderness  from  the  city  of  Grand  Bapids  to  that 
place.  I  came  there  as  a  poor  man.  Cut  my  way  through  the  woods 
and  got  my  little  family  there,  and  we  have  lived  there  ever  since. 
And  today  I  feel  proud  of  meeting  you  here  as  old  settlers  of  this 
State.  And  feel  proud  of  the  county  which  I  represent,  Oceana  county. 

Albert  F.,  Portland — Reference  has  been  made  to  the 
sickness  which  was  prevalent  in  Oceana  county.  I  well  recollect  how 
it  was  in  Clinton  and  Ionia  counties,  near  that  portion  of  Ionia  county 
where  I  reside.  It  was  a  common  opinion  that  when  a  patient  was 
pretty  well  run  down  he  must  not  have  anything  to  drink  but  hot 
drinks.  That  was  the  professional  cure,  and  when  the  fever  went  off 
the  patients  usually  went  with  it.  There  was  a  man  there  by  the 
name  of  Jesse  Monroe,  who  had  a  different  view  of  the  case.  There 
was  an  Irish  family,  which  I  well  knew,  lived  about  three  miles  from 
Mr.  Monroe,  and  the  father  of  the  family  was  addicted  to  drink,  and 
word  came  that  he  was  very  sick.  The  doctor  was  treating  him. 
Finally  he  was  so  near  dying  that  he  couldn't  possibly  live  twenty-four 
hours,  and  the  neighbors  were  worn  out  with  watching,  and  Jesse 
Monroe  thought  he  would  try  a  new  course  of  treatment,  and  volun- 
teered to  sit  up  with  the  old  gentleman.  Taking  with  him  a  half  pint 
flask  of  whisky,  he  told  the  family,  who  were  pretty  well  exhausted, 
that  they  might  retire  to  rest  and  when  there  came  a  change,  as  they 
all  anticipated,  he  would  call  the  family  up.  After  they  had  gone  he 
took  a  teaspoon  and  filled  it  with  whisky  and  gave  it  to  the  old 
gentleman.  He  could  hardly  see  it  disappear  between  his  lips,  and  in 
a  minute  or  two  he  gave  him  another  one,  and  then  he  saw  some 
action.  He  tried  the  remedy  again  and  again,  when  he  began  to 
revive  and  apparently  dropped  off  to  sleep.  Finally  Mr.  Monroe  heard 
a  rustling  in  the  bed,  and  he  went  to  him  and  the  old  man  said,  "I 
want  something  to  eat."  He  gave  him  another  dose  of  whisky.  The 
man  got  well,  but  it  was  chargeable  to  the  whisky  and  not  to  the 

Stephen  D.  Bingham,  Lansing — I  want  to  say  a  word  about  this 
picture  of  Lafayette.  This  portrait  represents  him  at  full  length  at  his- 
own  height,  six  feet  and  seven  inches.  The  ordinary  idea  of  the 
French  is  that  they  are  a  diminutive  race.  This  portrait  was  painted 
by  Horace  Vernet.  His  father  was  a  celebrated  painter.  Horace 
Vernet  was  born  in  1789,  and  died  in  1863. 

There  has  been  many  things  said  about  this  portrait,  but  I  got  my 
information  from  Hon.  Townsend  E.  Gidley,  who  was  senator  and 


representative  here,  perhaps  oftener  than  any  other  man  has  been. 
Mr.  Gidley  commenced  his  mercantile  business  in  Ponghkeepsie,  N.  Y., 
at  the  age  of  seventeen.  At  the  age  of  nineteen  he  was  captain  of  the 
military  company  at  Ponghkeepsie.  At  the  age  of  twenty-three  Mr. 
Gidley  finding  his  health  failing  came  out  and  settled  in  Jackson,  and 
the  first  year  put  in  three  hundred  acres  of  wheat.  He  gave  me  the 
history  of  this  portrait.  He  was  personally  introduced  to  Lafayette. 
He  says  this  portrait  was  painted  by  Vernet  at  the  request  of  Judge 
Lyon,  who  attempted  to  get  him  to  paint  this  portrait  for  himself,  but 
on  his  promise  to  give  it  to  Michigan  he  painted  it  at  the  cost  of  $700. 
This  picture  is  the  most  valuable  perhaps  of  anything  that  the  State 
of  Michigan  has  today,  and  without  doubt  would  bring  twenty-five  or 
thirty,  and  perhaps  fifty  thousand  dollars. 

Hon.  Alpheus  Felch,  Ann  Arbor — I  take  it  that  there  is  a  written 
history  of  this  painting  somewhere  in  the  proceedings  of  the  legislature. 
I  do  not  know  whether  it  is  so  or  not,  but  there  must  of  necessity  be 
some  acknowledgment.  The  legislature  could  not  receive  as  a  gift  one  so 
valuable  as  this  and  make  no  acknowledgment  to  the  giver.  You  all 
know  that  in  the  house  of  representatives  there  is  a  likeness  of  Stevens 
T.  Mason.  I  had  occasion  to  see  how  that  came  there,  and  I  found 
that  it  was  painted  at  the  request  and  at  the  expense  of  some  gentle- 
man in  Detroit.  It  was  presented  to  the  legislature  and  the  legislature 
accepted  it  and  ordered  it  to  be  hung  up  in  the  house  of  representatives. 
In  looking  over  the  records  I  was  astonished  to  find  that  I  was  myself 
on  the  committee  which  received  it,  and  made  a  report  upon  it.  I 
mention  this  as  showing  that  it  is  hardly  possible  that  the  legislature 
should  have  received  a  painting  of  that  description  without  making 
some  acknowledgment  of  the  record.  It  would  be  worth  while  for 
some  of  us  to  look  at  the  records  to  see  what  history  could  be  found. 

A  duet,  "Greeting,"  was  sung  by  Misses  Maud  La  Rose  and  Grace 
Lemon,  and  they  responded  to  an  encore. 

The  meeting  then  adjourned  until  Thursday  morning  at  9  o'clock. 


The  meeting  was  called  to  order  by  the  president. 
Prayer  by  Rev.  Louis  Grosenbaugh. 

A  solo  entitled  "Turn  Backward,  O  Time,  in  your  Flight,"  was  sung 
by  Miss  Neenah  Jones. 

8  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

The  committee  on  nominations  made  the  following  report,  which 
was  adopted: 

The  committee  appointed  to  recommend  names  for  officers  of  the 
society  for  the  ensuing  year,  would  respectfully  report  the  following: 

President. — Hon.  Alpheus  Felch,  Ann  Arbor. 

Recording  and  Correspondiny  Secretary. — Geo.  H.  Greene,   Lansing. 

Treasurer. — Merritt  L.  Coleman,  Lansing. 

Executive  Committee. — Albert  Miller,  chairman,  Bay  City;  Orlando 
M.  Barnes,  Lansing;  Daniel  Striker,  Hastings. 

Committee  of  Historians. — Michael  Shoemaker,  chairman,  Jackson; 
John  H.  Forster,  Williamston;  Henry  H.  Holt,  Muskegon;  L.  D. 
Watkins,  Manchester;  J.  Wilkie  Moore,  Detroit. 

All  of  which  is  respectfully  submitted. 

Lansing,  Mich.,  June  8,  1893. 


M.  D.  OSBAND, 


The  secretary  then  called  the  roll  of  counties  and  Vice  Presidents 
were  chosen  as  follows: 

Allegan — Don.  C.  Henderson,  Allegan. 

Barry — Daniel  Striker,  Hastings. 

Bay — Andrew  C.  Maxwell,  Bay  City. 

Berrien — Thomas  Mars,  Berrien  Center. 

Branch — Harvey  Haynes,  Coldwater. 

Calhoun— John  F.  Hinman,  Battle  Creek. 

Cass-Geo.  T.  Shaffer,  Eedfield. 

Clare- Henry  Woodruff,  Farwell. 

Clinton— Ealph  Watson,  South  Eiley. 

Crawford — Dr.  Oscar  Palmer,  Grayling. 

Eaton— Eev.  Wolcott  B.  Williams,  Charlotte. 

Emmet— Isaac  D.  Toll,  Petoskey. 

Genesee — Josiah  W.  Begole,  Flint. 

Grand  Traverse— Reuben  Goodrich,  Traverse  City. 

Gratiot—Wm.  S.  Turck,  Alma. 

Hillsdale— William  [Drake,  Amboy. 

Houghton — Thomas  B.  Dunstan,  Hancock. 

Ingham—  Cortland  B.  Stebbins,  Lansing. 

Ionia — Albert  F.  Morehouse,  Portland. 

losco—  H.  C.  King,  Oscoda. 


Jackson — Josiah  B.  Frost,  Jackson. 

Kalamazoo — Henry  Bishop,  Kalamazoo. 

Kent — William  N.  Cook,  Grand  Rapids. 

Lapeer — John  Wright,  Lapeer. 

Lenawee — S.  C.  Stacy,  Tecumseh. 

Livingston — Albert  Tooley,  Howell. 

Macomb — Chauncey  G.  Cady,  Mt.  Clemens. 

Manistee — T.  J.  Ramsdell,  Manistee. 

Marquette — Peter  White,  Marquette. 

Menominee — James  A.  Crozier,  Menominee. 

Monroe — Gouveneur  Morris,  Monroe. 

Montcalm — Joseph  P.  Shoemaker,  Amsden. 

Muskegon — Henry  H.  Holt,  Muskegon. 

Oakland — Mark  Walters,  Pontiac. 

Oceana — Enoch  T.  Mugford,  Hart. 

Otsego — Charles  F.  Davis,  Elmira. 

Ottawa — John  V.  B.  Goodrich,  Grand  Haven.    » 

Saginaio — Chas.  W.  Grant,  Saginaw,  E.  S. 

Shiawassee — Alonzo  H.  Owens,  Venice. 

St.  Ciair—~M.Ts.  Helen  W.  Farrand,  Port  Huron. 

St.  Joseph — Hiram  Draper,  Findley. 

Tuscola — William  A.  Heartt,  Caro. 

Van  Buren — Kirk  W.  Noyes,  Paw  Paw. 

Washienaw — William  H.  Lay,  Ypsilanti. 

'Wayne—  J.  Wilkie  Moore,  Detroit. 

Judge  Albert  Miller  offered  the  following  resolution,  which  was 
adopted : 

Resolved,  That  Col.  Michael  Shoemaker,  Hon.  Henry  H.  Holt,  and 
Geo.  H.  Greene,  Esq.,  be,  and  they  are  hereby  appointed,  delegates  to 
represent  the  Michigan  Pioneer  and  Historical  Society,  in  the  depart- 
ment of  literature  at  the* World's  Congress  Auxiliary,  to  be  held  at  the 
World's  Columbian  Exhibition  of  1893,  in  Chicago,  the  week  commenc- 
ing July  10,  and  report  the  result  of  their  observations  at  the  annual 
meeting  of  the  society  in  1894. 

David  Parsons,  of  Detroit,  offered  the  following  resolution  for  S.  B. 
McCracken,  which  after  some  discussion  was  lost: 

Resolved,  That  a  committee  of  three  persons,  members  of  the  society, 
the  chairman  of  which  shall  be  an  attorney  at  law,  be  appointed  by 
the  chair,  to  whom  shall  be  referred  any  and  all  matters  relating  to 
the  legal  status  of  the  society,  with  power  to  take  such  steps  as  may 
be  requisite  to  cure  any  imperfections,  should  such  be  found  to  exist. 

10  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

A  solo  entitled  "  Lovely  Spring,"  was  then  sung  by  Mrs.  J.  D. 

Rev.  E.  C.  Crawford,  of  Grand  Eapids,  read  a  very  able  paper  on 
his  "  Fifty- two  Years  in  the  Itinerancy  of  the  Michigan  Conference  of 
the  M.  E.  Church,"  in  which  he  related  many  interesting  reminiscences. 

L.  D.  Watkins,  of  Manchester,  read  a  paper  entitled  "  Settlement 
and  Natural  History  of  Manchester  and  Vicinity,"  showing  considerable 
observation  and  research. 

A  very  interesting  article  entitled  "  Sketch  of  John  Tanner,  known  as 
the  White  Indian,"  by  Judge  Joseph  H.  Steere,  of  Sault  Ste.  Marie,  was 
then  read  by'S.  B.  McCracken.  After  the  reading  of  this  paper  the 
Hon.  Thomas  D.  Gilbert,  of  Grand  Rapids,  made  the  following  remarks: 

A  daughter  of  the  Rev.  Bingham,  who  was  a  missionary  in  the 
vicinity  of  Fort  Monroe  from  1828  to  1855,  told  me  yesterday,  knowing 
that  this  paper  was  to  be  read,  some  incidents  in  connection  with  what 
was  known  at  Fort  Monroe  as  the  Tanner  year  in  1846.  Tanner  and 
the  fear  of  him  dominated  that  town  during  that  year  until  he 
disappeared.  All  the  traits  of  character  spoken  of  in  that  paper  this 
lady  confirmed.  Speaking  of  his  peculiarities  she  said  he  was  for 
many  years  the  interpreter  at  her  father's  mission,  interpreting  his 
sermons  to  the  Indians,  and  the  reason  of  his  antipathy  to  some  of  the 
citizens  there  was  this:  He  abused  this  white  wife  of  his  so  terribly 
that  she  was  forced  to  leave  him,  and  a  number  of  the  citizens  there, 
among  them  the  Schoolcrafts,  and  the  Rev.  Bingham,  and  some 
others,  contributed  the  necessary  money  to  enable  her  to  slip  away  and 
leave  him.  He  swore  vengence  against  everyone  who  aided  her  or 
sought  to  relieve  her  from  his  oppression.  Henry  R.  Schoolcraft  was 
the  one  whom  he  meant  to  kill,  but  for  some  reason  he  could  not  get 
a  chance  at  him,  and  he  supposed  that  he  took  his  next  kin,  James 
Schoolcraft,  against  whom  he  had  the  same  antipathy.  It  was  well 
understood  after  this  murder  of  James  Schqplcraft  that  there  were 
those  who  would  be  served  in  the  same  way,  and  the  officer's  post 
there  kept  a  guard  around  the  mission  house,  where  the  Rev.  Bingham 
lived,  for  two  months,  thinking  that  he  might  return  and  finish  his 
deadly  work,  but  he  never  was  seen  afterward,  as  was  clearly  shown  in 
that  paper. 

A  solo  was  then  sung  by  Arthur  Carmer  entitled,  "Then  You'll 
Remember  Me,"  and  the  meeting  adjourned  until  2  o'clock  p.  m. 



The  society  met  pursuant  to  adjournment  and  was  called  to  order  by 
the  president. 

Prayer,  by  Rev.  W.  F.  Dickerman. 

Music — A  solo,  by  Mr.  John  Daniels. 

Fred  Carlisle,  of  Detroit,  read  a  paper  entitled  "  Comparative 
Sketches  of  E.  B.  Ward,  James  F.  Joy,  Lewis  Cass,  and  C.  C. 

A  violin  solp  entitled,  "  Airs  from  Orpheus,"  was  then  rendered  by 
Mrs.  Ella  W.  Shank. 

A  very  interesting  paper  on  "Railroad  History,"  by  James  F.  Joy, 
was  then  read  by  Geo.  H.  Greene. 

The  high  school  chorus  of  Lansing  then  sang  a  piece  entitled, 
"  Softly  the  Shadows  Flitting  O'er  Us." 

Five  minute  speeches  were  then  called  for  and  responded  to  as 
follows : 

Hon.  Henry  H.  Holt — Mr.  President,  Ladies  and  Gentlemen:  I  wish 
to  say  a  word  further  in  regard  to  this  picture.  We  are  here  as 
historians  as  well  as  pioneers.  It  is  a  part  of  our  duty  to  preserve  the 
history  of  Michigan  as  well  as  the  records  of  the  pioneer  settlers,  and 
in  this  connection  I  wish  to  say  something  further  in  regard  to  this 
picture  of  Lafayette. 

The  time  is  past  when  we  can  do  anything  in  a  pecuniary  manner, 
to  recompense  the  officers  and  soldiers  of  the  revolution,  for  the  many 
hardships  they  endured  in  their  struggle  for  independence. 

This  is  particularly  true  as  regards  those  of  foreign  countries  who 
assisted  us,  of  whom  Lafayette  is  an  especial  example. 

In  fact,  people  generally  do  not  fully  realize  the  great  obligations  we 
are  under  to  him  for  his  services  in  the  revolution.  There  are  many, 
indeed,  who  are  scarcely  aware  what  he  did  for  us,  and  how  important 
his  efforts  became.  We  do  not  remember  that  at  one  time  the  troops 
were  in  such  a  condition,  that,  in  order  to  keep  them  from  perishing 
from  lack  of  food  and  clothing  it  became  necessary  for  Lafayette  to 
borrpw  money  from  his  own  resources,  to  furnish  these  necessaries. 

Historians  frequently  say,  that  had  it  not  been  for  these  efforts  of 
Lafayette,  it  would  have  been  doubtful  if  Washington  could  have  suc- 
ceeded in  the  revolution. 

As  representatives  of  this  society,  it  seems  to  be  our  duty  to  keep 
these  matters  of  history  before  the  people  and  do  all  we  can  to  pre- 
serve their  recollection. 

12  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

A  few  years  since,  while  making  a  tour  of  Paris,  I  determined  to 
visit  the  grave  of  Lafayette.  After  inquiring  some  time  about  its 
location,  I  started  one  morning  to  find  it,  and  occupied  nearly  the 
whole  day  before  I  succeeded.  When  I  did  so,  it  was  overrun  with 
weeds  and  bushes  and  with  nothing  to  mark  it  but  a  small  tombstone. 
The  grave  of  a  private  citizen  in  Paris  would  receive  more  attention 
than  that  of  Gen.  Lafayette. 

I  need  not  say  that  I  was  mortified  to  learn  that  Americans,  visiting 
Paris,  know  so  little  regarding  one  who  rendered  us  such  valuable 

I  have  been  pleased  to  learn  within  the  last  few  days  that  a  number 
of  our  citizens  in  Paris,  procured  some  flowers  and  placed  them  on  his 
.grave  on  Decoration  day.  I  hope  that  this  will  be  the  custom  hereafter. 

Americans  should  do  something  more.  A  suitable  monument  '  ought 
to  be  erected  at  his  grave,  even  if  it  is  in  an  out  of  the  way  place,  in 

We  have  heard  what  Mr.  Bingham  says  in  regard  to  this  picture  of 
Lafayette,  and  I  have  no  doubt  it  is  true,  and  more  than  that,  I  am 
.glad  to  be  able  to  say  so.  It  is  only  lately  that  people  began  to  learn 
that  we  have  such  a  picture,  in  fact,  the  best  picture  of  Lafayette  in 
the  United  States. 

Although  we  have  this,  to  show  how  little  it  is  appreciated,  I  will 
say  that  I  have  several  times  inquired  of  different  senators  as  to  what 
picture  it  is — pretending  not  to  know — I  have  usually  found  but  few 
who  knew  whose  picture  it  is.  I  was  in  the  legislature  for  the  first 
time  in  1867  when  the  picture  was  in  the  library  in  the  old  capitol  in 
•a  terrible  condition,  without  any  frame,  covered  with  dust,  and  thrown 
upon  the  top  of  book  shelves. 

I  was  also  here  in  1869,  '71,  '73  and  '75,  when  it  was  in  the  same 
place,  and  few  knew  there  was  such  a  picture  in  the  library.  It  was 
taken  out,  on  the  building  of  the  new  capitol,  framed  and  repaired  and 
placed  in  its  present  position  in  the  senate  chamber,  where  I  next  saw 
it  at  the  session  of  1879. 

We  are  unable  to  say  who  brought  it  from  Paris,  but  Mr.  Bingham 
told  us  yesterday  that  Mr.  Gidley  told  him  that  it  was  procured  by 
Lucius  Lyon  and  brought  to  this  country,  we  do  not  know  how  or 
•exactly  when,  but  think  it  was  put  in  the  library  but  never  hung  until 
this  building  was  erected. 

We  certainly  are  under  obligations  to  take  care  of  it,  and  let  people 
know  that  we  have  it.  It  might  as  well  be  hung  in  a  cupboard  if 
people  do  not  know  where  it  is  and  what  it  is. 

MINUTES.  13* 

It  certainly  should  be  understood  and  appreciated.  The  guards 
should  call  attention  to  it  so  that  those  visiting  the  capitol  can  see  it 
if  they  wish. 

We  should  be  proud  of  it,  and  I  hope  you  will  go  home  remember- 
ing that  the  people  of  Michigan  are  the  owners  of  this  treasure,  as  in 
doing  this  we  are  showing  respect  to  the  memory  of  one  to  whom  we 
are  so  much  indebted. 

Hon.  Norman  Geddes — Mr.  Chairman,  I  wish  to  make  a  motion  that 
this  whole  matter  of  investigation  of  the  history  of  this  picture,  its 
origin,  and  how  the  State  came  into  possession  of  it,  be  referred  to  a 
committee  of  which  ex-Governor  Holt  be  the  chairman,  with  the 
request  that  he  prepare  a  paper  to  be  read  before  this  society  next 

The  above  resolution  was  adopted,  and  ex-Governor  Holt,  Stephen  D. 
Bingham,  and  Fred  Carlisle  were  appointed  as  members  of  such 

Francis  I.  Clark,  Flat  Bock — I  am  greatly  pleased  to  hear  these 
gentlemen  speak  on  this  subject  and  of  this  individual.  The  portrait 
I  have  nothing  to  say  about,  but  it  is  the  man.  It  is  not  altogether 
what  Lafayette  did  in  this  country  for  America,  but  you  must  be 
aware  that  he  married  a  lovely  woman  for  his  wife  in  France,  and  he 
sacrificed  her  affections,  and  her  love  for  the  time  being;  and  not  only 
that,  he  left  France  against  the  orders  of  his  king,  and  went  to  a 
seaport  and  boarded  a  vessel  where  he  thought  there  would  be  no- 
chance  of  being  pursued  and  brought  back.  This  was  certainly  a  great 
undertaking  to  forsake  a  lovely  wife  and  disobey  the  orders  of  his- 
king,  and  come  to  America  to  lay  down  his  life  for  a  nation  that  he 
knew  nothing  about  any  more  than  that  we  were  struggling  for  liberty. 
In  the  first  instance  of  his  landing — he  landed  I  think  in  South  Caro- 
lina— he  hastened  to  the  army  where  General  Washington  lay  below 
Philadelphia.  And  there  was  the  British  army  drawn  up  on  the 
Brandywine  for  a  great  battle,  and  General  Washington  brought  all  of 
his  forces  and  did  the  best  that  he  could  to  keep  the  British  army  from, 
taking  possession  of  Philadelphia.  And  there  they  fought  a  great 
battle,  and  this  young  hero  was  wounded.  General  Washington,  you 
know,  received  him  as  a  son,  and  he  always  paid  the  greatest  attention 
to  him,  and  gave  him  high  command,  and  he  fought  nobly  and 
faithfully  for  a  country  he  had  no  other  interests  in  than  out  of  a 
patriotic  motive  to  help  America  gain  her  independence  and  become  a 
free  nation.  I  wish  I  had  the.  power  of  a  Daniel  Webster,  I  would 
like  to  portray  to  you  the  grand  sentiment  of  such  a  ,young  hero. 

14  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

Mr.  C.  B.  Stebbins,  Lansing — There  was  once  a  revolution  in  France. 
The  king  was  deposed  by  the  general  voice  of  the  people.  The 
provincial  government  was  partially  established,  and  the  call  was 
"What  shall  we  do?"  Some  were  for  proclaiming  a  republic.  Others 
said,  "No."  And  they  agreed  among  themselves  that  it  should  be 
Louis  Philippe.  The  next  question  was  will  the  people  sanction  this 
election?  And  while  that  state  of  things  existed,  and  they  were 
debating  that  question  in  regard  to  the  will  of  the  people,  Lafayette 
came  out  where  they  were  congregated  and  advised  them  to  go  in  for 
Louis  Philippe,  and  I  think  that  we  may  largely  say  that  Lafayette 
elected  Louis  Philippe  king  of  France.  Well,  what  about  this  picture? 
I  have  known  of  that  picture  ever  since  1857.  I  knew  of  its  being  in 
the  library  laid  away  as  the  Governor  has  told  us.  Louis  Philippe 
naturally  would  be  a  friend  of  Lafayette's,  and  I  have  heard  it  said  a 
great  many  times,  by  those  who  got  their  information  from  somebody 
else,  that  it  was  presented  to  this  State  by  Louis  Philippe. 

Hon.  Alpheus  Felch — I  was  so  much  interested  in  the  article  which 
has  been  read  here,  that  I  can  hardly  refrain  from  saying  some  word 
about  the  railroad  system  of  Michigan.  Most  of  us  remember  that  it 
is  almost  half  a  century  since  we  first  embarked  upon  the  railroad 
system,  and  we  all  know  ifchat  nothing  very  great,  nothing  that  we  have 
ever  attempted  to  do  has  done  more  to  promote  the  interest  of  the 
State  of  Michigan  than  the  railroad  system,  and  yet  I  can  remember 
very  well  when  there  was  some  portion  of  it  that  was  subject  to  great 
censure.  We  loaned  $5,000,000,  and  it  was  a  great  loan.  It  was  a 
poor  State,  and  it  was  thought  an  extravagant  idea  that  we  should 
loan  that  amount  of  money.  As  I  happened  to  be  in  the  first  legisla- 
ture which  adopted  that  system,  my  recollection  of  it  is  clear.  1 
remember  very  well  of  hearing  the  first  whistle  of  the  locomotive  that 
ever  was  heard  in  Michigan;  it  was  at  the  depot  in  Detroit,  the  place 
where  the  city  hall  now  stands.  The  machinery  had  come  on  from 
New  York  and  arrived  there  one  day,  and  by  the  next  day  the 
engineers  were  at  work  getting  it  into  position  and  running  order.  We 
had  one  or  two  cars  also.  About  three  or  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon 
I  remember  of  hearing  the  sound  of  that  whistle.  It  was  not  the 
sound  we  get  from  the  locomotive  of  the  present  time;  it  was  about 
half  way  between  a  grunt  and  a  groan.  Whatever  it  was  it  made  a 
great  impression  upon  the  people  who  heard  it.  I  took  a  walk  that 
evening  and  passed  a  good  many  people,  and  among  them  a  good  many 
boys,  and  every  boy  had  that  upon  his  lips,  and  he  made  exactly  the 
same  sound  that -that  locomotive  made.  Let  me  say  a  word  about  the 


passage  of  this  bill  as  connected  with  the  system  itself.  We  got  three 
railroads.  Some  of  us  thought  that  as  much  as  we  had  loaned  a  large 
sum  of  money,  we  were  too  poor  to  make  three  roads.  So  while  the 
committee  on  railroads  reported  one  single  road  from  Detroit  through 
to  St.  Joseph,  we,  who  were  members  from  the  south  and  north,  thought 
that  if  we  undertook  to  pay  $5,000,000,  we  at  the  north  and  south 
ought  to  have  some  interest  in  this  railroad  business.  The  consequence 
was  that  when  they  were  about  to  pass  the  bill  I  sent  up  an  amend- 
ment which  provided  for  three  railroads  across  the  isthmus  instead  of 
one.  It  gave  them  great  alarm.  The  chairman  of  the  committee  at 
once  thought,  and  so  did  the  Detroit  people,  that  we  of  the  north  and 
south  had  combined  to  defeat  the  railroad  which  was  to  lead  to  Detroit. 
Well,  Judge  Ely  was  so  much  alarmed  about  it  that  he  immediately 
moved  for  an  adjournment.  We  explained  to  him  why  we  had  proposed 
to  have  three  roads.  He  thought  we  wanted  to  defeat  the  thing,  but 
we  did  not.  It  was  for  the  purpose  of  saving  the  road  and  not  to 
defeat  it  that  we  sent  up  the  amendment,  and  the  consequence  was 
that  we  ail  joined  and  voted  for  the  three  roads  and  the  $5,000,000 
loan,  and  it  turned  out  very  well.  We  got  the  road  completed  to 
Ypsilanti,  and  the  Ypsilanti  folks  invited  us  to  come  there  and 
celebrate  the  day  of  the  arrival  of  the  first  cars,  and  we  had  a  very 
good  time  on  the  way  and  very  good  entertainment  when  we  got  there, 
and  we  came  back  in  very  good  spirits.  But  when  we  got  around  in 
the  neighborhood  of  Dearborn  our  locomotive  seemed  to  become  very 
weak,  and  by  and  by  we  couldn't  go  at  all,  and  the  consequence  was 
that  the  locomotive  gave  out  entirely  and  we  were  left  to  take  care  of 
ourselves.  We  walked  about  ten  miles  and  got  into  Detroit  about  four 
o'clock  in  the  morning. 

I  had  some  further  connection  with  these  railroads.  I  have  always 
thought  that  a  man's  memory,  recollection  of  things  that  are  past,  were 
the  best  gems  he  ever  had  when  he  got  to  be  an  old  man,  and  I  think 
so  now.  In  1846  when  the  sale  of  the  railroads  took  place,  it  was  my 
duty  (I  was  then  in  the  executive  office)  to  make  some  recommendation 
upon  public  affairs.  I  took  the  liberty  of  recommending  to  the  legis- 
lature the  sale  of  the  railroads.  We  finally  perfected  the  sale  of  the 
roads.  The  capitalists  from  New  York  and  from  Boston  were  there, 
and  several  things  were  presented  by  people  who  were  opposed  to  it. 
I  think  you  will  find  it  in  looking  back  to  the  journal.  Somebody 
proposed  that  the  railroad  should  never  run  a  car  on  Sunday.  Some 
one  proposed  that  the  railroad  company  should  never  be  guilty  of  any 
breach  of  the  ten  commandments,  and  some  one  proposed  that  all  the 

]6  ANNUAL,  MEETING,  1893. 

railroad  folks  should  go  to  church  twice  a  day  on  every  Sunday.  Those 
things  all  went  through,  and  we  all  cast  our  vote  for  them,  but  of 
course  they  all  failed  in  the  end.  It  became  my  duty  to  deliver  over 
the  railroad  to  the  new  company  organized.  We  signed  the  deed  in 
Detroit  and  then  went  over  the  road  to  deliver  it  to  them.  As  we 
went  along,  I  must  confess,  I  was  never  more  frightened  in  my  life.  I 
asked  the  engineer  why  in  the  world  he  went  so  rapidly.  He  said,  "  I 
am  employed  by  the  State,  and  tomorrow  the  State  wont  own  the  road, 
and  I  want  to  show  the  new  capitalists  how  well  I  can  run  the  cars." 
Railroads  were  made  entirely  within  the  ^  lives  of  some  of  us  here. 
When  I  came  to  this  country  the  longest  railroad  I  had  ever  seen  was 
the  one  from  Albany  to  Schnectady  and  I  think  that  was  the  nearest 
road  to  Michigan  at  that  time.  Now  all  over  the  world,  wherever  there 
is  any  civilization,  railroads  have  become  the  great  power  which  moves 
civilization  forward,  and  builds  up  the  communities,  nations  and  states, 
and  interests  of  all  kinds  are  built  up  by  railroads. 

Mr.  Stephen  Bingham — I  have  written  a  few  words  in  regard  to  the 
life  of  Mr.  Van  Buren,  which  I  would  like  to  present  to  the  society. 

A.  D.  P.  Van  Buren,  for  many  years  a  member  of  the  historical 
committee  of  the  State  Pioneer  Society,  entered  the  other  world  June 
27,  1892,  at  Galesburgh,  Michigan.  Born  at  Kinderhook,  N.  Y.,  April 
21,  1822,  and  of  Dutch  descent.  He  came  to  Battle  Creek  at  the  age 
of  fourteen  in  1836,  and 'has  been  a  resident  of  Michigan  since  that 
time,  except  for  a  year  or  two  as  a  young  man,  when  he  was  a  teacher 
in  Mississippi.  As  a  member  of  the  State  Pioneer  Society  his  work  has 
been  invaluable,  and  such  as  no  other  man  could  have  done.  His 
biographical  sketches,  his  papers  upon  the  "  Campaign  of  1840,"  and 
the  "  Old  Log  Schoolhouse,"  and  many  others,  all  instructive  and 
entertaining.  The  State  Pioneer  Society  desires  to  place  on  record  its 
high  estimation  of  his  valuable  services  as  a  member  and  especially 
able  contributor  to  its  public  records.  As  a  gentleman  and  scholar  he 
won  the  esteem  of  all  with  whom  he  was  connected,  and  has  done 
very  much  to  perpetuate  the  memory  of  the  early  Michigan  pioneers. 
His  place  can  never  be  filled. 

The  above  contribution  by  Mr.  Bingham  was  accepted  by  the  society. 

Dr.  W.  H.  Haze — It  is  a  little  interesting  to  me,  perhaps  it  would 
be  to  you,  how  I  got  my  shirt  dried  years  ago  in  1838.  I  left  the 
county  of  Oakland  down  here  where  my  father  lived,  came  out  through 
this  country,  crossed  the  Grand  river  down  here  five  or  six  miles,  and 
took  off  into  Eaton  county.  That  day  and  night  were  the  first  I  ever 
spent  in  Eaton  county,  and  it  did  make  an  impression  upon  my  mind. 


It  rained  fearfully.  I  was  alone.  I  had  on  my  back  a  little  knapsack 
that  was  made  by  my  mother  out  of  an  old  bag  that  the  rats  had  eaten 
pretty  thoroughly  up.  In  it  I  had  a  few  little  things,  and  I  traveled 
through  that  rain  following  marked  trees  all  day  long.  Just  as  the 
sun  was  setting  and  the  night  was  coming  on  I  came'  to  a  house.  It 
didn't  rain,  nor  pour;  the  hoops  seemed  to  have  bursted  off  of  the 
tank  and  the  bottom  had  fallen  out,  and  I  was  wet  through  and  through. 
I  had  a  wallet  and  in  it  I  had  seven  dollars  in  small  bills,  and  when 
I  came  to  get  out  my  wallet  at  night  the  bank  notes  were  thoroughly 
cemented  together.  There  were  two  women  in  the  house  which  I  came 
to,  and  they  gave  me  something  to  eat  and  helped  me  to  pick  my  bills 
apart,  and  said  "  If  you  can  climb  up  the  loft  you  will  find  a  bed,  and 
if  you  will  do  that  and  hand  your  clothes  down  to  us  we  will  dry 
them."  And  I  handed  them  down  and  they  dried  them  for  me  all  up 
nice  and  then  passed  them  up  to  me,  and  that  is  the  way  I  got  my 
shirt  dried. 

L.  D.  Watkiiis  I  think  there  is  a  lady  here  who  from  her  looks, 
knows  all  about  the  spinning  wheel. 

Mrs.  Marion  Turner — My  father  came  to  Michigan  in  1836.  I  was 
quite  a  young  girl  then.  When  we  moved  into  west  Michigan  we 
forded  every  river  and  stream,  and  several  times  in  our  lumber  wagon 
we  would  just  be  afloat.  And  so  1  know  a  little  of  the  early  days  in 
Michigan.  My  mother  brought  her  large  spinning  wheel  and  small 
wheel  with  her.  She  knew  how  to  spin  both  with  a  small  and  large 
wheel.  There  were  five  daughters  and  one  son,  and  we  moved  into 
Clinton  county  in  the  fall  of  1886.  My  father  was  ninety-three  when 
he  died,  he  was  Jesse  Monroe.  I  could  relate  a  great  many  incidents 
but  I  prefer  to  hear  from  others. 

The  pupils  from  the  Larch  street  school  then  sang  a  piece  entitled 
"  The  Happy  Spider  "  and  the  meeting  adjourned  until  7  o'clock  in  the 


The  meeting  was  called  to  order  by  the  president  pursuant  to  adjourn- 
ment and  prayer  was  offered  by  Rev.  R.  C.  Crawford. 

A  solo  "  The  Sword  of  Bunker  Hill "  was  sung  by  Ernest  Sellers. 

A  poem,  entitled  "  When  I  was  a  Boy  with  a  Head  Like  Tow  "  by  U. 
B.  Webster  of  Benton  Harbor,  was  then  read  by  Dennis  E.  Alward. 

18  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

A  solo,  entitled  "  Scotch  Songs,"  was  sung  by  Miss  Irma  Haight. 

A  paper  on  the  "  Early  Missions  on  the  Saginaw  "  by  Fred  Carlisle 
of  Detroit,  was  then  read  by  Geo.  H.  Greene. 

A  solo,  entitled  "  Loves  Old  Sweet  Song,"  was  then  sung  by  Mr.  L, 
A.  Baker. 

Five  minute  speeches  were  then  called  for  and  responded  to  as  follows: 

Francis  I.  Clark,  Flat  Kock — Mr.  President:  I  presume  that  Wayne 
county  affords  as  many  instances  of  history  as  any  other  county  in  the 
State.  Wayne  county  has  had  a  great  many  battles  fought  on  her  soil. 
You  all  well  remember  that  after  the  battle  on  the  plains  of  Abraham, 
fought  by  Generals  Wolf  and  Montcalm,  and  the  armies  were  about 
equal,  that  Montcalm  did  not  want  to  fight  the  battle  with  the  English 
but  General  Wolf  brought  his  army  up  on  the  plains  of  Abraham,  and 
in  the  morning  Montcalm  saw  the  British  army  in  front  of  him,  and 
there  was  no  other  way  but  for  him  to  march  out  his  forces  and  fight 
it  out.  All  this  territory  went  into  the  hands  of  the  British  and  they 
came  to  Detroit  and  took  command.  Every  Frenchman  who  inhabited 
the  region  of  St.  Clair  down  the  Detroit  Eiver  and  around  Lake  Erie 
never  was  known  to  be  molested  or  troubled  by  an  Indian.  They  all 
seemed  to  work  together,  and  to  have  one  interest,  and  the  French 
people  were  always  spared  to  go  out  and  till  the  soil. 

Ralph  Watson  of  South  Biley — I  remember  that  when  General  Cass 
was  in  Detroit  that  he  and  several  others  made  a  bargain  with  a  young 
.man  by  the  name  of  Fox  that  they  would  give  him  a  suit  of  clothes,  a 
good  Indian  pony  and  twenty-five  dollars  if  he  would  carry  the  mail 
through  from  Detroit  to  Grand  Kapids,  and  return  again  to  Detroit  in 
nine  days.  Fox  was  a  young  man,  quite  an  able  fellow,  and  he  under- 
took the  job.  He  related  the  circumstances  to  me.  He  said  that  when 
he  got  to  where  Lansing  is,  of  course  it  was  all  wilderness,  he  got  onto 
those  hills  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Grand  river  somewhere,  and  looked 
over  the  trees  to  the  west  as  the  sun  was  setting,  and  it  looked  wild 
in  the  extreme.  He  followed  the  Indian  trail.  When  he  got  about 
half  way  between  Lansing  and  Delta  he  heard  a  pack  of  wolves  coming 
and  he  thought  perhaps  they  might  eat  his  pony  up.  So  he  took  his 
mail  bag  and  got  up  into  a  tree,  and  by  that  time  the  wolves  had  got 
even  with  him,  and  he  found  that  they  were  on  the  other  side  of  the 
river.  After  many  difficulties  he  finally  reached  Grand  Rapids,  left  the 
mail  there  and  started  back,  and  when  he  got  to  Detroit  at  twelve 
o'clock  at  night  Cass  told  him  he  had  done  so  well  he  would  give  him 
ten  dollars.  That  is  what  Mr.  Fox  received  for  carrying  the  mail 
through  to  Grand  Kapids. 


Auld  Lang  Syne  was  then  sung  by  the  audience,  after  which  Rev. 
Wm.  H.  Haze  pronounced  the  benediction  and  the  meeting  adjourned 
sine  die. 


Lansing,  June  7,  1893. 

To  the  Officers  and  Members  of  the  Michigan  Pioneer  and  Historical 

Your  recording  secretary  begs  leave  to  submit  the   following   report: 

The  eighteenth  annual  meeting  of  this  society  was  held  in  the  senate 

chamber  of  the  capitol  June  1  and  2,  1892,  at  which  time  some  of  the 

most  valuable  historical  papers  ever  read  before  the  society  were  read. 


The  total  number  of  names  now  enrolled  on  our  membership  book 
is  eight  hundred  and  seven.  Of  this  number  two  hundred  and  seventy- 
eight  have  been  reported  as  deceased,  leaving  a  membership  of  five 
hundred  and  twenty-nine. 

Since  our  last  report  there  have  been  forty-one  names  added  to  the 
list,  viz.,  John  B.  Clement,  Blissfield;  J.  C.  Blanchard,  Ionia;  Chas. 
W.  Barber,  Howell;  D.  L.  Burgess,  Portland;  Edwin  B.  Winans, 
Hamburgh;  Ralph  Watson,  Riley;  Bethuel  C.  Farrand,  Port  Huron; 
Myron  Abbott,  White  Oak;  Frederick  G.  Bailey,  Vernon;  Charles  W. 
Church  and  Sarah  M.  Church,  Lansing;  Fred  Carlisle,  Detroit;  M.  H. 
Bailey,  Dimondale;  Gertrude  E.  Morehouse,  Portland;  John  M.  Cald- 
well  and  Helen  N.  Caldwell,  Battle  Creek;  John  R.  Price,  Lansing; 
Melville  McGee,  Jackson;  Geo.  H.  Hazelton,  Elwood,  N.  J.;  Gabriel 
Bissonette,  Monroe;  Charles  A.  Bissonette,  Grand  Rapids;  William  W. 
Peck,  Frederick  W.  Willcox,  J.  Davidson  Burns,  Albert  A.  Holcomb, 
Richard  A.  Sykes,  N.  Chase,  Edwin  J.  Phelps,  Edward  Woodbury, 
Wm.  H.  Buell,  Romine  H.  Buckhout,  A.  J.  Shakespeare,  Dallas 
Boudeman,  S.  H.  Wattles,  J.  B.  Allen,  and  James  Monroe,  all  of 
Kalamazoo  (the  result  of  the  efforts  of  our  vice  president  for  that 

20  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

county,  Henry  Bishop);  Geo.  E.  Steele,  Grand  Traverse;  Wm.  P.  Ains- 
ley,  Williamston;  Frank  Hodgeman,  Climax;  Charles  8.  Williams, 
Owosso;  Charles  V.  DeLand,  Jackson. 


The  following  list  of  donations  have  been  made  within  the  past  year: 


Fifth  annual  report  of  the  Texas  Agricultural  Experiment  Station  for  1892. 

Bulletin  No.  25  of  the  Texas  Agricultural  Experiment  Station  for  December,  1892. 
JUDGE  CHARLES  C.  BALDWIN,  Cleveland,  O.: 

Bethlehem  and  Ohio  History,  leaflet. 
E.  W.  BLATCHFOBD,  Chicago,  111.: 

Proceedings  of  the  Trustees  of  the  Newberry  Library  for  the  year  ending  January  5,  1892. 

The  Newberry  Library,  Chicago-  Certificate  of  Incorporation  and  Incorporation  Act. 
WM.  H.  BBEABLEY,  Detroit: 

Genealogical  Chart  of  the  Brearley  Family. 

Annual  report  of  the  Board  of  Managers  January  10,  1893,  and  the  Society  Proceedings. 

Putnam's  General  Orders,  1777. 

Invitation  from  the  Wadsworth  Atheneum  to  the  opening  of  the  new  Libraries  and  Art  Galleries. 
MRS.  JACOB  S.  FABBAND,  Detroit: 

Tributes  of  the  public  prints  setting  forth  the  life  and  good  works  of  Jacob  S.  Farrand. 
CHAS.  W.  GBANT,  Saginaw,  E.  S.: 

A  lot  of  old  newspapers,  pamphlets,  etc. 
GEO.  H.  GREENE,  Lansing: 

State  Republican  Novembers,  1892,  containing  sketches  and  portraits  of  republican  candidates  for 

county  offices,  Ingham  county. 

The  Topeka  Daily  Capital  of  August  21,  1892,  containing  an  address  by  Judge  F,  G.  Adams. 
WALTER  S.  LOGAN,  New  York  City: 

The  Siege  of  Cuautla,  the  Bunker  Hill  of  Mexico,  by  Walter  8.  Logan. 

Seventh  biennial  report  of  the  society  to  the  legislature  of  1893. 
J.  WILKIE  MOORE,  Detroit: 

Detroit  Free  Press  November  2,  1892,  containing  an   account  of   his  fifty-nine   years   residence  in 

An  old  bayonet  and  cannon  ball  from   Fort  Lernoult,  afterward  Fort  Shelby,  corner  of  Fort  and 

Shelby  Streets,  Detroit,  taken  from  eleven  feet  under  ground. 

Transactions  and  Reports  of  the  Society,  Vol.  IV. 

New  England  Historical  and  Genealogical  Register  for  July  and  October,  1892,  and  January  and 
April,  1893. 

Proceedings  of  the  society  at  the  annual  meeting,  January  4,  1898. 

List  of  members  of  the  New  England  Historic  Genealogical  Society,  January,  1893. 

Volumes  1  and  2,  Collections,  Deane  Papers. 

The  Fishery  Question,  by  Charles  Isham. 
OLD  COLONY  CLUB,  Boston,  Mass.: 

Fisheries  Within  the  Territorial  Limits  of  the  States  are  not  Subject   to  Congressional    Control- 
by  Hon.  Charles  E.  Littlefield. 
Axos  PEBBY,  Providence,  R.  I.: 

An  Official  Tour  Along  the  Eastern  Coast  of  the  Regency  of  Tunis,  by  Amos  Perry,  LL.  D. 
Carthage  and  Tunis,  by  Amos  Perry:  LL.  D. 



Two  copies  of  the  "  Museums  of  the  Future,"  by  G,   Brown  Goode. 
ROBEBT  T.  SWAN,  Commissioner,  Boston,  Mass.: 

Fourth  and  Fifth  annual  reports  on  the  custody  and  condition  of  the  Public  Records. 

Two  copies  of  the  American  Monthly  Magazine  for  December,  1892. 

Original  tax  rolls  for  the  town  of  Water  town,  Clinton  county,  for  the  years  1888,  1839,  1840,  1841 

and  1842. 

Tracts  73-84,  Vol.  III. 

Wyoming  Memorial  Medal  in  commemoration  of  the  Battle  and  Massacre  of  Wyoming  July  3, 1778. 

Five  copies  of  Gov.  John  J.  Bagley's  Thanksgiving  Proclamation  for  1875,  and  one  for  1878. 


The  executive  committee  and  committee  of  historians  have  held  two 
meetings  in  joint  session  since  the  last  annual  meeting,  as  follows: 

One  on  April  25,  1893,  just  after  the  appropriation  of  1893  had  been 
granted,  to  decide  on  plans  for  future  work  and  the  judicious  expendi- 
ture of  this  appropriation. 

It  was  decided  to  proceed  at  once  with  the  publication  of  Volume 
XXI,  Pioneer  and  Historical  Collections,  to  contain  the  proceedings  of 
the  annual  meeting  of  1892,  together  with  such  historical  papers  as 
had  been  collected  up  to  that  date. 

The  secretary  was  directed  to  have  printed  1,500  copies  of  the 
constitution  and  by-laws  in  accordance  with  a  resolution  adopted  at 
the  last  annual  meeting. 

A  committee  consisting  of  Fred .  Carlisle  was  appointed  to  draft  a 
circular  for  distribution,  relative  to  the  duties  of  vice  presidents,  and 
the  necessity  of  county  and  other  societies  becoming  auxiliary  to  this 

The  secretary  was  instructed  to  make  the  usual  necessary  prepara- 
tions for  the  annual  meeting  on  the  7th  and  8th  of  June,  such  as 
providing  for  a  place  of  meeting,  securing  a  stenographer,  music,  etc. 

The  second  meeting  of  the  committees  was  held  on  June  5  and  7, 
1893,  for  the  purpose  of  completing  the  arrangements  for  the  annual 
meeting  of  June  7  and  8.  The  program  as  arranged  by 'the  secretary 
was  submitted,  approved,  and  ordered  printed. 

Jennie  B.  Greene  was  appointed  secretary  of  the  committee  of 
historians  to  continue  until  further  action  of  the  committees. 

Mrs.  Mary  C.  Spencer,  State  Librarian,  made  a  proposition  to  the 
committees  to  set  apart  space  in  the  State  Library  for  the  books, 
papers,  etc.,  belonging  to  the  society,  classify  the  same,  arid  publish 

22  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

them    in    an    appendix    to   her    catalogue,    which    was    accepted   and    a 
resolution  of  thanks  for  her  generous  offer  was  adopted. 

The  bills  allowed  and   ordered   paid  will    be    found  in    the   report  of 

the  treasurer  and    the    balance    of    the    work   accomplished    during  the 

year  will   be    found    in   the   minutes   of   the    annual    meeting   and  the 

annual  reports  of  the  other  officers  of  the  society  submitted  at  this  date. 

All  of  which  is  respectfully  submitted. 


Recording  Secretary. 


Lansing,  June  7,  1893. 
To  the  Officers  and  Members  of  the  Michigan  Pioneer  and  Historical 

Society  : 

I  herewith  beg  leave  to  submit  my  fourteenth  annual  report  of  the 
correspondence  of  the  society  together  with  the  file  of  letters  and  com- 
munications received  within  the  past  year.  These  letters  are  all  filed 
for  easy  reference  and  all  requiring  an  answer  have  been  promptly 
replied  to,  and  all  donations  entrusted  to  my  address  have  been  duly 

Notices  of  this  meeting  have  been  mailed  to  every  member  of  the 
society  together  with  a  copy  of  the  constitution,  by-laws  and  list  of 
members  which  has  been  recently  printed  in  accordance  with  a  resolu- 
tion adopted  at  our  last  annual  meeting,  also  a  circular  issued  by  the 
committee  of  historians  with  a  view  of  securing  a  greater  cooperation 
with  county  and  other  local  'societies,  with  this  society  and  thereby 
preserve  many  of  the  historical  papers  read  before  these  societies  which 
might  otherwise  fall  into  careless  hands  and  be  lost.  This  notice  and 
circular  were  also  mailed  to  all  the  leading  newspapers  of  the  state, 
many  of  which  have  given  notice  of  this  meeting  in  a  prominent  place 
in  their  columns. 

At  the  close  of  our  last  annual  meeting,  I  sent  a  notice  to  each  of 
the  vice  presidents  informing  them  of  their  election  and  duties,  and 



another  about  a  month  since  requesting  them  to  make  a  memorial 
report  at  this  meeting,  of  worthy  pioneers  of  their  counties  who  have 
died  within  the  year. 

The  death  roll  of  members  of  the  society  for  the  past  year,  so  far  as 
1  have  been  able  to  ascertain,  is  as  follows: 









Ebenezer  S.  Eggleston  

Grand  Rapids  

May  12,  1825  .... 

Aug.  8,  1892  




Betsey  Fisk. 


Sept.  22,  1810 

July  7,  1892.. 




James  I.  David  


Aug.  2,  1814.    .. 

Oct.  13,  1892.  .. 




Jonathan  Parsons 


Oct.  7,  1820 

Aug.  17,  1892 




Hiram  Arnold. 


July  14,  1808 

July  28,  1892 




Dr.  Henry  L.  Joy 


Jan.  25,  1822 

June  21,  1892    .. 




John  Rutherford 


June  26,  1814 

Mar.  16,  1893  .. 




Benj.  F.  Partridge  

Bay  City 

April  19,  1822.... 

Oct.  19,  1892  




Francis  R.  Stebbins  


Oct.  26,  1818.... 

Sept.  29,  1892.... 




Alftx^ndftr  flhupnt.nn 


Feb.  3,  1818 

May  2,  1898 




A.  D.  P.  Van  Buren 


April  21,  1822.. 

June  27,  1892. 




Theophilus  C.  Abbot. 


April  29,  1826.. 

Nov.  7,  1892  




J.  Huff  Jones  


5  declined  to   > 

Dec.  16,  1892.... 




Geo.  A.  Smith 


(  give  this  date  $ 
March  8,  1825 

Jan.  29,  1898 




Stephen  F.  Brown 

Grand  Rapids 

Dec.  81,  1819 

June  2,  1898. 




Charles  Shepard 

Grand  Rapids 

July  18,  1812 

Mar.  8,  1893 




John  M  .  Cald  well  

Battle  Creek 

Sept.  18,  1829     . 

Mar.  8,  1893.    .. 



Also  the  following  whose    deaths   have  not  heretofore  been  reported: 









Orson  H.  Look 


April  12  1830 





Celestia  E.  May 

Nov.  20,  1800 

Dec.  2,  1889 




Henry  B.  Lathrop.    .  . 

Jackson    ..  

July  6,  1808.. 

Aug.  20,  1890  ... 



All  of  which  is  respectfully  submitted. 


Corresponding  Secretary. 

24  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 


Lansing,  June  7,  1893. 
To  the  Michigan  Pioneer  and  Historical  Society: 

I  herewith  submit  my  annual  report  as  follows:  Merritt  L.  Coleman 
treasurer,  in  account  with  the  Michigan  Pioneer  and  Historical  Society, 
from  June  1,  1892  to  June  7,  1893. 


To  balance  in  my  hands,  June  1, 1892 —       '$222  82 

"  amount  received  on  account  of  membership  fees _ . 47  00 

"         "  "       "          "       "  sale  of  Vols.  1  and  2 225 

Total .  — — -— $272~07 


For  binding... - 48  00 

Balance  on  hand  June  7, 1893 . $224  07 


Amount  on  hand  June  1,  1892  of  the  appropriation  made  by  Act  33 
of  1891,  was  as  follows: 

General  fund... $1,00000 

Publishing  fund 3,70000 

Total...  $4,70000 


From  the  general  fund: 

Postage,  express  and  stationery $41  83 

Expenses  of  committee  of  historians 85  60 

"          "  executive  committee _ 3145 

"  annual  meeting,  1892 , 57  59 

Copying  records  at  Ottawa,  Canada 168  86 

Copyright,  Vols.  17, 18, 19,  20... 400 

Engraving  maps  and  portraits _ 94  50 

Preparing  printers'  copy,  reading  proof  and  making  indexes....  516  67 

*  J    QQQ    QJJ 

From  the  publishing  fund: 

Printing  and  binding  Vol.  17 $1,042  87 

14     18 _ 1,01861 

VolB.  19  and  20.. .  1,638  52 

3,700  00 

Total $4,700  00 



The  appropriation  made  by  Act  60  of  1893  can  be  drawn  from  the 
state  treasury  only  on  a  warrant  from  the  auditor  general  and  a  voucher 
approved  by  the  president  and  secretary  of  the  society,  and  is  as  follows : 

Amount  appropriated  for  1898 •.. $2,500  00 

44    1894 _ -. -.        2,500  00 

Total — .... :-       $5,00000 


Copying  records  at  Ottawa,  Canada — .         $152  04 

Preparing  copy  for  printers,  reading  proof,  making  indexes,  etc 100  00 

Total .- 252  04 

Balance  available  in  state  treasury  .. $4,747  96 

All  of  which  is  respectfully  submitted. 




Lansing,  Mich.,  June  7,  1893. 
To  the  Pioneer  and  Historical  Society  of  the  State  of  Michigan: 

The  committee  of  historians  would  respectfully  report  that  in  the 
past  year  it  has  been  quite  successful  in  acquiring  historical  material 
relative  to  the  settlement  of  counties  in  the  northern  part  of  the 
Lower  Peninsula  of  Michigan,  and  of  those  of  the  Upper  Peninsula,  with 
many  items  of  interest  relative  to  the  industrial  pursuits  of  the 
pioneers  in  the  different  sections  of  the  State,  particularly  those 
relating  to  agriculture,  mining,  the  fisheries,  and  the  lumber  interests. 

The  committee  has  also  continued  its  investigations  in  the  dominion 
archives  at  Ottawa,  Canada,  and  has  had  copied  twelve  maps  and 
4,605  folios  of  matter  found  there  in  official  papers  relative  to  the 
history  of  Michigan  during  the  Indian,  French,  and  British  occupation 
of  the  territory  west  of  the  great  lakes. 

The   historical   value  of  the  papers  which   the  committee   has  caused 
to  be  copied  at  Ottawa,  Canada,  through  the  courtesy  of  the  dominion 
government  and   the  active  kindness  of   Douglas  Brymner,  Esq.,  Cana- 

26  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

dian  Archivist,  cannot  be  placed  too  highly,  since  they  constitute  an 
official  authority,  made  by  reports  of  officers  in  the  different  depart- 
ments to  the  French  and  British  governments,  on  many  points 
connected  with  the  history  of  Michigan  while  under  the  government  of 
France  or  Great  Britain,  and  daring  the  revolutionary  war  and  the 
war  of  1812,  with  the  negotiations  with  Great  Britain  relative  to  the 
surrender  of  territory  withheld  after  the  treaties  of  peace  which 
belonged  to  the  United  States.  This  valuable  information  could  not 
be  obtained  from  any  other  source. 

The  committee  has  also  procured  the  publication  of  two  volumes 
(19  and  20)  of  the  Historical  "Collections"  of  the  society,  which  are 
now  ready  for  delivery.  Volume  21  is  also  in  the  process  of  publica- 
tion, but  will  not  be  finished  until  after  the  close  of  the  present 


Volume  19  is  a  book  of  700  pages  and  is  composed  of  copies  of 
papers  relating  to  Michigan  from  those  on  file  in  the  archives  of  the 
Dominion  of  Canada  at  Ottawa,  among  which  may  be  found: 

Reports  on  American  colonies  from  1721  to  1762. 

A  copy  of  an  Indian  deed  to  the  Island  of  Mackinac,  dated  May 
12,  1781. 

Military  dispatches  from  1758  to  1762. 

The  Bouquet  papers  (270  pages)  being  reports  running  from  1759 
to  1765,  made  by  and  to  Col.  Henry  Bouquet,  at  that  time  command- 
ing British  forces  in  Canada  and  the  Northwest. 

The  Haldimand  papers  (400  pages),  being  official  reports  of  every 
name  and  nature,  including  military,  civil,  and  Indian  affairs  relating 
to  Michigan  and  the  Northwest,  from  1773  to  178 L,  made  by  and  to 
the  British  officials  connected  with  the  Canadian  government. 

The  committee  would  call  attention  to  the  following  as  of  particular 
interest  and  value: 

"Copy  of  a  Representation  of  the  Lords'  Commissioners  for  Trade 
and  Plantations  to  the  King,  upon  the  State  of  His  Majesty's  Colonies 
and  Plantations  on  the  Continent  of  North  America.  Dated  September 
8,  1721."— Page  1. 

This  report  covers  13  pages  and  is  very  comprehensive,  relating  as 
it  does  to  the  entire  country  east  of  the  Mississippi;  and  treating  of 
the  intercourse  and  relations  of  the  French  and  English  with  each 
other,  with  the  Indians,  and  with  the  colonies. 


The  letter  of  "Thomas  Gage,  on  the  French  in  Lower  Canada, 
dated  March  20,  1762,"  will  be  found  to  be  of  interest.— Page  14.  As 
also  the 

"List  and  account  of  the  posts  where  trade  with  the  Savages  was 
carried  on  in  the  Upper  Country.  March  20,  1762." 

These  posts  were  situated  on  both  the  north  and  south  shores  of 
Lake  Superior,  at  Sault  Ste.  Marie,  on  Lake  Huron,  Lake  Michigan, 
on  the  St.  Joseph,  Wabash,  and  Miamis  rivers,  and  at  Mackinaw  and 


On  page  29  of  this  volume,  in  the  Bouquet  papers,  is  a  copy  of  a 
letter  from  Pierre  Francois  Vaudreuil,  announcing  the  surrender  of 
Montreal  by  the  French  to  Gen.  Amherst  on  the  8th  of  February,  1760. 

On  pages  212  to  219  inclusive  is  the  copy  of  a  letter  from  James 
MacDonald  to  Col.  Henry  Bouquet,  dated  Detroit,  July  12.  1763,  giving 
a  detailed  account  of  Pondiac's  attack  on  Detroit  and  its  defense  by 
Major  Gladwin. 

Ensign  John  Cristie  to  Col.  Henry  Bouquet,  l()th  July,  1763.  Attack 
upon  and  capture  of  Presque  Isle  by  the  Indians. — Pages  209-10. 

Col.  Henry  Bouquet  to  Gen.  Jeffrey  Amherst,  5th  August,  1763,  and 
also  6th  August.  Battle  at  Edge  Hill  and  Bushy  Run,  twenty-six 
miles  from  Fort  Pitt;  sixty  killed  or  wounded. — Pages  219-23. 

Gen.  Thomas  Gage  succeeds  Sir  Jeffrey  Amherst  in  command  of 
British  forces,  18th  November,  1763.— Pages  243-4. 

Distances  from  Fort  Pitt  to  Wakatamicke  and  lower  Shawanese 
towns,  and  names  of  fourteen  Delaware  and  Shawanese  towns. — Page  260. 

Col.  Henry  Bouquet  to  Gen.  Thomas  Gage.  Camp  at  the  forks  of 
the  Muskingham,  15th  Nov.,  1764;  Fort  Pitt,  Nov.  30,  1764.  Relative 
to  treaties  with  the  Delawares,  Shawanese,  Mingoes,  Mohikons, 
Wyandots,  and  Twighwees.— Pages  279-95. 


In  the  Haldimand  papers,  'pages  296  to  299,  is  a  letter  from  Major 
Henry  Basset  to  Gen.  Frederick  Haldimand,  dated  Detroit,  29th  April, 
1773,  giving  a  description  of  the  station;  also  21st  May  and  4th  June, 
1773,  to  Gen.  Thos.  Gage.  Relative  to  murders  by  Indians  at  Saginagh 
and  St.  Joseph. — Pages  300-1. 

Capt.  John  Vattas  to  Gen.  Haldimand,  Michilimacinac,  June  16, 
1773.  Indian  trade  with  the  Spaniards  on  the  Mississippi. — Page  302. 

28  ANNUAL,  MEETING,  1893. 

Speech  in  Indian  council  at  Detroit,  18th  August,  1773;  Miamis 
and  Hurons.— Pages  308-10. 

Trade  in  the  Lake  Superior  country  in  1778.— Pages  337  to  340. 

Transportation  of  goods  to  the  Upper  Country\in  1778.  Muster  roll  of 
officers,  carpenters,  blacksmiths,  employed  in  ship  yard,  Detroit,  1777-8. 

Page"  344. 

St.  Joseph's,  15th  Sept.,  1778.  Louis  Chevallier  to  Major  Depeyster, 
commandant  at  Michillimackinac.  Relative  to  Kikapous,  Sakis,  and 
other  Indian  Tribes.— Page  352. 

Observations  necessary  for  Capt.  Brehm  to  make  on  his  route 
between  Lachine  and  Detroit.  The  instructions  for  observations 
number  forty-nine. — Page  389. 

Gen.  Haldimand's  speech  to  the  Indians  resorting  to  Michillimakinac 
and  its  vicinity,  2d  July,  1779.— Pages  444-46. 

Petition  of  36  merchants  of  Detroit  to  Gen.  Haldimand,  5th  January, 
1780.— Pages  492-3. 

Charles  Grant  to  Gen.  Haldimand,  24th  April,  1780,  "  Concerning 
the  Trade  carried  on  between  the  Merchantile  people  of  this  Province 
and  the  savages  of  the  Upper  Countries. — Pages  508-12. 

Attack  and  capture  of  Fort  Liberty  and  three  other  forts  by  the 
British  and  Indians,  June  24,  1780.  Eeport  of  Capt.  Henry  Bird^ 
from  Ohio,  opposite  Licking  Creek,  July  1st,  1780. — Pages  538-9  and 

Major  Arent  S.  De  Peyster  to  Col.  Mason  Bolton,  Detroit,  Aug.  4, 

Arrival  of  Capt.  Bird  with  about  150  prisoners  (Germans  who  speak 
English)  of  350  taken  in  the  forts  near  the  Ohio  yi  June. — Page  553. 

"Memorial  of  John  Macomb,  late  of  Hosack,  in  the  County  of 
Albany,  province  of  New  York,  sheweth,  that  your  memorialist  in 
conjunction  with  his  son-in-law,  Lieut.  Francis  Pfister,  deceased, 
engaged  for  His  Majesty's  Service  upwards  of  five  hundred  effective 
men,  that  three  hundred  and  eighteen  did  actually  join  General  Bur- 
goyne's  Army,  at  the  head  of  which  on  the  fatal  16th  day  of  August, 
1777,  at  Bennington,  Mr.  Pfister  was  killed,"  etc.,  etc.— Page  582. 

Capture  of  St.  Joseph's  (on  the  river  of  that  name)  in  December, 
1780.— Page  591. 

Indian  speeches,  Piankishaws,  Ouiatanons,  Miamis.— Pages  593-7. 

Indian  deed  for  the  Island  of  Mackinac,  by  Ritchie  Negon  or  Grand 
Sable,  Pouanas,  Koupe,  and  Magousseihigan,  in  behalf  of  ourselves 
and  all  others  of  our  Nation  the  Chippewas,  *  *  *  do  surrender 
and  yield  up  into  the  hands  of  Lieut.  Governor  Sinclair  for  the  Behalf 


and  use  of  His  Majesty,  George  the  Third,  of  Great  Britain  *  *  * 
forever  the  Island  of  Michilimackinac,  or  as  it  is  called  by  the 
Canadians  La  Grosse  Isle  (situate  in  that  Strait  which  joins  Lakes 
Huron  and  Michigan),  etc.,  etc. — Pages  633-4. 


The  20th  volume  contains  700  pages,  of  which  800  are  copies  of  the 
Haldimand  papers  from  1782  to  1789,  and  there  are  400  pages  relating 
to  Indian  affairs  in  Michigan  and  the  Northwest,  from  1761  to  1800. 

In  it  will  be  found  the  following  maps  which  are  of  interest  a& 
showing  the  state  of  the  country  at  that  early  day,  with  the  r6ute  of 
the  march  of  the  army  of  Gen.  Anthony  Wayne  from  Fort  Washing- 
ton on  the  Ohio  river,  by  the  way  Fort  Hamilton,  Fort  St.  ClairT 
Fort  Jefferson  and  Fort  Recovery,  to  the  foot  of  the  rapids  on  the 
Miami  (Maumee)  river,  where  the  battle  of  August  20,  1794,  was 

Map  of  the  Miamis  of  the  Lake  (Maumee  River). — Page  368. 

Map  of  the  Miamis  Country,  showing  the  line  of  Forts  along  Gen. 
Wayne's  march. — Page  369. 

Map  of  the  Battle  Field  of  August-  20,  1794.— Page  370. 

Map  of  Entrance  to  Detroit  river,  showing  Fort  Maiden  at 
Amherstburg,  1796.-  Page  513. 


The  Haldimand  papers  in  volume  20  have  on  pages  18  to  24,  "Return 
of  Prisoners  of  War  sent  from  Detroit  May  16,  1782,"  all  taken  by 
Indians,  with  other  information,  pages  25  to  35,  of  a  somewhat 
indefinite  account  of  the  massacre  of-  the  forces  under  Col.  Crawford 
in  June  1782,  by  the  Indians,  with  the  death  by  torture  of  Col. 
Crawford  and  two  captains  who  had  been  taken  prisoners. 

Maj.  Arent  S.  De  Peyster  to  Alexander  McKee,  Detroit,  August 
6,  1782: 

"That  the  Shawanese  and  Delawares  push  their  relation  to  great 
lengths  by  putting  all  their  Prisoners  to  Death,  whereby  if  they  are 
not  prevented  they  will  throw  an  odium  upon  their  Friends  the 
English  as  well  as  prevent  their  Father  from  receiving  the  necessary 
Intelligence  of  the  Enemy's  motions  so  essential  to  carry  on  the  service 
for  their  mutual  Interest."  Pages  37-8. 

On  pages  49,  50,  51,  is  a  letter  from  Capt.  Alexander  McKee  to 
Major  Arent  S.  DePeyster,  from  Shawanese  Country,  August  28thy 

30  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

1782,  giving  an  account  of  the  battle  of  Blue  Licks,  Kentucky,  in 
which  he  states,  "  On  the  20th  reached  the  Blue  Licks,  where  we 
encamped,  *  *  *  expecting  the  Enemy  would  pursue,  determined 
here  to  wait  for  'em,  keeping  spies  at  the  Lick,  who  on  the  morning 
of  the  21st  discovered  them,  and  at  half  past  seven  o'clock  we  engaged 
them,  and  totally  defeated  them  in  a  short  time.  We  were  not  much 
superior  to  them  in  numbers,  they  being  about  200  picked  men  from 
the  Settlement  of  Kentucky,  commanded  by  Colonels  Todd,  Trigg, 
Boone,  and  Todd,  with  the  Majors  Harlin  and  McGeary,  most  of 
whom  fell  in  the  action.  From  the  best  inquiry  I  could  make  on  the 
spot  there  were  upwards  of  140  killed  or  taken,  with  near  100  rifles. 
*  *  *  We  had  ten  Indians  killed  with  Mr.  La  Bute,  of  the  Indian 
Department,  who  by  sparing  the  life  of  one  of  the  Enemy  and  endeavor- 
ing to  take  him  Prisoner  lost  his  own."  *  *  * 

On  pages  117  to  121  will  be  found  a  very  interesting  letter  from 
Gen.  Allan  Maclean,  stating  that  the  Indians  were  very  indignant  at 
what  they  understand  to  be  the  terms  of  the  treaty  of  peace  between 
Englan4  and  the  states.  *'  The  Indians  from  the  surmises  they  have 
heard  of  the  Boundaries,  look  upon  our  conduct  to  them  as  treacher- 
ous and  cruel;  they  told  me  they  never  could  believe  that  our  King 
could  pretend  to  cede  to  America  what  was  not  his  own  to  give,  or 
that  the  Americans  would  accept  from  him  what  he  had  no  right  to 
grant.  *  *  *  That  the  Indians  were  a  free  People  subject  to  no 
power  upon  earth.  That  they  were  the  faithful  Allies  of  the  King  of 
England,  but  not  his  subjects.  That  he  had  no  right  whatever  to  grant 
away  to  the  states  of  America  their  rights  or  properties,  *  *  *  and 
they  would  not  submit  to  it.  *  '  *  *  That  if  the  English  had 
basely  betrayed  them  by  pretending  to  give  up  their  Country  to  the 
Americans  without  their  consent,  or  consulting  them,  it  was  an  act 
of  cruelty  and  injustice  that  Christians  only  were  capable  of  doing, 
that  the  Indians  were  incapable  of  acting  so;  to  friends  or  Allies,  but 
that  they  did  not  believe  we  had  sold  and  betrayed  them."  *  *  * 

"  Mr.  Ball  *  *  is  a  poor  old  Moravian,  *  *  *  that  his  son  and 
daughter  had  been  put  to  death  in  the  massacre  of  the  Moravian 
Indians  at  Fort  Pitt  by  Col.  Davidson,  and  that  all  those  left  alive,  of 
these  very  unfortunate  People,  are  now  settled  about  twenty  miles 
beyond  Detroit,  and  their  clergymen  have  joined  them,  and  that  he, 
old  Ball,  and  his  companion  also  a  moravian,  wish  to  go  and  remain 
in  peace  with  their  Friends  and  Brethren.  *  *  *  Col.  Butler 
assures  me,  about  200  of  the  Indians  and  Moravians  deserted  from 


about  Bethlem  after  the  massacre  «at  Fort  Pitt,  and  are  settled  at  about 
20  or  30  miles  beyond  Detroit."  *  *  *  —Page  127. 

"Inventory  of  Indian  Councils  held  at  Detroit.  Camp  at  Wyattate- 
nong;  St  Dusky;  Fort  Pitt;  Chicagou;  Shawanese  Village;  Upper 
Shawanese;  St  Joseph's,  from  June  14,  1778  to  July  1783."— Thirty 
Councils  in  number,  with  an  interesting  "Purport  of  Proceedings," 
the  same  being  a  brief  of  the  action  of  each  Council.  Pages  133-5. 

"Minutes  of  Transaction  with  Indians  at  Sandusky;  from  August 
26th  to  Sept  8,  1783"  relative  to  the  terms  and  conditions  of  the 
Treaty  of  Peace  between  Great  Britian  and  the  States  in  its  bearing 
upon  the  various  tribes  of  Indians  and  the  Indian  country. 

"  At  a  Council  held  at  Lower  Sandusky  the  6th  September  1783. 
*  *  *  Present  Alex.  McKee  Esq.  Depy.  Agent;  Capt.  Chesne, 
Ottawa  &  Chippewa  Intr;  Capt.  M.  Elliot;  Lieut.  W.  Johnson;  Simon 
Girty,  Interpreter;  Capt.  Joseph  Brant  with  a  Deputation  from  the  Six 
Nations;  T'Sindatton  with  a  Deputation  of  the  Lake  Indians  from 
Detroit."— Pages  174-83. 

"  Memorial  of  Geo  McDougall  relative  to  Hog  Island "  to  be 
restored  to  the  Heirs  of  the  former  proprietor. — Page  189. 

"Indian  Deed  to  Jacob  Schieffelin"  "of  seven  miles  in  front  and 
seven  miles  in  Depth  *  *  *  on  the  south  side  of  Detroit,  and 
directly  opposite  the  Island  commonly  called  Isle  au  Bois  Blanc"  &c 
&c.— Pages  193-5. 

"List  of  Officers  in  the   Indian  Department  at  Detroit." — Page    213. 

On  pages  219  to  222  is  a  very  interesting  letter  dated  19th  April 
1784  relative  to  the  "Ambiguous  Sence  of  the  late  Treaty  of  Peace; 
respecting  the  Line  of  Boundary  between  this  Province  and  the 
United  States,  from  Lake  Superior  to  the  Westward;  *  *  *  there 
is  no  such  Thing  as  a  Long  Lake,  as  expressed  in  the  Treaty,  the 
only  communication  from  Lake  Superior  is  by  *  *  *  the  Grand 
Portage,  which  leads  to  a  very  small  Eiver  on  the  West  side  that 
derives  its  source  from  an  adjacent  Lake,  and  from  thence  to  the 
extent  of  Lake  La  pluie  about  one  Hundred  Leagues  *  *  * 

If  ever  this  country  see  the  fatal  moment  of  giving  up  the  Upper 
Posts,  *  *  permit  me  to  give  you  my  opinion,  which  may  be  of 

some  use,  until  a  survey  is  made.  *  *  *  That  is  to  have  a  Post  so 
as  to  command  the  entrance  into  Lake  Superior,  either  below  the  Falls 
of  St  Mary's  or  above  them,  with  regard  to  the  former  I  cannot  point 
out  any  particular  spot  suitable  for  the  purpose,  but  with  respect  to 
the  latter  I  can  speak  with  some  certainty — I  mean  the  place  called 
Point  Aux  Pins  where  Mr  Baxter  who  was  sent  out  from  England 

32  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

some  years  ago  in  search  for  Copper  Mines  fixed  his  residence.  It  is 
situated  on  the  East  side  about  two  Leagues  above  the  Falls  on  a 
narrow  channel  that  commands  in  the  most  effectual  manner  the 
entrance  into  Lake  Superior,  it  has  the  advantage  of  a  fine  Bason 
formed  by  the  Point  where  Vessels  lay  in  deep  water  within  a  few 
yards  of  the  shore  equally  secure  in  Winter  as  in  Summer." 

On  May  6,  1784,  Gen.  Haldimand  writes  to  Capt.  Eobertson  relative 
to  the  selection  of  sites  for  Post  on  the  Canadian  side  of  the  line, 
from  which  the  following  is  an  extract: 

"There  is  no  situation  where  one  will  be  more  necessary  than  at  the 
Entrance  of  Lake  Superior  I  wish  to  have  early  Information  and  to 
take  measures  for  that  purpose  so  as  to  have  a  small  Garrison  and 
Settlement  established  there  on  the  shortest  notice.  Point  aux  Pinsr 
about  two  leagues  above  the  Falls  of  St.  Mary's,  appears  by  the  map, 
and  from  Information  I  have  received  to  be  the  fittest  place,  to  sit 
down  upon,  it  was  formerly  occupied  by  a  Mr.  Baxter,  a  Partner  and 
Agent  of  a  Company  engaged  in  the  Copper  Mines.  *  *  *  I  wish  to 
have  your  opinion  of  any  other  that  may  strike  you  as  more  favorable 
for  the  intended  purpose.  I  am  just  informed  *  *  *  that  a  place 
called  La  Traverse,  about  fifteen  leagues  from  Michilimackinac  is  a 
very  proper  situation  for  the  post  I  wish  to  take."  * — Pages 


Gen.  Haldimand's  policy  of  delay  in  retaining  possession  of  the 
Upper  Posts,  Nov  14,  1784.— Page  269. 

List  of  Upper  Posts  prior  to  the  war  of  the  Revolution,  page  272. 

Names  of  Traders  to  the  Upper  Country,  pages  279-80. 

At  the  close  of  the  Haldimand  papers  on  pages  296-9  is  a  sketch  of 
the  life  of  Col.  Arent  Scuyler  De  Peyster,  with  a  copy  of  verses  by 
Robert  Burns — "On  the  occasion  of  Col.  De  Peyster's  sending  to  make 
some  kind  inquiries  about  his  health,  Burns  replied  in  rhyme." 

"  He  died  as  full  of  honors  as  of  years,  having  held  the  king's 
commission  upward  of  77  years,  and  being  probably  at  the  time  the 
oldest  officer  in  the  service." 

He  was  born  in  New  York  27th  June  1786,  and  died  at  Dumfries, 
Scotland,  in  Nov.,  1832. 


Of  the  papers  relating  to  "Indian  Affairs,"  while  all  are  worthy  of 
recording  we  would  call  attention  to  the  following: 

List,  Location  and  Number  of  Indians;  with  the  part  of  the  North 
West  in  which  Each  Nation  is  located.  1789— Pages  305-7. 


The  Tete  de  Boule  Indians  of  Gens  de  Terre — about  600  men. 

Lake  Nipisiii  Indians. 

Fond  du  Lac  Huron  Indians  are  the  Missisageys;  Chipways  and 
Matchidash — about  500  men. 

Detroit  Indians— Hurons,  150;  Ottawas,  100;  Poudew,  150. 

Miamis  River  Indians  of  the  Twightwee  Nation,  200;  Onyaghtannas 
100;  St.  Vincent,  50. 

The  Big  Island  Indians,  the  Chippway  Nation,  about  150;  Ottawa 
Nation,  about  300;  Poudowadamy  Nation,  about  300;  Sacks  and  Renards, 
about  200;  Oyaway,  about  400;  Chippay,  Sault  St  Marie,  about  130; 
Chippway,  Lake  Superior,  South  side,  about  150,  Shagwamigon,  about 
500;  West  End  Lake  Superior  Indians,  Chippway,  about  50,  a  parcel 
of  Robbers;  Caministicouya  Indians  in  the  Was£  Nation,  a  sort  of 
Chippway p,  about  150;  Lake  Nipicon  Indians,  Was6  Nation,  about  300; 
Mishipicoton  Indians,  North  Side  Lake  Superior,  Maskas,  about  500; 
Lake  La  Plui  Indians,  Christino  Nation,  80  leagues  from  Lake 
Superior,  about  300. 

Col.  Alexander  McKee's  speech  to  the  following  Nations  of  Indians 
at  the  foot  of  the  Miamis  Rapids,  1st  July  1791:  Mohawks,  Hurons, 
Delawares,  Ottawas,  Pottawatamies,  Miamis,  Shawanese,  Munseys,  Min- 
goes,  Connoys,  Moheekins,  Nantikokes,  Moravians.  —Pages  310-11. 

Indians  to  Gen.  Washington. — Pages  314-15. 

Information  Relative  to  the  Army  of  Gen.  Wayne.  Point  Aux 
Chene,  Miamis  River  26th  Nov.  1793.— Pages  323-4. 

Col.  Alex.  McKee  to  Joseph  Chew.  Same  subject  1st  Feby  1794— 
Pages  325-6. 

Indian  Speeches  at  Miamis  Rapids  May  7,  1794,  at  a  Council,  to 
the  Wyandots,  Ottawas,  Mingoes  &  Munseys. — Pages  347-50. 

Indian  Speech,  relative  to  the  advance  of  Gen.  Wayne's  Army.  At 
the  foot  of  the  Rapids  of  the  Miamis.  25th  May  1794,  to  the  Wyan- 
dots, Ottawas,  Chippewas,  and  Poutawatamies. — Pages  354-5. 

Col.  Alexander  McKee  to  Joseph  Chew  30  May  1794.  Same  subject. 
—Pages  355-6. 

Col.  McKee,  2d  June  1794.  Relative  to  the  force  of  Gen.  Wayne's 
Army.  Indians  collecting  in  force — Pages  356-7.  ' 

Battle  near  Fort  Recovery  30  June  1794.— Pages  364-8. 

uThe  Indians  by  attempting  the  Fort  after  Defeating  Capt.  Gibson's 
party  met  with  a  Repulse  and  some  loss." 

Gen.  Anthony  Wayne's  defeat  of  the  Indians,  on  the  Miamis  River 
on  the  20th  of  August,  1794. 

34  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

"  Major  John  H.  Buell  congratulates  the  Federal  Army  upon  their 
Brilliant  success  in  the  action  of  the  20th  Inst.  against  the  whole 
combined  force  of  the  hostile  Savages,  aided  by  the  British  Post 
and  Garrison  close  in  their  rear,  beyond  which  the  fugitives 
fled,  with  disorder,  precipitation,  and  dismay,  leaving  their  packs, 
provisions  and  plunder  in  their  encampment  in  the  rear  of  that  post. 

*  *     *    their  Villages  and  Cornfields  being  consumed  in  every  direction, 
even   under    the  influence    of   the   guns    of   Fort   Miamis,   facts,  which 
must    produce   a   conviction    in   the    minds    of    the   Savages    that    the 
British    have    neither    the    power    or   Inclination   to   afford   them   that 
protection   which  they  had  been   taught  to  expect,"    <fec    &c.     *      *      * 

-  Pages  369-70. 

Capt.  Alexander  McKee  to  Joseph  Chew.  Camp  Near  Fort  Miamis 
27th  Augt.  1794.  Account  of  Battle  of  Indians  with  Army  of  Gen. 
Wayne  August  20th,  1794,  at  the  foot  of  the  Miamis  Rapids. — Pages 

Joseph  Chew  to  Thomas  Aston  Coffin.  5  Jan'y  1795.  Relative  to 
purchase  of  lands  by  Indians.  Sir  •William  Johnson's  methods. — PagevS 

"Articles  of  Peace  between  Gen.  Anthony  Wayne,  and  the  Indians" 
Shawanoes,  Delawares  and  Miamis. — Pages  393-4. 

"  A  Treaty  of  Peace  between  the  United  States  of  America  and  the 
Tribe  of  Indians  called  the  Wyandots,  Delawares,  Shawoerioes,  Ottawas, 
Chippewas,  Putawatames,  Miamis,  Eel  River,  Weeas  and  Kickapoos." 
Signed  by  Gen.  Anthony  Wayne,  and  seventy  Chiefs  of  the  Tribes 
named. — Pages  410-19. 

"  Substance  of  a  talk  held  at  Amherstburg  this  day,  June  30.  1797, 
between  The  Black  Beard,  Capt.  Johnny,  The  Borrer,  and  the  Buffaloe, 
four  principal  Chiefs  and  Warriors'  of  the  Shawonoes,  on  the  part  of 
their  Nation,  and  Captain  William  Mayne,  Commandant  at  Amherst- 
burg."—Pages  519-21. 

Island  of  St.  Joseph,  19th  October,  1797.  "At  a  Council  held  with 
the  Chiefs  and  Young  Men  of  both  Villages,  of  Arbre  Croche  Captain 
Drummond  speaks  to  them — Ottawas  Tribes.  The  Chiefs  answer  by 
Nibinassay." — Page  560. 

Return  of  Indian  settlers  at  the  Chenail  Ecarte  and  Harsen's  Island 
—48  men,  61  women  and  58  children— 167  persons— Oct.  26,  1797.— 
Page  564. 

Report  of  a  Board  of  Survey,  at  the  Island  of  St.  Joseph,  of  sundry 
stores,  1st  June,  1798.  Pages  604-6. 


Number  of  Ottawa  and  Chippewa  settlers  at  Chenail  Ecarte,  July, 
1798.— Pages  617  and  641-2. 

"Information  given  by  a  Western  Indian  who  returned  from  Detroit 
30th  January,  1799,  where  he  had, been  sent  for  the  purpose  of  getting 
intelligence  of  what  the  Indians  to  the  Westward  were  doing." — Pages 

Duke  of  Portland  to  Lieut.  Gen.  Hunter,  Whitehall,  4th  October, 
1799.  Extract:  "  Whatever  credit  is  to  be  given  Brandt  for  his  loyalty 
and  attachment  to  this  country  (upon  which  I  am  not  inclined  to 
place  any  great  reliance)  it  is  unquestionably  evident  that  he  omits  no 
opportunity  of  consolidating  the  Indian  Interest  with  a  view  to  form  an 
Indian  Confederacy,  and  to  place  himself  at  the  head  of  it — than  which 
nothing  can  be  more  directly  contrary  to  our  interests,  and  to  the 
Line  of  conduct  which  his  Majesty's  Governors  in  Canada  have  been 
directed  to  pursue  in  keeping  those  Interests  and  concerns  as  separate 
and  disunited  as  possible."  *  *  *  —Pages  663-7. 

The  committee  give  these  extracts  to  show  the  importance  of  the 
work  of  the  society  in  a  historical  point  of  view  of  having,  as  is  given 
in  the  "Collections,"  the  official  reports  of  the  English  officers  and 
Indian  agents,  for  comparison  with  the  statements,  official  and  other- 
wise, upon  which  the  current  history  is  founded,  of  that  struggle  for 
supremacy  in  the  then  Indian  country  west  of  the  Alleghanies  and  the 
Great  Lakes. 

The  committee  have  yet  unpublished  a  large  quantity  of  manuscript, 
obtained  from  the  same  source,  which  it  hopes  to  be  able  to  print  in 
the  "  Collections "  in  the  near  future  and  which  is  of  like  historical 

None  of  the  matter  copied  at  Ottawa  for  this  society,  and  published 
in  its  "  Collections,"  has  ever  been  copied  from  the  original  manuscripts 
and  published  by  any  other  society. 

The  legislature  of  this  State  at  its  present  session  has  made  the 
usual  appropriation  for  1893  and  1894,  to  enable  this  society  to 
continue  its  work,  and  the  committee  hope  to  be  able  to  publish  at 
least  two  volumes  of  the  "Collections"  (volumes  21  and  22),  before 
the  next  annual  meeting  of  this  society. 

The  committee  would  again  urge  upon  all  its  members,  and  upon 
the  officers  and  members  of  all  county  and  local  societies,  the  contri- 
bution to  this  society  of  the  pioneer  history  of  individuals,  of  town- 
ships, and  of  the  counties  of  this  State. 

36  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

All  such  material  for  history  will  be   preserved  by  the  society    and 
published  in  its  "Collections." 

MICHAEL   SHOEMAKER,  Chairman,  Jackson, 
JOHN   H.   FOR^TER,  Williamston , 
HENRY  H.   HOLT,  Muskegon, 



JOEL  BATCHELOR. — Joel  Batchelor  died  in  Gun  Plain,  July  18,  1892, 
He  was  born  in  Orange,  Mass.,  April  28,  1804,  and  came  to  Michigan 
in  1837,  settling  in  Gun  Plain  and  engaging  in  mercantile  business 
until  about  1848,  when  he  married  Miss  Alzina  L.  Crittenden,  Feb- 
ruary 14  of  that  year,  who  survives  him.  He  then  turned  his  attention 
to  farming  for  a  few  years.  About  this  period  he  was  elected  justice 
of  the  peace,  and  in  1845  or  1846,  he  had  the  first  contract  for 
carrying  the  mail  from  Kalamazoo  to  Grand  Rapids,  and  carried  the 
first  mail  through  on  horseback.  In  1849  he  went  into  the  cabinet- 
making  business  in  Otsego  for  a  short  time,  but  finally  went  back  to 
Gun  Plain  in  1853  and  again  settled  on  a  farm,  where  he  remained 
until  his  death.  Mr.  Batchelor  had  four  children — Irving  J.,  now 
living  near  Lowell,  Mich.;  Alia  L.,  deceased;  Frank  M.,  now  living  in 
Portland,  Oregon;  and  Edward  C.,  now  living  on  the  old  homestead. 
Mr.  Batchelor  had  a  kindly  disposition  and  courteous  manner.  He 
was  honored  and  respected  by  all  who  knew  him.  His  age  was  88 
years,  2  months,  and  20  days. 

MBS.  BETSEY  FISK. — Mrs  Betsey  Fisk  died  at  Allegan,  July  7,  1892. 
Betsey  Davis  was  born  at  Hartford,  Washington  Co.,  N.  Y..  September 
22,  1810.  The  family  moved  to  \Villiamson,  Wayne  Co.,  N.  Y.,  when  she 
was  a  girl,  where  she  married  Joseph  Fisk,  January  12,  1832.  They  cam& 


to  Michigan  in  1834,  stopping  first  at  Marengo,  Calhoun  Co.,  coming 
to  Allegan  in  March,  1835.  She  was  the  mother  of  the  first  white 
child  born  in  Allegan  (William  Allegan  Fisk),  in  October,  1835,  but 
who  died  in  infancy.  She  taught  school  several  terms  in  New  York, 
previous  to  her  marriage.  Allegan  was  always  her  home,  and  she 
resided  here  from  the  time  of  its  first  settlement,  except  nine  years,  from 
about  1853  to  1862.  when  the  family  lived  in  Chicago.  They  lived 
happily  together  over  52  years.  She  was  an  exemplary  member  of  the 
Baptist  church  over  60  years.  Aunt  Betsey,  as  she  was  called  by  all 
the  old  settlers,  won  and  retained  the  affection  and  esteem  of  all  with 
whom  she  came  in  contact.  She  was  aunt  to  everyone  and  was  really 
the  kind  friend  to  everyone  whom  she  met.  Her  kindly  hospitality 
seemed  to  know  no  bounds,  and  she  would  not  willingly  listen  to 
disparaging  remarks  about  anyone,  covering  the  faults  of  all  with  the 
broad  mantle  of  Christian  charity.  Not  only  her  children,  but  all  who 
knew  her,  "rise  up  and  call  her  blessed."  Her  age  was  81  years,  9 
months,  and  15  days. 

ALBY  BOSSMAN. — Our  community  was  greatly  shocked  on  May  6, 
1893,  to  learn  of  the  death  of  our  highly  respected  citizen,  Alby 
Bossman,  who  departed  this  life  at  his  residence  in  Allegan.  In 
business  he  was  a  man  of  the  strictest  integrity;  in  politics  a  stalwart 
and  uncompromising  democrat  of  the  school  of  Cass  and  Douglas,  and 
in  religion,  a  liberalist.  Aurelius,  Cayuga  county,  N.  Y.,  was  the  place 
of  his  birth,  June  14,  1812.  George  Bossman,  father  of  the  deceased, 
was  a  native  of  the  state  of  New  York,  and  his  wife,  Mary  Wood 
Bossman,  was  of  Connecticut  origin.  Mr.  Bossman's  father  was  a 
soldier  of  the  revolution  and  by  profession  both  a  farmer  and  mechanic, 
removing  to  Ohio  where  his  wife  died  in  Madison  county.  His  father 
returned  to  New  York  state  and  died  at  Morris,  Otsego  county.  His 
son,  Alby  Bossman,  the  subject  of  this  sketch,  was  but  eight  years  old 
when  he  made  his  home  with  a  sister  at  Springville,  N.  Y.,  where  he 
remained  but  one  year.  After  this  he  went  to  Auburn,  N.  Y.,  and  was 
there  apprenticed  to  a  mechanic's  trade  where  he  showed  much 
ingenuity,  and  worked  in  a  furnace  and  machine  shop  for  three  years. 
He  continued  his  trade  as  a  journeyman  until  1836,  when  he  proceeded 
to  Marshall,  Mich.,  where  he  remained  for  about  six  months,  during 
which  time  he  ran*  a  foundry  and  cast  the  first  plow  made  in  Michigan. 
Mr.  Bossman  in  the  same  year  (1836),  came  to  Allegan  where  he 
started  the  first  furnace  ever  erected  here  and  made  the  first  sled  in 
our  county.  Later  Mr.  Bossman  added  a  machine  shop  to  his  works 

38  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

and  for  nearly  thirty  years  successfully  operated  and  carried  on  these 
iron  works,  accumulating  a  handsome  property,  giving  employment  in 
these  years  to  a  large  number  of  first  class  mechanics.  He  built  in 
1838  the  boiler  and  engine  for  the  first  steamer  built  in  Allegan  and 
the  first  that  ever  run  on  the  Kalamazoo  river.  This  steamer  was 
named  after  C.  C.  Trowbridge,  of  Detroit,  who  was  a  large  stockholder 
in  the  Boston  company  that  founded  Allegan  village.  When  he  first 
came  to  Allegan  lumbering  was  the  principal  occupation  followed  here 
and  Mr.  Kossman's  business  prospered  with  the  village's  growth.  For 
many  years  Mr.  Rossman's  foundry  was  the  only  one  in  our  county. 
In  those  early  days  Mr.  Rossman  was  associated  with  the  late  Hyman 
Hoxie  who  subsequently  went  to  Chicago  and  died  there.  Mr.  Rossman 
retired  from  active  business  some  years  ago  but  continued  to  improve 
his  property  in  our  village  and  vicinity,  erecting  an  elegant  residence 
for  himself  and  several  stores.  He  was  one  of  the  company  who  built 
the  beautiful  Chaff ee  block,  one  of  the  finest  structures  in  this  or  any 
other  village  of  our  State.  In  1869  he  was  burned  out  and  suffered  a 
severe  loss  of  property.  In  the  same  year  he  removed  to  his  farm 
which  he  had  laid  out  into  village  lots,  known  as  "  Rossman's 
addition."  Mr.  Rossman  filled  with  honor  several  responsible  township 
and  village  offices  such  as  justice  of  the  peace,  village  trustee,  marshal, 
and  superintendent  of  the  village  water  works.  Mr.  Rossman  was  first 
married  in  1832  to  Miss  Angeline  Dickinson,  who  died  in  1848  leaving 
two  children,  William  George  Rossman,  who  was  married  to  Miss 
Elizabeth  Newcomb,  of  Ganges,  and  died  January,  1889,  leaving  one 
daughter,  JCate  E.,  who  has  resided  with  her  grandparents  ever  since 
her  father's  death.  Miss  Mary  A.  Rossman,  the  other  child  of  the- 
deceased,  was  married  to  Capt.  Frederick  Hart,  with  whom  she  resided 
in  Adrian  till  1877,  when  he  died.  Mrs.  Hart  has  lived  at  her^father's- 
mansion  ever  since.  The  deceased,  Alby  Rossman,  had  a  second  wife, 
Mrs.  Electa  Dickinson,  who  has  one  child  (now  Mrs.  Henry  C.  Smith). 
Mrs.  Rossman  has  three  grandchildren.  Dr.  Charles  H.  Smith,  of 
Chattanooga,  Tenn.,  Mrs.  G.  H.  Buchanan,  of  this  village,  and 
Glenn  D.  Smith,  of  Springfield,  Ohio. 

We  have  thus  given  a  somewhat  extended  notice  of  a  man  who  was- 
a  walking  landmark  of  our  county's  history  and  progress,  a  pillar  of 
integrity  and  probity  in  all  the  walks  of  life,  one  who  had  contributed 
liberally  for  many  years  past  toward  churches,  school  houses,  and  all 
other  good  purposes.  This  patriarch  will  be  greatly  missed  by  hia 
numerous  friends  and  neighbors  to  whom  he  was  always  ready  to 


extend  a  kindly  greeting  and  cheering  word.  Mr.  Rossman  was  in 
failing  health  for  five  or  six  months  and  seldom  appeared  in  public. 
But  his  neighbors  frequently  called  upon  him  and  cheered  him  up. 
He  sat  in  a  chair  on  the  porch  of  his  residence  and  walked  out  in 
his  yard  two  or  three  times  on  the  day  of  his  death. 

MRS.  ELIZA  WILCOX. — Mrs.  Eliza  Wilcox  died  in  Trowbridge,  June 
5.  1892.  Miss  Eliza  McMahon  was  born  in  Ireland,  May  11,  1826, 
and  came  to  America  with  her  parents  when  quite  young,  settling  in 
Livingston  Co.,  N.  Y.,  where  she  grew  to  womanhood.  She  married  a 
Mr.  Reynolds  and  moved  to  Ganges  in  1855,  where  he  died.  Some- 
time in  the  60's  she  married  G.  B.  Wilcox  in  Monterey,  and  they 
finally  settled  on  the  farm  in  Trowbridge  where  she  died.  She  was  a 
kind  and  sympathetic  friend  and  neighbor  and  her  life  was  above 
reproach.  Her  age  was  66  years  and  24  days. 


MRS.  JOHN  TINKLER. — Martha  Tinkler,  wife  of  John  Tinkler,  died  at 
Hastings,  June  4,  1892,  aged  53  years.  Reside  at  of  Hastings  in  Barry 
Co.  for  40  years. 

MRS.  JAMES  SWIN. — Mrs.  Olive  Swin,  widow  of  James  Swin,  died  at 
Hastings,  June  17,  1892,  aged  82  years.  Resided  in  Barry  county  45 
years,  and  came  from  Ohio  to  Johnstown  in  1847. 

MRS.  IRA  PENNOCK. — Esther  Pennock,  widow  of  Ira  Pennock,  died  at 
the  town  of  Barry  in  Barry  county,  June  19,  1892,  aged  62  years. 
Had  resided  in  Barry  county  for  56  years. 

DAVID  M.  LAKE. — David  M.  Lake,  died  at  Hastings  July  17,  1892r 
aged  89  years.  Former  residence  Ohio,  resided  here  30  years. 

MRS.  THOMAS  HENRY. — Bridget  Henry,  wife  of  Thomas  Henry,  died 
at  Rutland.  Barry  county,  August  8,  1892,  a  native  of  Ireland,  aged 
68  years.  Resided  in  Barry  county  38  years. 

JAMES   N.    HAWTHORNE. — James  N.  Hawthorne    died   in    Orangeville, 

40  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

Barry    county,    August    28,    1892,    aged    76  years.     Resided    in   Barry 
county  46  years;   a  native   of  the  state  of  Maine. 

SEBASTIAN  KAISER. — Sebastian  Kaiser  died  in  Baltimore,  this  county, 
August  31,  1892,  aged  72  years.  Resided  in  this  county  40  years.  A 

MRS.  MALVINA  P.  MCLELLAN.— Malvina  P.  McLellan,  widow,  died 
at  Allegan,  September  8,  1892  (while  visiting  her  daughter),  a  resident 
of  Hastings,  aged  67  years.  One  of  the  earliest  pioneers;  married  here 
in  1844;  resided  here  52  years.  Her  maiden  name  was  Alden. 

RICHARD  JONES. — Richard  Jones,  one  of  the  early  pioneers  of  Assyria, 
died  at  Battle  Creek,  where  he  had  resided  a  short  time,  September, 
1892,  aged  87  years.  Resident  since  1848;  was  a  member  of  the  legis- 
lature in  1867, — an  able  farmer.  His  remains  were  buried  at  Assyria. 

HENRY  I.  BARNUM. — Henry  I.  Barnum  died  at  Nashville  (being 
injured  while  attempting  to  board  the  train),  October,  1892,  aged  67 
years.  Resident  of  this  county  for  the  past  47  years;  from  New  York. 

FRANCES  PECK. — Frances  Peck  died  at  Carlton,  October  13,  1892. 
Resident  of  Barry  county  for  46  years,  and  of  the  State  55  years; 
aged  84  years. 

MRS.  DAVID  L.  HOES. — Mrs.  Miranda  Hoes,  wife  of  David  L.,  died 
at  Rutland,  November  6,  1892.  Resident  45  years. 

MRS.  ALLEN  JONES. — Hannah  M.  Jones,  wife  of  Allen  Jones,  died  at 
Hastings,  November  10,  1892.  Native  of  Tiffin,  Ohio;  aged  56  years; 
resident  here  46  years. 

MRS.  CHARLOTTE  GRAW. — Mrs.  Charlotte  Graw,  died  at  the  home  of 
her  daughter,  Mrs.  Richard  Murray,  at  Baltimore,  December  1,  1892, 
aged  92  years;  a  native  of  New  York.  Had  resided  in  Kent  and  Barry 
counties  for  the  past  56  years. 

MRS.  CAROLINE  WARNER.— Mrs.  Caroline  Warner,  widow,  died  January 
3,  1893,  aged  64  years.  A  resident  of  this  State  56  years. 

MARY  J.  WILLIAMS. — Mary  J.  Williams,  formerly  Sidmore,  died  Jan- 
uary 10,  1893,  aged  67  years.  Resident  of  this  State  and  county  41  years. 

JOSEPH  SHORES. — Joseph  Shores  (known  as  uncle),  died  at  Wood- 
land, January  20,  1893,  aged  94  years.  Been  married  62  years;  one 
of  the  oldest  residents  and  early  marriages. 


IRA  VIRGIL. — Ira  Virgil,  died  at  Hastings,  January  28,  1893,  aged  88 
years.  Resident  of  the  county  for  40  years. 

CHARLES  BUHLER. — Charles  Buhler,  whose  residence  was  at  Irving 
in  this  county,  died  at  Woodland  (while  on  a  visit  at  his  daughter's), 
July  18,  1893,  aged  81  years.  Resident  40  years. 

MARY  E.  BABCOCK. — Mary  E.  Babcock,  died  at  Baltimore,  July  22, 
1893,  aged  79  years.  Resident  41  years. 

IRA  STOWELL.— Ira  Stowell,  died  at  Woodland,  February  26,  1893, 
aged  73  years.  Resident  38  years. 

MRS.  J.  M.  RUSSELL. — Mrs.  J.  M.  Russell,  widow  of  Dr.  Russell, 
died  at  Hastings,  March  10,  1893,  aged  79  years.  Resident  38  years. 

MRS.  WM.  EATON. — Hannah  Eaton,  widow  of  William  Eaton,  died 
at  Baltimore,  March  11,  1893,  aged  92  years.  Resident  40  years. 

DANIEL  FIFIELD. — Daniel  Fifield,  died  at  Hastings,  March  21,  1893, 
aged  92  years.  Resident  49  years. 

MRS.  I.  N.  KEELER.— Mrs.  I.  N.  Keeler,  of  Middleville,  died  March 
26,  1893,  aged  61  years.  Resident  43  years. 

JAMES  MCK.ELVEY. — James  McKelvey,  of  Nashville,  died  April  12, 
1893,  aged  84  years.  Resident  38  years. 

MRS.  OWEN  HUGHES. — Mrs.  Owen  Hughes,  of  Prairieville,  died  April 
5,  1893,  aged  63  years.  Resident  42  years. 

DAVID  L.  HOES.— David  L.  Hoes,  of  Rutland,  died  April  14,  1893, 
aged  73  years.  Resident  45  years. 

WM.  WILLISON.— William  Willison,  of  Barry,  died  April  28,  1893r 
aged  74  years.  Resident  56  years. 

MRS.  FLAVIA  VAN  DEWALKER.— Mrs.  Flavia  Van  Dewalker,  died  April 
15,  1893,  aged  69  years.  Resident  57  years. .  Adopted  daughter  of 
"Yankee  Lewis." 

A.  J.  PALMERTON. — A.  J.  Palmerton,  of  Woodland,  died  suddenly 
May  7,  1893,  aged  66  years.  Resident  45  years. 

ARNOLD    SISSON.  —  Arnold    Sisson,    of   Hastings,   died   May  12,  1893, 
aged  69  years.     Resident  39  years. 

42  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

EGBERT  CABLTON. — Kobert  Carlton,  of    Hastings,  died  May  12,  1893, 
aged  74  years.     Resident  50  years. 

MRS.  CAROLINE  NAGLER.— Mrs.  Caroline  Nagler,  of  Irving,  died  May 
17,  1893,  aged  67  years.     Resident  34  years. 

Between  60  and  70  years  of  age,  11. 

Between  70  and  80  years  of  age,  9. 

Between  80  and  90  years  of  age,  6. 

Above  90  years  of  age,  5;  the  oldest  was  94 — 4  being  92. 

The  longest  residence  in  county,  57  years. 

BY    WM.    MC   COBMICK. 

Mrs.  Orrin  Bump  died  May  8,  1893,  in  Bay  City. 

GEORGE  LORD. — George  Lord,  the  pioneer  resident  of  Bay  Cityr 
died  April  30,  1893,  at  his  home,  922  Harrison  street.  He  had  been 
ill  for  a  long  time  and  the  end  was  hastened  by  his  extreme  age. 

George  Lord  was  born  in  Madison  county,  New  York,  March  17, 
1815.  He  came  to  Bay  City  in  1854  and  engaged  in  the  lumbering 
business.  A  short  time  afterward,  in  company  with  J.  P.  Whittemore, 
he  built  the  Keystone  mill  in  what  is  now  known  as  the  first  ward  of 
West  Bay  City.  After  operating  it  for  five  years  he  sold  it  and 
entered  the  drug  business  at  the  corner  of  Center  avenue  and  Water 
street.  He  continued  there  until  the  fire  in  1865,  when  he  was  burned 
out.  He  immediately  opened  up  another  store,  but  sold  out  in  a  few 
days  and  entered  the  insurance  business.  He  was  also  ticket  agent  of 
the  Michigan  Central,  but  most  of  his  time  from  then  on  was  devoted 
to  his  insurance  affairs.  Politically  he  was  a  democrat,  and  served  the 
people  in  many  different  positions  during  his  residence  here.  He  was 
mayor  of  the  city  for  one  term  and  comptroller  for  five  terms.  He 
.was  also  supervisor,  justice  of  the  peace  and  alderman  at  different 
times,  and  owes  many  friends  to  the  honest  and  straightforward  course 
always  pursued  by  him,  both  in  business  and  politics. 

In    1840,  Mr.    Lord    married    Miss  C.  D.  Fay  in    Hamilton.     Three 


children  were  the  result  of  the  union,  which  proved  to  be  a  very 
happy  one.  They  are  Mrs.  H.  W.  Jennison  and  Wm.  H.  Lord,  of  Bay 
City,  and  Fred  H.  Lord,  of  Chicago. 


WILLIAM  ALGER. — William  "Alger  died  at  his  home  in  Mattison  on 
March  20,  1893,  of  heart  failure,  at  the  age  of  76  years.  Mr.  Alger 
was  born  in  James,  Seneca  county,  New  York,  July  4,  1816.  He  came 
to  Branch  county  in  1836  and  settled  in  Quincy.  He  was  married  to 
Miss  Orpha  Darwin  in  December,  1838,  and  moved  into  Butler, 
subsequently  removing  to  Mattison  which  has  since  been  his  home. 
He  was  one  of  the  hard  working  pioneers,  carrying  out  the  command 
of  God  to  "subdue  the  earth  and  have  dominion  over  it."  Perhaps 
no  one  man  has  done  more  to  clear  up  Branch  county  than  the 
deceased.  He  leaves  a  wife  and  nine  living  children  (his  oldest  son 
having  died  in  the  Union  army)  to  mourn  the  loss  of  a  kind  husband 
and  father. 

Mr.  Alger  was  the  eighth  in  descent  from  Thomas  Alger,  who  settled 
in  Mass.,  in  1638. 

EPHRAIM  A.  KNOWLTON.— Ephraim  A.  Knowlton  died  at  his  home 
in  Coldwater,  March  14,  1893.  at  the  age  of  80.  Mr.  Knowlton  was 
born  in  Cape  Ann,  Mass.,  December  25,  1813.  While  an  infant  his 
parents  removed  to  Vermont  and  here  it  was  that  he  was  reared 
to  manhood.  In  June,  1834,  he  was  married  to  Miss  Jane  Alvord  and 
together  they  immigrated  to  the  west,  first  settling  in  Ohio  in  1844. 
Ohio  was  a  new  country  then  and  the  vast  territory  west  was  then 
unexplored,  but  nothing  daunted,  Mr.  Knowlton  and  family  moved  farther 
west  and  settled  in  our  then  insignificant  little  burg  in  1856.  He  was 
a  cabinetmaker  by  trade  and  established  and  successfully  conducted 
what  was  a  pioneer  institution  in  the  west — the  planing  mill,  sash  and 
blind  factory  on  west  Chicago  street,  Coldwater,  now  owned  by  Ball 
Bros.  In  1862  his  first  wife  died.  Four  children  were  born  to  them 
of  whom  only  one,  Mrs.  F.  D.  Marsh  of  Coldwater,  is  a  survivor. 

In   1864  he  retired  from  the    manufacturing   business  and    purchased 

44  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

a  farm  on  Marshall  street  where  he  resided  until  1884  when  he  removed 
to  his  present  suburban  home  of  sixty  acres  on  east  Chicago  street.  In 
1865  he  was  again  married,  Mahala  Halstead  Fisk  being  chosen  as  his 
second  bride  and  she  survives  him. 

Coldwater  was  a  small,  unpretentious  place  when  Mr.  Knowlton  first 
came  there  and  he  was  identified  with  most  of  its  early  strug- 
gles for  existence  and  growth.  He  has  been  an  active  and  energetic 
worker,  and  it  is  only  within  the  past  two  or  three  years  that  he  has 
been  obliged  to  give  up  the  harder  duties.  The  remains  of  this 
staunch  Christian  man  were  interred  in  Oak  Grove  cemetery  where  so 
many  of  our  early  pioneers  now  lie  and  yet  are  not  forgotten. 

LORENZO  A.  ROSE.— Lorenzo  A.  Rose  died  at  his  home  in  the  village 
of  Bronson,  March  13,  1893,  the  immediate  cause  being  a  fall  on  the 
ice  a  few  weeks  before,  though  his  health  had  not  been  robust  for  some 
time.  Born  October  25,  1822,  in  Cambria,  Niagara  county,  N.  Y.,  he 
came  with  his  parents  to  Bronson  in  1835,  where  he  has  since  resided, 
identifying  himself  closely  with  the  interests  of  Branch  county,  and 
especially  with  those  of  Bronson.  While  Mr.  Rose  was  not  an 
educated  man  so  far  as  books  were  concerned,  yet  he  was  possessed  of 
a  great  fund  of  general  information,  always  observant  and  fond  of 
reading,  he  combined  the  essential  qualities  that  go  to  make  up  a  good 
citizen  to  an  unusual  degree.  He  was  a  railroad  contractor,  helping 
to  construct  several  important  lines,  among  them  a  section  of  the 
Grand  Rapids  &  Indiana  from  Walton  to  Traverse  City;  built  a  part 
of  the  M.  C.  &  L.  M.  from  Monteith  to  Gull  Corners;  built  a  line 
from  Petoskey  to  Long  and  Crooked  Lakes,  and  also  a  line  from 
Petoskey  to  Mackiuac.  Previous  to  this,  in  1849,  he  entered  the 
employ  of  the  Lake  Shore  and  Michigan  Southern  railroad,  ballasting 
nearly  all  of  the  road  between  Bronson  and  Sturgis.  In  1853  he 
contracted  with  the  government  to  deliver  quite  a  number  of  head  of 
cattle  purchased  in  Bronson  to  the  Chippewa  and  Ottawa  Indians  at 
Little  Traverse.  This  was  quite  a  hazardous  undertaking  at  that  time, 
as  the  journey  had  to  be  made  on  foot,  much  of  the  way  through  pine 
forests  and  in  a  sparsely  settled  country,  with  many  streams  to  ford, 
but  it  was  safely  accomplished  in  about  six  weeks.  This  was  only  one 
of  the  many  instances  in  his  pioneer  life  where  he  had  undertaken  and 
successfully  accomplished  hazardous  and  difficult  undertakings.  He 
was  three  times  postmaster  of  Bronson,  the  first  time  under  Van 
Buren,  the  second  under  Buchanan,  and  the  third  under  Cleveland. 

His  first  wife  was   Miss  Amanda  Weatherby,   of   Jackson,  who    died 



in  Bronson  in  1860,  and  who  bore  him  two  children,  one  still  living 
and  a  resident  of  Petoskey,  the  other  dying  when  quite'  young.  His 
second  wife  was  Miss  Mattie  Dovendorf,  who  survives  him,  together 
with  four  children,  Lorenzo  E.  of  Petoskey,  Mrs.  Byron  Rich  of  Ovid, 
Grace  and  Eddy.  He  belonged  to  the  Masonic  fraternity,  and  always 
occupied  an  enviable  position  as  an  upright,  honorable  man. 

A.  S.  ROWELL.— A.  S.  Rowell  died  at  his  home  in  Coldwater  May  9, 
1893,  at  the  advanced  age  of  81.  In  his  death  Coldwater  loses  a 
faithful  citizen  and  an  honest  man. 

A.  S.  Rowell  was  born  in  Penfield,  N.  Y.,  September  25,  1812,  and 
came  west  when  a  young  man.  Previous  to  residing  in  Coldwater  he 
made  his  home  in  Hillsdale,  where  he  was  at  one  time  sheriff.  He 
afterward  moved  to  White  Pigeon  and  resided  there  a  few  years,  after 
which  he  made  Coldwater  his  home  and  has  since  resided  there. 

He  came  to  Coldwater  forty  years  ago,  and  in  1847  was  married  to 
Miss  Eleanor  Pratt,  who  died  in  January,  1892.  To  them  were  born 
four  children,  only  two  of  whom,  Frank  Rowell,  of  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  and 
Mrs.  Stuart,  of  Coldwater,  survive. 


BY    JOHN   F.    HINMAN. 



Date  of  death. 


James  M   Abell 

Battle  Creek  

June  7,  1892  




Penn  field 



Mrs  Thomas  Reardon 

Battle  Creek     



Mrs.  Maria  Clute 


28  1  


John  Welch 




Mrs  C   P  White 


July  10  


Isaac  C.  Mott 

Battle  Creek  



John  N.  Farmer                                                        -  



Hubert  Sears                                                          *" 

it         it 

27      ..I  


Daniel  Berger 

it         tt 



Mrs.  Henrietta  Drier                                          




Mrs.  Cordelia  Curtis... 

Battle  Creek... 

August  3... 






Date  of  death. 



August  10 


A  J  Noyes 

Battle  Creek 



Pearl  Codling 



j4         „ 



Michael  Taffee 


Sept.  20 


Le  Roy 



Battle  Creek 



John  Pratt 




Mrs  Sophy  Almon 

Rice  Creek  



JHeiiry  Andrus                                                   ....  

Battle  Creek  



.Henry  Pierson                                               -     




Smith  Woolsey 




E  N  Edmunds 

Marshall  . 

October  4  


Margaret  Kedmond 




James  Ferguson 

Battle  Creek  



Mrs.  Louisa  Goodwin 




Mary  J.  Pringle                                                     



Mrs  Clarissa  Roberts 

Le  Roy 



James  Toole 

Pennfield    . 



Mrs.  Clarissa  Roberts 

Battle  Creek  



Horatio  Perry 


November  15  


John  Howlett 

Battle  Creek  



Mrs  Henry  Toss 


25.     .. 


Alonzo  Taylor 




Cornelius  Bogardns 



Mrs.  Nancy  Nichols 

Battle  Creek 



Miss  Elizabeth  Finlay 

January6,  1893.... 


Mrs.  John  Potter 

n         «« 



Mrs.  Barbery  Erhman 




Mrs-  Susan  Robinson 

Battle  Creek 



Wm.  Laker,  Sr. 




Manlius  Mann 

Marshall        .            .     . 



David  E.  Fero 

February  2 


Mrs.  Caroline  Conkey 




Mrs.  R.  Sanley 

Battle  Creek 



George  Smith  




IraT.  Butler  

Battle  Creek 



Mrs.  Lorenzo  R.  Peebles  



Nathan  Rockwell 




Mrs.  Philanda  Tenuey 

Battle  Creek                 .    . 



Nathan  Rogers 

Pine  Creek 







Date  of  death. 


Mrs  Rhoda  Beardsley 


March  1 


Mrs.  Joseph  Cook                         

Battle  Creek  



Mrs  Geo  W  Adams 




Trnman  W.  Williams 

Battle  Creek  






Le  Boy 



John  Beers 




Miss  Sarah  W.  Wheelock                    .  . 

Battle  Creek  



Mrs   Ann  J  Kellogg 



Andrew  Her  rick 


April  1 


Wm  Watsoa 




Benjamin  H.  Crandall 

Battle  Creek  

5  .. 


Mrs.  Margaret  Sly           



Mrs  Elvira  A  Pike 




John  Spanlding 




Rd<wn   Hammond 

Convis  .__  



Marvin  Eggleston                   ..     _  

Battle  Creek  



Mrs  John  Spooner,  Sr. 




Dorastns  Green,  Jr. 




Mrs.  Esther  Van  Winkle            . 

Battle  Creek  



Wm.  H.  Green  

t>         it 



Mrs.  Ann  L  Lapham 

4*                     41 



Mrs.  Dr.  A,  8.  Johnson 

ti                     „ 



Mrs.  Sarah  L.  Sackett 

it                     U 



Mrs.  Helen  Perry 




Mrs.  Susan  A.  Reynolds 

Battle  Creek 

May  4 


Mrs.  Mary  L.  Fnller 



Mrs.  Mary  I.  Hinchman 

H                     4t 



Mrs  Mary  C  Thomason 




James  Hameston 




Mrs.  G.  W.  Dryer    f 

Marengo  . 



Mrs.  Daniel  Crawford                                            .... 




Philemon  Austin 




Jacob  Mahien 




Joseph  Mercer 




Charles  Scoon    ... 



Mary  Swart 

Le  Roy 



Mrs.  Inman 

Battle  Creek 

June  5 


WILLIAM   D.  ADAMS.— William    D.    Adams   died    Friday,    March    31, 
1893,  at  Marshall,  Mich.,  aged  53  years. 

William  DeForest  Adams  was  born  in    Burlington,    Calhoun   county, 

48  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

Michigan,  June  5,  1839.  His  parents,  William  and  Mehetabel  Adams, 
were  among  the  first  pioneers  of  Calhoun  county,  coming  from  the 
state  of  New  York  to  the  territory  of  Michigan  in  1834.  His  father, 
who  was  a  man  of  intelligence  and  large  influence,  located  the  land 
and  platted  the  village  of  Burlington,  where  William  D.  spent  his 
childhood  and  performed  the  sturdy  duties  of  a  farmer's  son  in  pioneer 
life,  attending  the  district  school  and  experiencing  the  privations  and 
hardships  of  those  primitive  times  in  Michigan.  He  was  a  student  of 
Coldwater  high  school  and  at  Albion  college  and  acquired  a  good 
education  but  did  not  complete  a  full  collegiate  course  of  study.  He 
followed  the  calling  of  teacher  for  a  time.  He  was  married  to  Sarah 
M.  Setford,  of  Albion,  Mich.,  January  18,  1862,  who  now  survives  him. 
He  leaves  two  children,  Miss  Lena,  of  Marshall,  and  Frank  D.,  a 
classical  student  at  Michigan  University,  one  daughter  having  died  in 

Mr.  Adams  possessed  a  good  mechanical  talent  and  had  a  taste  for 
machinery,  but  his  love  of  study  and  intellectual  pursuits  led  him  to 
choose  the  law  as  the  field  for  his  life  work.  He  commenced  the 
study  of  his  chosen  profession  in  1863,  with  Sidney  Thomas,  of 
Marshall,  and  completed  his  law  reading  as  a  student  with  Hughes 
and  Wooley  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  on  the  28th  of  November, 
1864.  He  immediately  commenced  his  career  as  a  lawyer  in  Marshall, 
where  he  continued  in  active  practice  until  his  death. 

Mr.  Adams  held  the  office  of  deputy  commissioner  of  internal 
revenue  and  of  United  States  commissioner  under  the  federal  govern- 
ment. He  was  four  years  justice* of  the  peace  and  two  years  city 
attorney  of  the  city  of  Marshall  and  was  also  circuit  court  commis- 
sioner of  Calhoun  county  for  six  years.  In  these  official  positions  he 
discharged  the  duties  with  great  fidelity  and  marked  ability,  thereby 
reflecting  honor  upon  himself  and  giving  universal  satisfaction  to  the 
public  whose  interests  he  so  carefully  served.  His  professional 
associates,  who  are  the  most  competent  judges,  speak  very  highly  of 
his  judicial*  opinions  and  decisions,  and  credit  him  with  judicial 
qualities  of  a  high  order. 

As  an  attorney  and  solicitor,  Mr.  Adams  has  been  connected  with 
numerous  important  cases  in  the  State  and  federal  courts,  and  has 
filled  responsible  positions  in  the  trials  and  determinations  of  these 
causes.  Among  the  number  we  recall  the  Perrin- Kellogg  cases,  the 
numerous  cases  growing  out  of  the  Perrin  and  Sibley  estates  and  the 
Wait-Kellogg  cases,  which  attracted  much  attention  at  the  time  and 
were  contested  to  the  end  by  the  leading  lawyers  of  the  State.  He 


had   among   his   clients   many    prominent    business    men  and   concerns, 
which  attest  his  standing  and  ability  as  a  lawyer. 

Mr.  Adams  was  endowed  by  nature  with  a  fine  physique  and  a 
vigorous  mind.  He  was  self-reliant  in  forming  his  opinions,  and 
independent  in  drawing  conclusions.  In  short,  he  thought  and  acted 
for  himself,  and  was  not  accustomed  to  allow  others  to  think  for  him. 
He  was  studious  in  his  habits  and  had  a  taste  for  intellectual  research. 
In  politics  he  was  a  republican  but  not  a  blind  partisan.  Though 
retiring  in  disposition  and  having  no  taste  for  formal  society,  he  was 
genial  and  warm  hearted  to  his  friends  and  was  esteemed  most  by 
those  who  knew  him  best.  He  was  sincere  and  honest  as  a  man  and 
as  a  citizen  and  will  be  greatly  missed  in  Marshall. 

MRS.  MARIA  DYGERT  ARNOLD. — Mrs.  Maria  Dygert  Arnold,  the 
subject  of  this  sketch,  died  at  her  home  in  Battle  Creek,  August  9, 
1892.  She  was  born  in  Verona,  Oneida  county,  N.  Y.,  in  the  year 
1837,  where  she  resided  during  her  girlhood  and  until  her  marriage  to 
Mr.  A.  0.  Arnold,  January  1,  1856.  In  the  year  1857  Mrs.  Arnold 
came  with  her  husband  to  Battle  Creek,  Mich.,  and  has  lived  in  this 
city  35  years.  The  deceased  was  well  known  and  very  highly  esteemed 
in  this  community.  She  was  a  woman  of  excellent  judgment  and  good 
sense  and  in  no  way  calculated  to  stimulate  anything  like  malice  in 
the  breast  of  anyone  with  whom  she  came  in  contact.  On  the  contrary 
she  was  constituted  to  win  respect  and  gratitude  from  all  who  knew 
her.  She  had  "malice  toward  none  but  charity  toward  all."  She  will 
be  especially  remembered  as  the  friend  of  the  poor  and  unfortunate 
whose  interests  were  very  near  to  her  heart,  and  whose  cause  she 
unselfishly  espoused.  Her  bounty  quietly  and  unostentatiously  dis- 
pensed, often  cheered  the  heart  that  was  ready  to  faint.  Surely, 
considering  her  surroundings,  her  record  should  stand  as  a  beacon  light 
for  others  to  follow. 

NATHANIEL  A.  BARNEY. — Nathaniel  A.  Barney,  landlord  of  the 
Occidental  Hotel,  Muskegon,  died  October  31,  1892,  of  stomach 
troubles,  aged  68  years.  He  was  born  at  Silver  Creek,  N.  Y.,  and  with 
his  parents  moved  in  1833  to  Battle  Creek.  He  came  to  Muskegon  in 
1868  and  went  into  the  hotel  business,  which  he  has  followed  ever 
since.  In  his  service  of  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  century  he  has  seen 
Muskegon  grow  from  a  hamlet  to  one-  of  the  principal  cities  of  the 
State,  and  step  by  step  his  business  has  grown  with  it.  Last  spring 
he  commenced  the  erection  of  a  four  story  stone  structure,  which  is 

50  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

nearly  completed,  and  makes  the  hotel  the  largest  and  finest  on  the 
shore.  Mr.  Barney  was  most  favorably  known  by  the  traveling  public 
which  he  had  served  so  long. 

Mr.  Barney's  family  was  among  the  earliest  settlers  in  Battle  Creek. 
The  old  Barney  hotel,  two  miles  west  of  the  city,  is  still  standing,  and 
goes  by  that  name.  The  deceased  will  be  remembered  by  all  the  older 

MRS.  LOUISA  H.  BEVIER. — Another  of  the  early  settlers  of  Le  Roy, 
Calhoun  county,  Mich.,  has  passed  from  earth  to  heaven. 

Mrs.  Louisa  H.  Bevier  died  of  old  age,  at  the  home  of  her  nephew, 
Elon  D.  Bushnell,  October  18,  1892.  Twenty- three  years  ago  the  15th 
of  October,  her  husband,  Win.  Bevier,  entered  into  rest.  Her  marriage 
dates  back  to  1846.  She  was  a  New  Englander  by  birth  and  a  native 
of  Connecticut,  where  she  was  born  on  June  11,  1804,  and  where  she 
lived  about  36  years.  Her  family  were  of  French  Huguenot  origin,  and 
her  early  ancestors  came  from  England  to  America  more  than  250 
years  ago,  being  among  the  first  settlers  of  Guilford  and  Saybrook, 
Conn.  She  was  the  daughter  of  Christian  and  Prudence  Bushnell,  and 
the  last  of  several  sons  and  daughters  to  depart  this  life.  The  family 
name  included  at  least  six  ministers,  of  whom  the  late  Dr.  Horace 
Bushnell,  of  Hartford,  Conn.,  was  one.  Her  brothers,  Eev.  Asa  W. 
and  Deacon  John  H.  Bushnell,  and  her  sister,  Mrs.  Dudley  N. 
Bushnell,  have  long  been  known  to  and  familiar  with  the  early  settlers 
of  Le  Eoy  and  adjacent  towns.  Dudley  N.  and  wife  came  in  the 
autumn  of  1837  and  were  followed  by  John  H.  arid  wife  the  following 
autumn.  Then  in  1840  the  remainder  of  the  family  came.  Her  brother 
Eev.  Asa  W.  becoming  the  first  regular  pastor  of  the  church  then 
known  as  the  first  Presbyterian  church  of  Le  Eoy,  but  since  1846  has 
been  the  first  Congregational  church  of  Le  Eoy. 

For  more  than  half  a  century  therefore  she  has  been  identified  with 
this  church  and  with  the  community.  Her  life  has  been  that  of  a 
quiet,  consistent  Christian,  a  devoted  daughter,  sister,  and  wife,  a  true, 
trusty  and  much  loved  friend  and  neighbor. 

Her  money  has  been  given  with  a  liberal  hand  for  the  support  of 
the  church  she  loved  so  much  for  the  various  benevolent  causes  and  to 
bless  her  friends  and  neighbors. 

Since  the  death  of  her  sister,  Mrs.  Dudley  N.  Bushnell,  four  years 
ago,  she  has  made  her  home  where  she  died,  making  frequent  visits  to 
her  own  house  near  by,  where  her  things  remained  in  position 


just  as  she   used   them,   so  many   years.     At  the   ripe   age  of   88,  blind 
and  helpless,  she  quietly  and  peacefully  "fell  asleep  in  Jesus." 

MBS.  ANN  THOMPSON  BURLAND.— Mrs.  Ann  Thompson  Burland,  one 
of  the  oldest  pioneers,  died  at  the  home  of  her  son,  William,  in 
Eckford,  February  7,  1893. 

Deceased  was  born  in  Rickle,  Yorkshire,  England,  November  28, 
1808.  She  sailed  from  England  June,  1830,  with  her  husband  and 
three  little  girls.  Eliza,  now  Mrs.  Henry  Williams,  of  Whitewater, 
Wis.;  Betsey  (deceased),  wife  of  Jas.  Watrous,  of  Marshall;  Ann,  wife 
of  Augustus  Turner,  of  Stanberry,  Mo. 

After  a  long  and  tedious  journey  they  reached  Detroit,  remaining 
there  about  a  year,  during  which  time  a  little  son  was  born  to  them 
who  died  at  that  place.  From  Detroit  they  moved  to  the  farm  known 
as  the  Geo.  Bentley  farm  in  Marshall  township,  where  their  son, 
William,  was  born.  They  next  came  to  Fredonia.  where  Mr.  Burland 
located  a  large  tract  of  land,  he  being  the  first  man  to  break  a  furrow 
in  that  township.  Here  were  born  Alice  (deceased),  wife  of  Wm. 
McCue,  of  Plain  view,  Minn.;  Merenda,  wife  of  John  Brown,  of  St. 
Louis,  Mo. 

They  endured  the  hardships  incident  to  early  pioneer  life  remaining 
at  this  home  until  the  death  of  Mr.  Burland. 

Mrs.  Burland  was  baptized  in  the  Episcopal  church  of  England  and 
was  at  the  time  of  her  death  a  member  of  Trinity  church,  Marshall. 

J.  MARTIN  CALDWELL. — J.  Martin  Caldwell  died  in  Florida,  where 
he  had  gone  for  his  health,  March  8,  1893,  aged  63  years. 

Deceased  was  born  in  Pennsylvania,  September  18,  1829.  He 
removed  to  Michigan  with  his  parents,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Caldwell, 
in  1834,  and  located  in  Verona,  which  was  then  a  rival  of  Battle 
Creek.  Afterwards  the  family  removed  to  Battle  Creek. 

When  about  nineteen  years  of  age,  Mr.  Caldwell  commenced  his 
business  career  as  a  clerk  in  the  drug  store  of  A.  T.  Havens,  where 
the  store  of  E.  R.  Smith  is  now  located.  Mr.  Havens  came  from 
Palmyra,  N.  Y.,  and  had  bought  out  the  drug  stock  of  Beach  &  Taylor. 
In  1843  Mr.  Havens  started  another  drug  store  across  the  street  in 
what  was  known  as  the  old  checkered  building,  where  Preston's  shoe 
store  is  now  located.  Ttye  store  was  run  in  the  name  of  Mr.  Havens' 
brother-in-law,  Franklin  Smith,  but  Mr.  Caldwell  had  charge  of  the 
business.  When  Mr.  Caldwell  left  the  store  of  Mr.  Havens  to  take 
charge  of  the  new  place  of  business,  Mr.  Wm.  Andrus-  took  his  old 
position  and  commenced  his  career  as  a  drug  clerk. 

52  ANNUAL,  MEETING,   1893. 

After  running  this  business  for  several  years  Mr.  Havens  discon- 
tinued the  new  store. 

In  1851,  when  the  gold  fever  had  seized  upon  the  people  of  the 
country  and  all  the  young  men  were  going  to  the  new  Eldorado,  Mr. 
Caldwell  made  the  trip  by  water.  He  remained  in  the  golden  state 
several  years,  engaged  in  mining,  and  then  returned  to  Battle  Creek. 
Upon  his  return  to  Battle  Creek  he  was  married  to  Mrs.  Helen  Parker, 
daughter  of  the  late  John  Nichols. 

He  entered  into  the  boot  and  shoe  business  in  a  building  on  the 
site  of  the  store  now  occupied  by  James  Geddes.  The  firm  was 
Caldwell  &  Galloway.  Charles  Peters  afterwards  bought  the  interest 
of  Mr.  Galloway,  and  the  firm  became  Caldwell  &  Peters.  Subse- 
quently Peters  sold  out  to  Mr.  Caldwell. 

When  the  old  Battle  Creek  House  was  destroyed  by  fire  the 
buildings  on  the  opposite  corner,  one  of  which  was  occupied  by 
Caldwell,  were  also  burned.  He  lost  his  entire  stock.  He  then  moved 
into  the  store  in  the  Andrus  block  now  occupied  by  Jacobs. 

In  April,  1876,  he  moved  into  the  store  now  occupied  by  Harbeck 
&  Livingston  and  continued  in  business  until  May,  1891,  when  he  sold 
out  to  the  above  firm  and  retired  from  business  on  account  of  his 

From  the  above  it  will  be  seen  that  the  deceased  was  not  only  an 
old  pioneer  but  a  prominent  business  man.  He  leaves  a  wife  and  one 
son,  Ned  Caldwell,  two  brothers,  James  T.  and  Josiah,  of  Battle  Creek, 
and  two  sisters,  Mrs.  Al.  Tichenor,  of  Battle  Creek,  and  Mrs.  W.  B. 
Buck,  of  Fort  Wayne,  Ind. 

Deceased  was  a  member  of  the  Athelstan  Club  and  the  American 
Legion  of  Honor. 

MRS.  BETSEY  CROSSETT. — Mrs.  Betsey  Crossett  died  February  10, 
1893,  at  the  residence  of  her  son,  C.  D.  Crossett,  Battle  Creek,  in  the 
100th  year  of  her  age.  Mrs.  Crossett  was  born  in  Washington  county, 
N.  Y.,  on  July  9,  1793,  and  had  she  have  lived  until  July  this  year 
she  would  have  been  100  years  old.  It  is  very  seldom  that  such  age 
is  attained  by  people  whose  faculties  are  unimpaired  and  who 
apparently  enjoy  their  life  in  the  last  stages  as  did  Mrs.  Crossett. 
While  young  she  married  Daniel  Crossett,  and  together  they  lived  a 
pleasant  and  devoted  life.  For  over  fifty  years  Mrs.  Crossett  has  been 
a  widow.  She  was  the  mother  of  four  children,  and  at  the  time  of 
her  death  was  a  member  of  her  oldest  son's  family.  Her  other  children 
are  Mrs.  Betsey  Ann  Lynn,  of  Fredonia,  N.  Y.,  Mrs.  D.  L.  Green,  of 


Chicago,  and  Benjamin  Crossett,  of  Janesville,  Wis.  Deceased  has  been 
a  resident  of  Battle  Creek  for  over  thirty  years,  and  a  member  of  the 
Baptist  church  for  over  eighty-three  years.  She  was  a  great  singer, 
and  the  old  time  hymns  were  on  her  lips  most  of  the  time  while  she 
was  busying  herself  about  her  self  imposed  household  duties.  Her 
love  of  music  was  extraordinarily  good,  and  her  last  years  were  passed 
in  song.  She  had  a  remarkable  voice  for  one  of  her  age.  In  the 
summer,  when  the  weather  has  been  agreeable,  she  took  her  daily 
walk,  and  appeared  to  be  greatly  pleased  and  interested  in  all  the 
improvements  that  came  under  her  observation.  She  had  a  horror  of 
war,  having  lived  through  the  struggles  of  1812  and  1861.  Her  declin- 
ing years  were  truly  a  second  childhood,  and  she  looked  forward  to  the 
future  with  all  the  pleasant  anticipation  that  characterizes  youth.  She 
was  kind,  affectionate,  and  hopeful,  and  all  who  had  the  pleasure  of 
her  acquaintance  will  reverence  her  memory  with  love  and  respect. 

HARVEY  J.  DUBOIS. — In  the  death  of  Harvey  J.  Dubois,  which 
occurred  April  25,  1893,  South  Battle  Creek  loses  its  last  old  pioneer. 

He  was  born  in  Saratoga  county,  N.  Y.,  on  the  5th  of  January, 
1825.  His  parents,  Peter  and  Sallie  Dubois,  together  with  their  three 
children,  Harvey  J.,  James  G.,  and  Esther  M.,  moved  to  Michigan  in 
]836,  and  located  on  a  farm  in  South  Battle  Creek,  where  five  years 
later  a  second  daughter,  Anthenette,  was  born  to  them.  Harvey  was 
eleven  years  of  age  when  he  came  to  this  place,  and  he  has  continued 
to  reside  here  up  to  the  time  of  his  death.  Fifty-seven  years  of  life, 
full  of  lively  interest  known  only  to  early  days  in  Michigan,  coming 
here  among  the  first,  he  has  noted  the  rapid  development  and  its 
present  high  position  among  its  sister  states.  All  this  goes  to  make 
up  such  a  life. 

At  the  age  of  twenty-eight  he  was  married  to  Cynthia  J.  Stickney, 
of  his  native  state.  The  7th  of  April  was  their  40th  marriage 

To  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Dubois  were  born  three  children,  Charlotte  E.,  L. 
Louette,  and  Cayton  H. 

Mr.  Dubois  was  a  successful  farmer,  careful  and  judicious  in  his 
calculations,  keeping  well  the  fertility  of  his  farm,  giving  to  his 
beautiful  home  a  fruitful  and  prosperous  appearance. 

In  politics  he  was  not  partisan.  He  might  be  said  to  be  inde- 
pendent; governed  always  by  what  he  thought  was  right.  All  his 
transactions  in  life  were  honorable  and  upright,  even  in  temper,  not 

54  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

passionate  or  unkind,  with  none  to  point  at  a  single  instance  where  he 
did  them  an  injustice. 

He  was  interested  in  the  welfare  of  his  brother  farmer,  and  was 
zealous  in  bettering  his  condition  as  a  class.  He  joined  the  Grange 
organization  at  the  first,  and  continued  an  active  member  up  to  the 
last  few  years,  retaining  unabating  interest,  but  unable  to  attend  on 
account  of  his  blindness. 

Of  his  family,  his  wife  and  daughter,  Mrs.  L.  Louette  Woods,  her 
husband  and  four  little  grandchildren  are  all  that  remain.  Of  his 
father's  family,  James  G.  Dubois,  of  Battle  Creek,  and  Mrs.  Anthenette 
McCollum,  who  resides  at  Lawrence,  are  all  that  survive. 

MRS.  WILLIAM  Goss. — Chloe  A.  Norton  was  born  in  Connecticut, 
September  27,  1819,  soon  afterward  removing  to  New  York  state.  In 
1836  she  came  with  her  parents  to  Marshall,  Mich.,  and  on  February 
5,  1837,  was  married  to  Wm.  Goss.  The  same  year  they  located  on  a 
farm  two  miles  north  and  east  of  Bellevue,  and  in  1839  purchased  a 
large  farm  in  Convis,  where  they  have  since  resided.  A  large  family 
of  children  came  to  bless  their  home,  only  one  of  whom,  Mrs.  I.  D. 
Brackett,  is  now  living.  Mrs.  Goss  died  February  15,  1893,  aged  73 
years,  4  months,  and  18  days,  having  lived  with  Mr.  Goss  56  years  and 
10  days. 

JAMES  W.  HATCH. — James  W.  Hatch,  a  Calhoun  county  pioneer  of 
of  1836  type,  died  at  his  home  in  Fredonia,  August  16,  1892,  aged  63 
years.  Mr.  Hatch  was  pretty  generally  known,  having  resided  in  the 
county  ever  since  he  first  arrived,  with  the  exception  of  three  years 
which  he  spent  in  California  during  the  gold  fever.  He  was  a  veteran 
of  the  war,  enlisting  in  the  9th  Michigan  infantry  and  was  afterward 
transferred  to  the  18th  Michigan.  He  was  a  prosperous  farmer  and  a 
good  man.  His  aged  wife,  nee  Julia  Austin  of  Clarendon,  survives 
him,  besides  three  sons,  Jesse  M.  of  Marshall,  Geo.  W.  of  Chadron, 
Neb.,  and  Ernest  of  Fredonia;  two  daughters,  Mrs.  Z.  Enos  and  Mrs. 
Stephen  Smith,  both  of  Fredonia,  and  two  sisters,  Mrs.  E.  Marble  of 
Marshall  and  Mrs.  Robert  Starks  of  Fredonia.  Another  daughter,  Mrs. 
Cobb,  died  in  Dakota  about  a  year  ago.  Mr.  Hatch  was  a  devoted 
member  of  the  G.  A.  R. 

SAMUEL  J.  HENDERSON.— Samuel  J.  Henderson  died  at  his  residence 
in  Albion  on  Feb.  21,  1893,  aged  74  years.  This  death,  so  sudden,  so 
unexpected  to  nearly  all  our  citizens,  brought  a  shock  to  the  community, 
and  a  feeling  of  deep  sadness  everywhere.  No  more  familiar  figure 
walked  the  streets  of  our  city  than  Mr.  Henderson.  Bright,  genial, 


companionable,  to  meet  him  was  always  a  pleasant  incident  of  a  walk 
down  the  street. 

He  was  born  at  Royalton,  N.  Y.,  Aug.  25,  1819.  At  the  age  of  twelve 
he  followed  the  tide  of  emigration  from  the  Empire  state  to  the 
wilds  of  Michigan,  and  located  at  Jackson.  At  the  age  of  twenty-five, 
a  carpenter  by  trade,  he  came  to  Albion,  and  resided  here  continuously 
from  that  time  until  his  death. 

Always  a  man  who  participated  in  public  affairs,  he  has  steadily 
held  some  office  or  other  during  his  entire  residence  in  this  city.  For 
more  than  thirty  years  he  was  either  sheriff,  under  sheriff  or  deputy 
sheriff.  He  was  elected  to  the  office  of  sheriff  in  the  fall  of  1880,  and 
served  one  term.  He  was  elected  supervisor  of  the  township  of 
Sheridan  several  times  before  Albion  became  a  city,  and  after  that  was 
continuously  supervisor  of  the  second  ward.  An  old  resident  says  that 
Mr.  Henderson  was  a  member  of  the  Calhoun  county  board  of  super- 
visors, with  scarcely  a  skip,  for  twenty  years. 

Mr.  Henderson  was  married  Nov.  30,  1850,  to  Miss  Julia  E., 
daughter  of  Dr.  Packard.  From  this  union  three  children  were  born. 
Two  of  them,  Seward  and  Ellsworth,  died  at  the  ages  of  two  and  four 
respectively.  The  daughter,  Dora,  is  the  wife  of  J.  Kussell  Sackett,~of 
Saginaw.  Mrs  Henderson  died  June  30,  1874.  May  25,  1883,  he 
married  Miss  Anna  Whapples  who,  with  her  little  daughter  Ethel, 
survives  him.  He  also  leaves  a  brother  and  sister  in  Oakland,  Cal., 
and  a  sister  in  Jackson. 

MRS.  ELIAS  HEWITT. —  The  death  of  Mrs.  Elias  Hewitt,  which 
occurred  at  her  home  in  Marshall  on  Monday,  March  6,  1893,  removes 
a  citizen  who  has  been  closely  identified  with  Marshall  since  an  early 

Mrs.  Hewitt  was  born  in  Cattaraugus  county,  N.  Y.,  April  24,  1819, 
and  was  married  June  10,  1841,  at  Berger,  Genesee  county,  N.  Y. 
Together  with  her  husband  she  removed  to  Michigan  in  1844,  and 
settled  in  Leonidas,  St.  Joseph  county.  In  November,  1846,  she 
settled  in  Marshall  and  lived  there  up  to  the  time  of  her  death. 

She  was  strictly  domestic  in  her  tastes  and  habits  and  deeply 
attached  to  family  and  home.  She  enjoyed  the  love  of  all  who  knew 
her  and  will  not  soon  be  forgotten.  Her  whole  life  was  of  a  Christian 
character  and  she  tried  to  do  good  to  all  around  her  and  especially  to 
her  family.  She  leaves  to  mourn  her  death,  her  husband,  Elias 
Hewitt,  Esquire,  a  daughter,  Mrs.  M.  A.  Blue,  and  a  son,  Chas.  E. 
Hewitt,  of  Detroit. 

56  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

RUSSELL  M.  HOWARD. — Russell  Marshall  Howard,  one  of  the  early 
settlers  of  East  Eckford,  and  a  highly  esteemed  citizen  of  that  locality 
up 'to  a  few  years  ago,  when  he  removed  to  Redfield,  S.  Dakota,  died 
February  18,  1893,  of  diabetes.  The  Redfield  Journal-Observer  says: 

"An  old  and  respected  citizen,  a  kind  and  loving  father  has  gone  1o 
his  rest.  Russell  M.  Howard  was  born  in  Schoharie  county,  N.  Y., 
February  10,  1813,  and  was  just  80  years  and  8  days  old  at  the  time 
of  his  death.  His  boyhood  days  were  spent  in  New  York  state  and  he 
removed  with  fhis  parents  to  Oneida  county,  the  same  state,  and  lived 
there  for  a  number,  of  years.  In  1849  he  decided  to  start  out  into  the 
world  for  himself  and  came  west,  locating  in  Michigan.  He  finally 
settled  down  in  Calhoun  county,  that  state.  In  1850  he  was  married 
to  -Emeline  Morse,  who  died  here  in  October,  1889.  He  came  to 
Dakota  in  January,  1883,  and  located  in  Redfield.  Shortly  afterward 
he  took  up  a  homestead  in  Faulk  county,  which  he  finally  transferred 
to  his  only  surviving  daughter,  Mrs.  W.  H.  Smith,  of  Faulk  county. 

"Mr.  Howard  always  took  a  great  deal  of  interest  in  the  political 
affairs  of  the  nation.  He  was  one  of  the  original  old  line  whigs, 
having  been  one  of  the  first  in  the  organization  of  the  republican 
party  in  Michigan. 

"  He  had  been  in  failing  health  ever  since  the  death  of  .his  faithful 
companion  of  many  years,  whose  loss  he  keenly  felt  because  of  physi- 
cal infirmities. 

"As  the  junior  member  of  Hatch  &  Howard,  he  has  been  in 
business  here  for  some  years,  though  not  actively  engaged  about  the 

"  He  leaves  a  daughter  and  son  to  mourn  his  loss,  the  former,  Mrs. 
W.  H.  Smith,  of  Faulk  county,  and  Chas.  T.  Howard  our  honored 

MRS.  JANE  I.  HUBBARD. — Jane  Ives  Hubbard,  wife  of  Deacon  C.  B. 
Hubbard,  died  at  her  home  in  Battle  Creek,  May  2,  1893.  Deceased 
was  born  January  16,  1812,  and  was  in  the  eighty-second  year  of  her 
age.  She  has  been  a  resident  of  this  community  since  1842.  She 
leaves  four  children:  H.  H.  Hubbard  and  Mrs.  Mary  Sherman,  of 
Battle  Creek;  Dan.  J.  Hubbard  and  Mrs.  T.  B.  Simons,  of  Chicago. 

DAVID  JEFFERY. — David  Jeffery  died  at  his  home  in  Marengo,  Mich., 
September  15,  1892,  aged  67  years,  10  months,  and  22  days.  He  was 
born  in  Warwickshire,  Eng.,  October  22,  1824,  came  to  New  York  in 
1844  and  to  Marengo  in  1845,  where  he  has  since  resided.  Mr.  Jeffery 
was  a  man  of  sterling  worth,  honest  purpose,  and  strong  will,  possess- 


ing  all  the  essentials  of  a  good  citizen,  neighbor  and  friend,  and  as 
such  will  be  greatly  missed.  He  leaves  a  wife,  one  son,  Allen  D.,  and 
two  daughters,  Misses  Ada  and  Silian  G.,  to  mourn  their  loss. 

DK.  HENRY  L.  JOY. — Dr.  Henry  L.  Joy  died  very  suddenly  at  his 
home  in  Marshall,  June  21,  1892. 

Dr.  Joy  was  born  amid  the  beautiful  Swiss  scenery  of  western  New 
York  at  Ludlowville,  on  the  shores  of  Cayuga  lake,  January  25,  1822. 
He  came  of  sturdy  New  England  stock,  his  remote  ancestor,  Thomas 
Joy,  emigrating  from  Hingham,  Norfolk  Co.,  England,  with  Winthrop 
in  1630. 

His  father,  Arad  Joy,  was  a  leading  citizen  of  western  New  York,  a 
man  of  very  marked  traits  of  character,  who  gave  to  all  his  children 
the  highest  educational  advantages  to  be  obtained  in  this  country  and 
at  foreign  universities. 

Dr.  Henry  L.  Joy  was  educated  at  the  Ovid  academy  and  at  the 
celebrated  school  at  Lenox,  Mass.,  and  took  a  four  years  literary 
course  at  Union  college,  receiving  his  decree  of  B.  A.  from  that  greatest 
of  college  presidents,  Dr.  Eliphalet  Nott,  in  1844.  While  at  Union 
college  he  not  only  held  a  good  rank  in  his  studies  but  he  was  a  prime 
social  favorite,  being  elected  to  the  highest  office  in  the  society  of 
which  he  was  a  member.  After  the  completion  of  his  literary  course 
he  commenced  the  study  of  medicine  at  Bellevue  Medical  college,  New 
York  City,  from  which  institution  he  went  to  the  Jefferson  Medical 
college  of  Philadelphia,  at  that  time  with  a  reputation  by  far  the 
highest  and  a  faculty  the  ablest  in  this  country,  where  he  took  his 
degree  of  M.  D.,  March  28,  1849.  After  practicing  for  a  short  time  in 
what  is  now  upper  New  York  City,  he  came  to  Marshall  in  the  fall  of 
1849,  where,  with  the  exception  of  six  months  in  the  winter  of  1859 
spent  in  study  in  the  hospitals  of  New  York  City,  he  has  continued 
since  to  practice  with  eminent  success  his  profession. 

On  April  16,  1851.  at  St.  John's  church,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  by  Rev.  M. 
Schuyler,  he  was  married  to  Caroline  Schuyler,  youngest  daughter  of 
Anthony  Day  Schuyler. 

Though  unambitious  for  official  place  and  of  a  most  retiring  disposi- 
tion, Dr.  Joy  always  took  an  active  interest  in  public  affairs,  being 
elected  to  the  office  of  alderman  and  mayor  of  Marshall  and  was  for 
many  terms  and  at  the  time  of  his  death,  health  officer  of  the  city. 

He  was  also  at  different  times  president  of  the  United  States  pension 
examining  board,  president  of  the  Calhoun  county  Medical  society  and 
member  of  the  State  Medical  society  of  Michigan,  and  the  National 


58  ANNUAL,  MEETING,   1893. 

Academy  of  Medicine.  Though  not  a  communicant,  he  was  during  all 
his  life  in  Marshall  an  active  supporter  of  Trinity  church  and  for  some 
years  a  vestryman. 

Dr.  Joy  was  by  nature  gifted  with  a  clear  strong  mind,  and  was 
always  a  great  reader,  student  and  thinker,  not  only  in  his  own 
profession,  but  in  all  the  fields  of  thought.  He  was  broad,  generous 
and  ever  charitable  in  his  judgments  of  his  fellow  men,  viewing  with 
pain  their  weaknesses  and  loving  to  dwell  upon  the  bright  and  good 
side  of  every  man's  nature. 

Dr.  Joy  had  five  sons,  of  which  Dr.  Douglas  A.  Joy  died  in  his 
bright  promising  young  manhood  five  years  ago.  He  leaves  his  wife 
and  four  sons,  Clarence,  Louis,  Charles,  and  Philip,  all  of  whom  are 
living  at  the  old  home. 

GEOKGE  E.  LAWTON. — Died  at  his  residence  in  the  town  of  Pennfield, 
October  11,  1892,  George  E.  Lawton,  of  general  debility.  Deceased 
was  born  in  the  town  of  Ledyard,  Cayuga  county,  N.  Y.,  October  19, 
1814,  where  he  lived  until  the  fall  of  1836,  when  he  came  to  Ann 
Arbor,  this  State;  was  soon  after  married  to  Miss  Sally  Benhani  and 
settled  on  a  farm  near  Ann  Arbor;  removed  from  there  to  Battle 
Creek  in  1865.  Soon  after  he  purchased  a  farm  in  the  town  of 
Pennfield,  where  he  resided  until  his  removal  by  death  to  join  the 
great  majority. 

JOSIAH  LEPPEE. — In  the  death  of  Josiah  Lepper,  which  occurred  at 
his  home  on  September  10,  1892,  Marshall  loses  one  of  the  men  that 
has  been  identified  with  its  history  since  the  early  days  of  1832.  In 
that  year  Mr.  Lepper  arrived  here  and  a  year  or  so  later  settled  on 
the  land  which  is  now  the  fine  farm  of  J.  E.  Bentley,  just  north  of 
the  city.  In  1835  he  went  east  and  married  Miss  Charlotte  Haskin,  of 
New  York  state,  and  in  1836  returned  here  with  his  wife.  In  com- 
pany with  Lansing  Kingsbury  Mr.  Lepper  bought  of  Sidney  Ketchum 
a  portion  of  the  Rice  Creek  water  power,  including  a  half  acre  of  land, 
between  the  present  malt  house  site  and  the  creek,  for  $750,  and  there 
they  built  the  first  furnace  the  county  ever  had,  making  a  specialty  of 
manufacturing  castings  for  "  breaking-up"  plows.  They  hauled  their 
coal  all  the  way  from  Detroit.  Mr.  Lepper  was  in  business  in  1855  a 
few  months  with  the  late  Geo.  B.  Murray  and  in  1858  with  S.  V.  E. 
Lepper  he  engaged  in  the  dry  goods  business,  which  was  continued  up 
to  the  time  the  firm  sold  out  to  H.  M.  &  P.  Hempsted  some  fifteen 
years  ago.  From  an  early  day  up  to  the  fifties  Mr.  Lepper  continuously 


operated  a  brick  yard,  and  was  the  first  man  to  engage  in  that  line  in 
the  county.  The  brick  for  the  Baptist  church,  the  Marshall  House  and 
other  pioneer  structures  came  from  his  yard.  He  was  a  whig  up  to 
the  organization  of  the  republican  party,  of  which  he  became  a 
member,  and  it  was  a  matter  of  considerable  pride  to  him  that  he 
never  missed  voting  at  a  general .  election  of  any  kind.  Mr.  Lepper 
was  83  years  old. 

MRS.  EPHRAIM  MARBLE. — Mrs.  Ephraim  Marble  died  February  9, 
1893,  at  her  home  in  Marshall. 

Mrs.  Marble  was  a  daughter  of  Y.  M.  Hatch,  a  native  of  Con- 
necticut. Her  grandfather,  Timothy  Hatch,  was  also  a  native  of  that 
New  England  state  and  was  a  soldier  of  the  Revolution.  He  removed 
from  Connecticut  to  Cayuga  Co.,  N.  Y.,  where  he  was  a  farmer  until 
his  demise. 

Y.  M.  Hatch  carried  on  farming  in  New  York  until  1837,  when  he 
brought  his  family  to  Michigan  and  bought  land  in  Clarence  township, 
this  county,  thus  becoming  one  of  its  earliest  settlers.  He  built  in  the 
woods  and  clearing  the  land  around  him,  improved  a  choice  farm  and 
became  one  of  the  most  successful  farmers  of  his  community.  His 
wife,  who  bore  the  maiden  name  of  Hannah  Swift,  was  a  very  energetic 
woman  and  had  much  to  do  with  his  success. 

Mrs.  Marble  was  the  eldest  of  five  children  and  was  born  in  the 
township  of  Wolcott,  Cayuga  county,  N.  Y.,  Dec.  2,  1825.  She  was 
twelve  years  old  when  the  family  came  to  Michigan  and  has  been  a 
witness  of  most  of  the  growth  of  Calhoun  county.  She  was  given 
superior  educational  advantages,  pursuing  a  good  course  of  study  in  a 
select  school  at  Marshall  and  later  at  Olivet  institute.  She  was  but 
sixteen  years  old  when  she  began  teaching  and  followed  that  profes- 
sion some  eight  years.  December  6,  1849,  she  was  united  in  marriage 
with  Ephraim  Marble  who  one  year  before  had  returned  from  serving 
his  country  in  the  Mexican  war.  Five  children  were  born  to  them  all 
of  whom  have  grown  to  manhood  and  womanhood. 

Possessing  true  culture  and  refinement  she  understood  the  art  of 
making  her  home  beautiful  and  attractive.  While  her  husband  was 
fighting  his  country's  battles  during  the  late  civil  war,  she  was  left 
alone  with  the  care  of  four  small  children.  In  that  trying  situation 
she  showed  no  small  business  ability  in  looking  after  the  farm  and 
financial  interests,  and  bravely  endured  the  constant  anxiety  for  her 
husband.  Her  character  and  training  united  with  a  loving  disposition 

60  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

made    her    a    devoted    wife,    an    affectionate    mother,    and    a   kind    and 
sympathizing  friend  and  neighbor. 

SAMUEL  W.  McCREA. — Samuel  W.  McCrea  died  at  his  home  in 
Battle  Creek,  March  14,  1893.  Mr.  McCrea  was  born  April  18,  1819, 
at  Ballston  Springs,  Saratoga  county,  N.  Y.  When  12  years  old  his 
father,  who  was  a  Presbyterian  minister,  moved  with  his  family  to 
Dover,  Ohio,  and  afterward  to  Westfield,  Medina  county,  Ohio,  where  his 
mother  died.  While  the  family  were  living  in  Ohio,  Mr.  McCrea  was 
sent  to  Poughkeepsie,  N.  Y.,  where  he  received  his  schooling. 
.  August  7,  1846,  he  was  married  to  Miss  Frances  M.  Porter,  at  Mt. 
Jackson,  Pa.  In  April,  1847,  he  removed  to  Battle  Creek  and  engaged 
in  the  manufacture  of  hats  with  a  Mr.  Winters.  The  next  spring  he 
bought  out  a  stock  of  groceries  of  Charles  Lyon  and  embarked  in  that 
business.  Subsequently  he  bought  out  Wm.  H.  Coleman's  interest  in 
the  dry  goods  firm  of  Coleman  &  Brinkerhoff,  and  conducted  the  dry 
goods  in  connection  with  the  grocery  business. 

In  company  with  George  Morton,  Mr.  McCrea  built  a  block  in 
Decatur,  Illinois,  and  started  a  grocery  store,  putting  it  in  charge  of 
Fred  Parker.  Subsequently  Mr.  McCrea  went  to  Decatur,  when  his 
building  and  stock  were  destroyed  by  fire. 

Mr.  McCrea  was  for  a  time  in  St.  Paul,  Minn.,  and  in  Leavenworth, 
Kan.  In  1859  he  returned  permanently  to  Battle  Creek  and  bought 
Wm.  Kaymond's  interest  in  ,the  grocery  store  of  Eaymond  &  Sweet, 
located  in  a  building  on  the  site  of  L.  Strauss'  store.  Subsequently 
he  bought  the  interest  of  Lucius  Sweet,  and  conducted  the  business 
alone.  When  the  old  Battle  Creek  House  was  burned  the  flames  swept 
across  the  street  and  destroyed  the  building  and  stock  of  Mr.  McCrea. 
After  the  fire  he  moved  into  the  old  Angell  building  where  Trump  is 
now  located.  From  there  he  moved  to  South  Jefferson  street  in  the 
store  adjacent  to  Caldwell  &  Baker's;  thence  into  the  store  now 
occupied  by  Preston;  thence  into  the  store  now  occupied  by  Reynolds 
&  Ashley.  He  continued  in  the  grocery  business  for  seventeen  years 
in  the  last  store. 

On  May  16,  1891,  he  retired  from  business  permanently  selling  his 
grocery  to  two  of  his  clerks,  Reynolds  &  Ashley. 

Deceased  took  interest  in  the  welfare  and  prosperity  of  our  city  and 
in  1878-9  was  alderman  from  the  fourth  ward,  and  during  his  term  of 
office  served  the  city  well  and  faithfully. 

He  was  a  man  of  good  business  ability,  sterling  integrity  and 
honesty,  a  worthy  citizen  and  a  kind  and  affectionate  husband  and 


He  leaves  a  wife  and  three  children,  John  W.  and  Miss  Ida  McCrea, 
of  Battle  Creek,  and  Harry  McCrea,  of  Denver,  Col. 

H.  G.  MONROE. — H.  G.  Monroe  died  April  8,  1893,  at  the  home  of 
his  son  in  LeRoy,  aged  83  years. 

Mr.  Monroe  came  from  New  York  to  Detroit  56  years  before;  from 
Detroit  he  went  to  Prairieville  on  horseback,  and  settled  at  South 
Haven,  being  the  first  white  settler  at  that  place. 

MRS.  ORLIN  PUTNAM.— Mrs.  Orlin  Putnam  died  at  her  home  in 
Eckford,  March  — ,  1893,  aged  78  years. 

She  was  born  in  Rome,  Oneida  county,  N.  Y.,  June  6,  1815,  her 
maiden  name  being  Brown.  In  1837  she  came  with  her  parents  to 
Michigan,  locating  in  Clarendon,  and  in  the  year  following  was  united 
in  marriage  to  Mr.  Putnam. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Putnam  resided  in  Clarendon  until  1856,  when  they 
removed  to  the  farm  in  Eckford  where  she  lived  to  the  time  of  her 

She  was  the^  mother  of  nine  children,  six  sons  and  three  daughters, 
all  of  whom,  with  her  husband,  survive  her.  The  children  are  Charles, 
Frank,  George,  Henry,  John,  Edwin,  Louana,  now  Mrs.  Griggs,  Fanny, 
now  Mrs.  Van  Buren,  Eliza,  now  Mrs.  Pandy. 

MRS.  FIDELIA  REED. — Mrs.  Fidelia  Reed,  widow  of  the  late  Asa  W. 
Reed,  died  at  her  home  in  Albion,  on  February  15,  1893,  in  her 
sixty-fifth  year.  Mrs.  Reed  came  to  reside  in  the  township  of  Sheridan 
as  early  as  1836.  She  was  married  to  Asa  W.  Reed  nearly  fifty  years 
ago.  They  lived  together  in  Sheridan  until  last  August,  when  he  died. 
She  then  moved  into  Albion.  She  leaves  a  sister,  two  brothers,  seven 
sons  and  two  daughters.  One  of  the  sons,  Prof.  M.  O.  Reed,  is 
teaching  at  Deer  Lodge,  Mont. 

WM.  T.  SHAFER. — Wm.  T.  Shafer,  one  of  the  pioneers  of  Battle 
Creek,  died  at  his  home,  March  9,  1893,  of  heart  trouble.  He  had 
been  sick  only  three  weeks  and  his  death  was  entirely  unexpected  by 
his  friends.  He  was  born  in  the  state  of  New  York,  September  19, 
1822,  consequently  was  in  the  seventy-first  year  of  his  age.  He  worked 
for  Nichols  &  Shepard  when  that  firm  was  located  in  Marshall  and 
removed  with  them  to  Battle  Creek  in  1848,  and  has  since  been  a 
resident  of  that  city.  He  assisted  in  the  building  of  the  Nichols  & 
Shepard  shops  on  West  Canal  street  now  occupied  by  V.  C.  Wattles 
and  worked  for  that  firm  for  many  years.  For  a  number  of  years  past 
he  has  been  engaged  in  doing  city  teaming.  He  leaves  a  wife,  one 

62  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

daughter,  Mrs.  Ida  A.  Damoth,  and    one    son,    W.  R.    Shafer,    both  of 
Battle  Creek. 

JULIUS  A.  SQUIEB. — Julius  A.  Squier  died  at  his  home  in  Battle 
Creek,  June  2,  1893. 

He  was  born  in  New  York  state  and  was  65  years  of  age. 

He  was  a  private  in  Co.  I,  eleventh  Michigan  Infantry  and  was  an 
active  member  of  Farragut  Post  No.  32,  G.  A.  R. 

For  many  years  he  was  engaged  in  the  ice  business  in  Battle  Creek, 
and  was  well  known  and  highly  esteemed.  He  leaves  a  wife  and  one 
son,  Arthur. 

WALLACE  W.  STILLSON. — Wallace  W.  Stillson  died  at  his  home  in 
Battle  Creek,  March  6,  1893,  aged  52  years. 

Deceased  was  born  in  Keating,  Pa.,  April  28,  1841,  and  moved  with 
his  parents  at  an  early  age  to  Michigan.  February  18,  1862,  he  was 
married  to  Miss  Amelia  Nichols,  and  soon  afterward  enlisted  in  Co.  C, 
21st  Michigan  Infantry,  and  served  three  years  honorably  and  merito- 
riously. He  was  in  the  employ  of  Nichols  &  Shepard  £fo.  for  twenty- 
five  years,  twenty  years  of  which  time  he  was  foreman  of  the  engine 
paint  shop.  He  served  in  the  old  volunteer  fire  department  of  Battle 
Creek,  being  a  member  of  Union  hose  company  No.  1,  and  a  member 
of  the  running  team.  He  was  a  member  of  Farragut  Post  No.  32,  G. 
A.  R.,  Security  Lodge  No.  44,  A.  O.  U.  W.,  Battle  Creek  Lodge, 
Modern  Woodmen  of  America,  and  the  Vibrator  Workingmen's  Society. 

Deceased  leaves  a  wife  and  three  children,  Fred  C.,  Helen,  and 
Wallie  W. 

MRS.  HENRIETTA  C.  THOMPSON. — Mrs.  Henrietta  C.  Thompson  was 
born  in  Lyons  county,  N.  Y.,  April  29,  1817  and  entered  into  rest  at 
the  home  of  her  daughter,  Mrs.  Odekirk,  Homer,  Sunday  evening, 
January  22,  1893. 

Her  maiden  name  was  Thorp.  In  1837  she  was  united  in  marriage 
to  James  Thompson  and  removed  with  him  to  Port  Gibson,  New  York. 
Six  children  blessed  their  union,  three  of  whom  survive.  In  1866  they 
came  to  Homer  where  she  has  since  resided.  She  was  converted  in 
1836  and  united  with  the  Methodist  Episcopal  church,  of  which  she 
continued  a  true  and  faithful  member  until  transferred  to  the  church 
triumphant.  Fifty-seven  years  a  Christian,  her  faith  grew  stronger  and 
brighter  through  all  life's  added  years. 

Her  life  work  is  done,  but  her    influence   still    lives  and  the  memory 


of  her  consecrated  life  is   embalmed   in   the   hearts    of   her   loved   ones 
and  friends. 

KEV.  IRA  K.  A.  WIGHTMAN. — Eev.  Ira  A.  Wightman,  for  the  past 
six  years  presiding  elder  of  the  Albion  district  of  the  Michigan 
Conference,  died  at  his  home  in  Albion,  December  10,  1892.  The 
immediate  cause  of  his  death  was  heart  failure. 

Ira  E.  A.  Wightman  was  born  at  Trenton,  N.  J.,  March  30,  1836. 
He  was  a  well  educated  and  self-made  man,  as  shown  by  the  fact  that 
his  school  life  was  limited  \o  six  terms.  He  was  converted  and  joined 
the  M.  E.  church  at  Frankfort,  N.  Y.,  in  September,  1854.  He  came 
to  Michigan  in  April,  1855,  and  was  licensed  as  an  exhortor  the  next 
year.  He  obtained  a  license  as  a  local  preacher  at  Holly,  June  15, 
1856,  and  was  ordained  a  deacon  at  Battle  Creek  by  Bishop  E.  R. 
Ames  October  6,  1861.  He  was  ordained  an  elder  at  Hillsdale, 
September  9,  1863,  by  Bishop  M.  Simpson.  He  was  married  to 
Harriet  A.  Barnard,  November  30,  1862.  Three  sons  and  one  daughter 
resulted  from  this  marriage,  all  of  whom,  with  the  mother,  survive 
him.  The  deceased  had  made  Albion  his  home  for  the  past  six  years, 
coming  from  Niles,  where  he  held  a  three  years'  appointment. 

EDWIN  WILLIAMS. — Edwin  Williams,  an  old  resident  of  Homer,  died 
December  29,  1892,  at  the  home  of  his  daughter,  Mrs.  Albert  Laker. 

Mr.  Williams  was  born  at  Great  Barrington,  Mass.,  November  25, 
1814.  When  seven  years  of  age  he  came  with  his  parents  to  New 
York  state,  where  he  lived  until  he  came  to  Michigan  43  years  ago. 

Two  sons  and  a  daughter  survive  him,  Erastus,  who  resides  at 
Allegan;  Willard,  whose  home  is  in  Butler,  and  Mrs.  Albert  Laker,  of 

A.  J.  VAN  DUSEN. — A.  J.  Van  Dusen,  a  son  of  Jacob  Van  Dusen, 
was  born  at  Canajoharie,  Montgomery  county,  N.  Y.,  July  12,  1813. 
Death  came  February  25,  1893,  at  the  age  of  79  years,  7  months  and 
13  days. 

In  the  spring  when  but  19  years  old,  Mr.  Van  Dusen  came  to 
Michigan,  settling  then  at  Augusta,  Kalamazoo  county,  where  he 
remained  until  he  moved  to  Marshall  55  years  ago.  When  but  twenty 
years  old  he  was  married  to  Miss  Hannah  Austin,  of  Galesburgh,  Mich. 
To  this  union  was  born  their  only  son,  Jerry  Van  Dusen,  whose  death 
less  than  a  year  ago  was  a  great  shock  to  his  father.  The  death  of 
his  first  wife  occurred  thirteen  years  ago. 

He  has  owned,  bought,  and   sold   twenty-seven   houses   in  the  city  of 

64  ANNUAL,  MEETING,   1893. 

Marshall.  He  was  united  in  marriage  to  his  second  wife,  Miss  Cicely 
C.  Perkins,  of  Beloit,  Wis.,  September  17,  1882,  who  now  is  the 
widow;  also  of  those  to  mourn,  there  are  three  grandsons,  with  their 
mother,  the  widow  of  the  late  Jerry  Van  Dusen.  Two  brothers  of  the 
deceased  are  yet  living,  residing,  so  far  as  is  known,  in  New  York 
state.  Joseph  Van  Dusen  is  in  the  old  home  in  Charleston,  N.  Y., 
where  his  father  resided  until  death. 

JOHN  P.  VANHORN. — John  P.  VanHorn,  engineer  on  the  Michigan 
Central  railroad,  who  died  at  his  home  in  Marshall  August  16,  1892, 
was  born  in  Marshall,  Calhoun  county,  Mich.,  August  18,  1842,  and 
was  the  son  of  John  A.  and  Mary  Ann  (Clemments)  VanHorn;  father 
a  native  of  Germany  and  a  pioneer  of  Calhoun  county;  mother  a 
native  of  Vermont.  Mr.  VanHorn  was  raised  on  a  farm,  working 
summers  and  attending  school  winters.  When  17  years  of  age  he  went 
to  Niles  where  he  worked  driving  dray,  and  in  1863  commenced  on 
railroad  as  fireman;  in  1867  was  promoted  to  engineer,  which  position 
he  filled  up  to  the  time  of  his  death.  Since  he  took  charge  of  an 
engine  he  never  injured  a  passenger  or  pinched  a  brakeman's  fingers. 
He  married  Miss  Sarah  Davis,  daughter  of  William  Davis,  of  Niles, 
Mich.  There  were  two  children,  Charles,  born  November  21,  1868,  and 
John  R.,  born  July  19,  1872.  Mrs.  VanHorn's  parents  were  also  early 
settlers  of  Michigan.  Mr.  VanHorn  was  a  member  of  Jackson  lodge 
No.  17. 

MRS.  CATHARINE  W.  VANTUYLE. — The  subject  of  this  article,  Mrs.  C. 
W.  VanTuyle,  finished  her  earthly  career  at  her  late  home  near 
Crowville,  La.,  September  27,  1892,  in  her  forty-eighth  year.  She  was 
born  December  18,  1844,  in  Scipio,  Hillsdale  county,  Mich.,  and  at 
seven  years  of  age  came  with  her  father's  (Wm.  Minor)  family  to 
Battle  Creek  township,  in  the  neighborhood  now  known  as  "  North 
Le  Hoy,"  where  she  remained  a  citizen  over  forty  years  until  in 
November,  1890,  when  they  went  south.  Twenty-nine  years  ago  she 
was  married  to  James  W.  VanTuyle,  who  with  four  sons  and  two 
daughters  remain  to  realize  their  loss.  Her  sons,  James  C.,  George  C. 
and  Wayne  D.,  are  in  Battle  Creek  township  and  city.  Mrs.  Ruby 
Cole,  Willie,  and  Irene  VanTuyle  are  still  in  Louisiana.  Her  brother, 
E.  H.  Minor,  of  North  Le  Roy,  now  owns  the  old  homestead  where 
her  childhood  and  school  days  were  passed,  and  from  which  she  went 
a  bride,  into  a  new  home  across  the  way.  Her  oldest  child,  Freddie, 
while  in  infancy,  preceded  her  to  the  heavenly  home.  In  early  life 


she  embraced  Christianity,  and  was  ever  active  in  every  good  work. 
She  was  the  founder  of  the  North  Le  Roy  Missionary  society  and  a 
prominent  member  of  the  Farmers'  Alliance  and  of  the  Methodist 



DR.  LEVI  ALDRICH. — Dr.  Levi  Aldrich  died  at  Edwardsburgh, 
December  16,  1892,  aged  73  years.  He  several  times  represented  Cass 
county  in  the  State  legislature  and  was  a  member  of  the  constitutional 
convention  of  1867. 

MRS.  RACHEL  BYRON. — Mrs.  Rachel  Byron  died  in  Detroit  March  16, 
1893,  at  the  home  of  her  daughter,  Mrs.  Julia  Gates,  in  the  86th  year 
of  her  age. 

Mrs.  Byron  was  the  mother  of  our  friend  and  townsman,  John 
Tietsort  (of  whom  a  sketch  is  also  found  in  this  report). 

She  was  first  married  to  Abram  Tietsort,  Jr.,  in  1826.  By  this 
marriage  she  had  six  children,  five  of  whom  are  now  living,  viz.,  John, 
Julia,  Perry,  Ira,  and  Wesley;  and,  so  far  as  is  known,  Julia  was  the 
second  white  female  child  born  in  Cass  county. 

Mrs.  Byron's  second  marriage,  to  the  Rev.  Joseph  Byron,  of  the  M. 
E.  church,  occurred  in  1841.  The  offspring  of  this  marriage  was  four 
children,  viz.,  Melissa,  Linnie,  Elizabeth,  and  Joseph  Edgar. 

Few,  if  any  of  the  pioneers  of  this  county  now  living,  can  recount 
so  many  stirring  events  in  the  history  of  southwestern  Michigan  as 
could  Mrs.  Byron  in  her  life  time. 

In  1831  she  settled  with  her  then  husband,  Abram  Tietsort,  Jr.,  on 
the  east  bank  of  Stone  lake,  but  a  few  rods  north  of  where  the  bowl 
factory  now  stands.  Then  the  country  was  in  possession  of  wild  beasts 
and  savages,  who  roamed  at  will  through  its  forests,  and  over  its 
plains,  lakes,  and  rivers,  claiming  title  direct  from  the  Great  Spirit. 
Then  dense  forests  nearly  surrounded  Cassopolis  and  covered  the  site 
of  this  capitol  of  Cass  county.  Then  the  howl  of  the  wolf,  and  the 
barking  of  the  fox  furnished  music  to  the  early  settlers,  as  each  day's 

66  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

sun  went  down;  and  the  fleet,  timid  movements  of  herds  of  deer  as 
they  came  to  view  the  settlers'  cabins,  were  suggestive  of  juicy  venison 
steak  to  eat  with  hominy,  when  the  hard  day's  work  was  done.  Too 
much  cannot  be  said  in  behalf  of  those  sturdy  pioneers,  men  and 
women,  who  first  settled  in  southwestern  Michigan. 

"Their  rough  log  cabins!  in  fancy  I  see  them  still; 
And  old  memories  rush  up  to  tell  me,  I  always  will. 
Many  privations;  trials,  harrassing  doubts  and  fears 
Came  o'er  them:  tried  their  metal  almost  to  tears; 
Who  then  believed  this  nursery  of  stalwart  men; 
Would  soon  develop  into  a  State  so  grand?    No  one,  then." 

As  one  of  this  class,  Mrs.  Byron  performed  her  duties  well  and 
faithfully  in  those  early  days.  Whether  as  wife,  mother,  or  friend, 
she  stood  high  in  the  esteem  of  all  who  became  acquainted  with  her, 
or  shared  with  her  the  hardships  incident  to  pioneer  life.  All  loved 
her  for  those  high  social  qualities  which  go  far  to  lighten  the  burdens 
of  human  existence;  and  now  that  she  has  gone  from  among  us,  we 
can  do  no  less  than  reverently  invoke  God's  blessings  upon  her,  and 
those  of  her  offspring  she  left  behind. 

MRS.  MINERVA  B.  DUNNING. — Minerva  Reynolds  was  born  November 
13,  1803,  in  the  township  of  Lansing,  Tompkins  county,  N.  Y. 
January  12,  1824,  she  was  united  in  marriage  with  Allen  Dunning,  in 
the  township  of  Scipio,  Cayuga  county,  N.  Y.,  who  was  the  first  white 
child  born  in  that  township.  Immediately  after  their  marriage  they 
settled  in  Erie  county,  Pennsylvania,  where  Mr.  Dunning  had 
previously  located  land  and  erected  a  log  house  for  the  reception  of 
his  bride.  There  they  passed  the  first  twelve  years  of  their  married 
life,  when  attracted  by  the  opportunities  of  the  then  far  west  they 
removed  to  Michigan,  arriving  at  Edwardsburgh  in  July,  1836.  This 
country  was  then  enjoying  what  would  now  be  called  a  "  boom,"  and 
they  paid  $7  an  acre  to  John  Hudson  for  his  location  on  section  11, 
which  he  had  located  and  bought  from  the  government  in  1830.  This 
is  the  same  farm  where  her  husband  died  on  the  10th  of  December, 
1869,  and  where  she  lived  until  her  death.  She  was  the  mother  of 
twelve^  children,  five  daughters  and  seven  sons,  four  daughters  and  five 
sons  survive  her,  all  of  whom  were  present  at  the  funeral  except  one 
daughter,  who  is  in  ill  health.  The  deceased  in  her  early  years  was  a 
member  of  the  Christian  church,  but  her  husband  being  a  firm 
believer  in  the  final  restitution  of  all  souls,  she  joined  with  him  in 


opening  their  doors  to  that  blessed  doctrine.  She  died  on  the  morning 
of  the  3 1st  of  March,  1893,  aged  89  years,  4  months,  and  17  days. 

The  home  was  one  of  unbounded  hospitality,  and  in  an  early  day 
was  known  far  and  wide  as  a  place  from  which  none  were  ever 
suffered  to  go  away  hungry,  disconsolate  or  uncomforted.  It  was 
especially  known  as  an  asylum  and  recruiting  station  for  traveling 
Universalist  preachers,  and  many  of  the  most  eminent  divines  of  that 
church  have  found  hearty  welcome  beneath  its  roof,  where  they 
frequently  held  services,  proclaiming  the  everlasting  and  universal 
redemption  of  all  mankind,  to  those  who  were  tired  of  the  narrow 
dogmas  of  partial  salvation  of  the  other  churches.  In  a  history  of 
Cass  county,  published  in  1882,  the  author  speaks  of  the  deceased  and 
their  large  family,  as  follows: 

"Mrs.  Dunning  laughingly  recalls  the  time  when  numerous  heads 
appeared  at  every  available  opening  in  the  house  to  view  the  passing 
stranger;  but  on  the  same  principle  that  many  hands  make  light  work, 
many  happy  hearts  make  a  happy  home,  and  this  certainly  was  one; 
as  much  so  in  those  early  days,  when  deprived  of  the  many  now 
considered  indispensable  adjuncts  of  the  house,  as  when  in  later  years 
they  became  possessed  of  them.  All  who  met  Mrs.  Dunning  were 
charmed  with  her  kindly  manner  and  pleasantly  beaming  countenance, 
and  it  is  no  subject  of  wonder  that  their  house  was  seldom  without 
visitors,  either  friends  or  strangers." 

MRS.  JULIA  ANN  HALL. — Julia  Ann  Carr  was  born  at  Albion,  N. 
Y.,  June  28,  1818.  In  1835  she  was  married  to  Orville  B.  Glover, 
and  with  him  came  to  Michigan  and  settled  in  Edwardsburgh  in  1840, 
where  she  and  her  husband  united  with  the  Presbyterian  church 
while  the  late  Rev.  Alfred  Bryant  was  its  pastor.  She  was  the  mother 
of  five  children,  Harrison,  who  died  about  seventeen  years  ago,  Lowell 
H.,  Jay,  Tamerson,  the  wife  of  Geo.  W.  Merrill,  and  William.  Her 
husband  died  in  1852,  leaving  her  with  these  children,  the  oldest  being 
but  fifteen;  but  she  cared  for  them  and  kept  them  together  until  they 
were  old  enough  to  care  for  themselves.  In  1856  she  was  married  to 
John  Earle,  who  after  two  years  left  her  again  a  widow.  In  the  early 
part  of  1861  she  was  married  to  Henry  J.  Hall,  and  went  with  him  to 
his  home  in  Buchanan,  where  she  resided  until  her  departure  May  6, 
1893.  Mr.  Hall  died  in  1885,  and  since  that  time  she  had  lived  with 
her  daughter.  She  leaves  two  sisters,  Mrs.  Jane  Jerome  of  Laporte, 
and  Mrs.  Nancy  B.  Noyes  of  Edwardsburgh,  and  one  brother,  John  P. 
Carr,  of  South  Bend,  five  grandchildren,  and  two  great-grandchildren. 

68  ANNUAL,  MEETING,  1893. 

She  was  a  plain  woman  and  very  domestic,  caring  more  for  home  and 
family  than  all  else.  If  she  could  make  her  children  happy,  her  own 
happiness  was  complete.  The  children  for  whom  she  toiled  during 
their  infancy,  having  laid  her  to  rest,  unite  in  saying  that  her  memory 
shall  remain  with  them  and  that  her  precepts  shall  guide  them. 

CHARLES  H.  KINGSBUEY. — Charles  H.  Kingsbury  died  at  his  home  in 
Cassopolis,  April  25,  1893. 

The  deceased  was  born  in  Massachusetts  and  was  the  oldest  child  of 
the  well  known  pioneer,  Asa  Kingsbury,  deceased.  He  was  cashier 
of  the  first  National  bank  from  the  time  of  its  organization  until  a 
year  ago,  and  had  a  large  personal  acquaintance.  He  was  about  63 
years  of  age.  He  leaves  a  wife  and  five  daughters,  one  daughter 
having  preceded  him  to  the  spirit  land,  and  a  number  of  brothers  and 

JAMES  KIRKWOOD. — James  Kirkwood  was  born  at  Beith,  Ayrshire, 
Scotland,  April  12,  1811.  He  received  a  common  school  education  and 
at  the  age  of  17  started  in  life  for  himself  as  a  common  farm  hand.  On 
attaining  his  majority  he  left  the  land  of  his  nativity  and  came  to  the 
United  States.  He  lived  in  the  town  of  Galway,  Saratoga  county,  N. 
Y.,  two  years  and  from  there  went  to  Summit  county,  Ohio,  where  he 
remained  until  his  removal  to  Cass  county,  Michigan,  in  February, 
1836,  when  he  purchased  the  farm  in  Wayne  township  on  which  he 
lived  until  the  death  of  his  wife  eight  years  ago,  since  then  he  has 
resided  with  his  daughter  in  the  same  township.  He  was  married  in 
1840  to  Isabel  Brown,  also  a  native  of  Ayrshire.  They  reared  seven 
children,  only  two  of  whom  are  now  living,  Hon.  John  Kirkwood,  now 
a  member  of  the  legislature,  and  Mrs.  Elmer  Hall.  He  was  reared  a 
Presbyterian,  and  though  his  views  were  somewhat,  broader,  clung  to 
that  faith  through  life.  He  was  ready  to  go  when  the  Master  called, 
and  his  last  words  were,  "It  is  all  right,  the  sooner  the  better."  He 
was  an  uncompromising,  faithful  democrat  and  had  been  a  subscriber 
to  the  National  Democrat  of  Cassopolis  since  the  day  of  its  first  issue. 
He  was  one  of  the  best  type  of  the  sturdy,  honest  pioneers  whose 
courage  and  industry  have  made  Cass  county  what  it  now  is.  He  died 
at  the  residence  of  his  daughter,  April  20,  1893,  in  the  82d  year  of 
his  age. 

JOHN  KIRKWOOD. — John  Kirkwood,  who  died  at  his  residence  in 
Wayne '  township,  May  14,  1893,  was  born  and  reared  on  the  farm 
where  he  died.  He  was  a  bachelor  and  in  the  fifty-second  year  of  his 


age.  In  this  same  report  will  be  found  a  sketch  of  his  father,  an 
honored  pioneer  of  the  county. 

John  Kirkwood  was  a  modest,  unassuming  man,  well  known  in  his 
immediate  vicinity,  and  of  late  years  his  acquaintance  had  been 
somewhat  extended  on  account  of  having  been  several  times  elected 
supervisor  of  his  township,  and  last  fall  being  the  successful  candidate 
on  the  democratic  and  people's  tickets  for  representative  in  the  State 
legislature.  He  was  a  man  of  good  judgment,  sincere  in  his  attach- 
ments, and  of  unswerving  honesty. 

A  committee  of  six  of  his  fellow  members  in  the  legislature  acted  as 
pall  bearers.  On  the  day  of  his  funeral  his  chair  and  desk  in 
representative  hall,  at  Lansing,  was  appropriately  draped,  and  a  page 
from  the  Legislative  Journal  of  April  19,  showing  that  on  that  day  he 
was  granted  an  indefinite  leave  of  absence  on  account  of  his  own  poor 
health  and  to  attend  the  bedside  of  his  dying  father,  was  surrounded 
with  black  crape  and  flowers  and  placed  on  his  desk.  The  House  also 
took  a  recess  from  noon  until  7  o'clock  p.  m.,  covering  the  hours  of 
the  funeral,  as  a  mark  of  respect. 

MRS.  GEORGE  NEWTON. — Mrs.  George  Newton  died  at  her  home 
April  21,  1893.  Esther  Green  was  born  March  25,  1819,  and  was 
married  to  Hon.  George  Newton  December  14,  1837. 

MRS.  DAVID  G.  BENCH. — Mary  E.  Tharp  was  born  in  Jefferson 
township,  Cass  county,  Mich.,  October  14,  1843.  She  was  married  to 
David  G.  Rench,  December  1,  1866,  and  died  at  her  home  in  Cassopo- 
lis  April  10,  1893,  aged  45  years,  4  months,  and  13  days.  She  was  the 
mother  of  five  children,  three  sons  and  two  daughters.  She  was 
converted  in  1889,  and  united  with  the  Methodist  church  of  Cassopolis 
and  has  been  a  faithful  and  devoted  Christian. 

JACOB  W.  RUMSEY. — Jacob  W.  Rumsey  was  born  in  Monroe  county, 
N.  Y.,  on  the  1st  day  of  May,  1826,  and  came  to  Michigan  when  but 
a  boy,  settling  in  St.  Joseph  county  when  it  was  but  a  wilderness. 
He  afterward  moved  to  Newberg,  Cass  county,  where  he  resided  until 
his  death,  May  10,  1893,  aged  67  years,  1  month,  and  10  days.  He 
leaves  an  aged  widow,  who  is  an  invalid,  and  three  daughters  to  mourn 
his  loss.  He  was  a  kind  and  loving  husband  and  father,  an  honest 
and  upright  citizen,  generous  to  all,  and  quick  to  respond  to  the  wants 
of  the  many.  No  one  asked  him  for  assistance  but  was  willingly 
accommodated  if  within  his  power.  His  loss  will  be  felt  by  the  whole 

70  ANNUAL,  MEETING,  1893. 

MBS.  EUSEBIA  SMITH. — Eusebia  S.  Earl  was  born  in  Jefferson 
county,  state  of  New  York,  in  the  year  1846,  and  moved  with  her 
parents  to  Michigan  in  1852.  They  settled  in  Bangor,  Van  Buren 
county,  where  they  remained  until  1867,  when  they  removed  to 
Cassopolis.  She  was  married  to  Thomas  J.  Smith  in  October,  1869, 
who  died  several  years  since.  She  died  at  her  home  April  7,  1893. 
She  was  a  Christian  lady  of  much  influence,  being  at  her  death 
president  of  the  church  Ladies'  Aid  society. 

JOHN  TIETSORT. — John  Tietsort  died  at  his  home  in  Cassopolis  April 
29,  1893.  He  was  born  in  Miltonville,  Butler  county,  Ohio,  November 
22,  1826,  and  was  the  oldest  son  of  Abram  Tietsort.  His  father  moved 
to  Niles,  Mich.,  in  April,  1828,  and  from  there  to  the  location  where 
Cassopolis  now  stands,  in  the  spring  of  1830,  being  the  first  settler  on 
the  site  of  this  village,  where  John  was  raised  and  where  he  resided 
until  his  death,  with  the  exception  of  two  years  spent  in  California,  he 
being  one  of  the  forty-niners  carried  away  by  the  excitement  of  the 
gold  discoveries  of  that  period.  At  the  end  of  two  years  he  returned, 
not  having  accumulated  any  fabulous  fortune,  but  still  somewhat  better 
in  purse  than  when  he  left. 

He  was  at  the  time  of  his  death  the  veritable  "oldest  inhabitant," 
having  lived  in  the  first  house  that  was  erected  here,  and  for  a  longer 
time  than  any  other  living  person.  From  the  time  of  his  return  from 
California  until  1873  he  was  actively  engaged  in  mercantile  business, 
most  of  the  time  in  partnership  with  Charles  G.  Banks,  the  firm  name 
of  Banks  &  Tietsort  being  a  familiar  one  in  this  locality  for  many 
years.  The  brick  store  now  occupied  by  Read  &  Yost  was  built  by 
them,  and  at  the  time  of  Mr.  Tietsort's  death  was  still  owned  by  them. 

Mr.  Tietsort  had  been  married  three  times.  His  first  wife,  with 
whom  he  was  joined  November  25,  1852,  was  Ellen  Silver  Sherman, 
daughter  of  Elias  B.  Sherman.  She  died  August  26,  1862.  He  was 
married  to  Eleanor  Robinson  January  26,  1864.  Her  death  occurred 
October  27,  1869,  and  upon  July  17,  1871,  Mr.  Tietsort  married  Addie 
Silver  Robinson.  He  had  three  daughters  by  his  first  wife,  Blanche 
Goucher,  now  a  resident  of  Clay  Center,  Kansas;  Ellen  Graham,  now 
a  resident  of  Chicago;  and  Miss  Florence,  who  resided  with  her  father, 
and  one  son,  Ralph,  by  his  second  wife,  now  a  resident  of  Grand 
Rapids.  All  of  whom,  with  his  wife,  survive  him. 

John  Tietsort  was  a  public  spirited,  generous  man,  an  excellent 
neighbor,  careful  and  exact  in  his  business,  with  a  reputation  without 
reproach.  He  was  an  ardent  lover  of  music  and  to  the  promotion  of 



musical  culture  and  study  in  the  community,  especially  in  church 
music,  he  devoted  a  large  amount  of  time,  not  professionally  or  for 
reward.  He  said  during  his  last  sickness  that  he  had  sung  at  over 
300  funerals.  There  was  no  singing  at  his  funeral,  all  of  the  singers 
in  the  vicinity  who  are  usually  called  upon  on  such  occasion  declaring 
themselves  unequal  to  the  task. 



Date  of 




Date  of 



Jan.    7 

Martin  Maier  


Feb.  10 

John  Bradner 



George  Carl  ton        .  



Silas  Aldrich 



Simeon  Ten  Eyke...  



Lucy  Hitchcock 



Wm.  Wakoff  



Mary  Ann  Kelley 



Thomas  Hugit  



Lavina  Keller 



Isaac  Holton 



Bridget  Porter 



Agnes  Slater  



Maggie  Simpson 



William  Bancroft  



Olaf  Ash 



David  Cutler  i  


Mar.  11 

Moses  Tabor 



Sarah  Norris 



Mrs   Hathaway 



Mabala  Powers.  .. 



John  Patterson 



Thomas  Healey  



Geo.  Stouser 



Wm.  Albertson  



Arabella  Huston 



Huelson  Compton  


April  1 

Samuel  Manning 



Lather  Cleveland 



William  Gardner 



John  Smith  ..     __ 



William  Houch 



Robert  Pincomb  



Sarah  Swagart 


Feb.     2 

Edward  Enest 



Matilda  Seymour 



John  Harrington.     .. 


May     2 

James  Allen 



Wm.  Davis  



John  Thomas 



JnliaA.  Enest  



O.  F.  Williams 



Ann  M.  McCatcheon...  



Henrietta  Demoss 



Richard  Gay  


June    1 

Selah  Van  Sickle 



Horace  Phelps..  


July     1 

Thompson  Stearns 




Date  of 



Date  of 



July  17 

Elizabeth  Wymer      


Dec.    1 

Ellen  Newsome 



Mrs.  Mary  Way                         



John  Bottom 



Charles  Lyou 



Mahalah  Norris 



Iji/j/.ie  Tjandenbarger 



Catherine  Bray 


Aug.    2 

Sarah  Emmons                      .    ... 



Margaret  J.  Tripp 



Ann  Amelia  Perdew  


Jan.     1 

Janette  Bentley 



Porter  Welter  



Daniel  Hawkins         


Sept.  17 

Win.  Marshall 



Mrs.  Lester  Teachout 



Lucy  Wilcox 



Mrs.  Rachael  Hand 



Michael  Miller 



E.  Shoemaker 


Oct.     7 

Riley  Rhines                 



O.  P.  Gilson 



JaneA.  Rail  



Frank  Faxon. 



Caroline  Fish 


Mar.  8t 

Mrs.  Savinna  Ingraham 


Nov.  12 

Catherine  Helms 


April  19 

Wm.  Downham 



Hugh  Boyd 


May     2 

William  Sntton 



Fannie  Johnson 



Mary  E.  Sraft 


MRS.  ADELIA  BARTOW. — Mrs.  Adelia  Bartow,  widow  of  the  late  Hon. 
Moses  Bartow,  died  in  Portland,  January  18,  1893,  in  the  72d  year  of 
her  age.  She  was  a  pioneer  in  this  county,  having  come  here  with 
her  husband  about  1846  and  settled  upon  a  farm  in  Westphalia 
township,  where  they  resided  until  thirteen  years  ago.  They  then 
moved  to  Pewamo,  residing  there  about  a  year  and  from  thence  went 
to  Portland.  Mr.  Bartow  died  eight  years  ago.  Mrs.  Bartow  was  the 
mother  of  three  children,  only  one  of  whom,  Mrs.  C.  H.  Triphagen,  of 
Portland,  survives  her. 

QUARTUS  E.  BRIDGEMAN. — Quartus  E.  Bridgeman  died  at  his  home 
in  St.  Johns,  February  8,  1893. 

Mr.  Bridgeman  was  born  at  Belfast,  Allegany  county,  N.  Y.,  January 
20,  1822.  He  came  to  St.  Johns  in  1863,  and  had  resided  here 
continuously  since  that  time.  For  many  years  he  conducted  a  gun- 
smith shop,  and  was  an  adept  at  that  trade.  Some  twelve  years  ago 
he  was  compelled  to  give  up  his  business  on  account  of  rheumatic 
troubles,  and  for  the  past  ten  years  had  been  confined  to  his  invalid 
chair.  He  had  been  married  forty-six  'years,  and  his  wife,  who  had 
faithfully  cared  for  him  during  the  entire  period  of  his  suffering,  and 
he  was  an  intense  sufferer,  is  the  sole  relative  surviving. 


MRS.  LUCY  FERDON. — Mrs.  Lucy  Ferdon  died  in  St.  Johns,  January 
16,  1893,  aged  58  years.  Her  husband,  the  late  Lorenzo  Ferdon,  died 
in  Greenbush  about  five  years  ago,  after  which  event  Mrs.  Ferdon 
made  her  home  in  St.  Johns  with  her  only  child,  W.  C.  Ferdon.  She 
was  a  pioneer  in  Clinton  county,  coming  into  the  wilderness  with  her 
father,  J.  D.  Bradner,  when  15  years  of  age.  Deceased  leaves  three 
sisters,  Mrs.  Belle  Tinkham  of  Elwell,  Mich.,  Mrs.  Francis  Wykoff  of 
Bingham,  and  Mrs.  Caroline  Chapman  of  DuPlain,  also  one  brother, 
J.  W.  Bradner  of  St.  Johns. 

GRANDMA  HAUSE.— Grandma  Hause,  who  has  been  a  resident  of  St. 
Johns  for  many  years,  died  at  the  home  of  her  daughter,  Mary  Barnes, 
of  Olive,  March  13,  1893,  aged  94  years. 

NATHANIEL  HUNTOON. — Nathaniel  Huntoon  died  at  his  residence  in 
Olive,  April  24,  1893.  The  deceased  was  an  old  pioneer  85  years  old, 
coming  from  the  state  of  New  York  to  this  State  some  thirty-nine 
years  ago  and  settled  on  a  farm  near  this  village.  He  was  born  in 
Lemington,  Vermont,  July  11,  1810,  and  was  married  to  Phebe 
Lusk,  in  Clarendon,  New  York,  December  19,  1835.  His  wife  and  five 
children  survive  him,  four  sons  and  one  daughter,  Mrs.  M.  D.  Brown, 
of  St.  Johns;  Thurman  and  Alvin  H.  Huntoon,  of  Eagle;  Alanson,  of 
Lansing;  the  youngest  son  remaining  on  the  farm  with  his  father. 

ALEXANDER  B.  KITTLE. — Alexander  B.  Kittle,  one  of  the  oldest 
residents  of  Watertown  township,  this  county,  died  at  the  home  of  his 
son,  George  E.  Kittle,  near  Delta,  May  13,  1893,  after  an  illness  of 
but  one  week,  aged  81  years.  He  leaves  a  wife,  two  sons,  and  four 

DAVIES  PARKS. — Davies  Parks  died  March  28,  1893,  aged  103  years, 
5  months,  and  12  days.  He  was  born  October  16,  1789,  in  Columbia 
county,  N.  Y.,  during  the  first  year  of  the  administration  of  George 
Washington,  the  first  president  of  the  United  States. 

New  York  state  was  also  the  native  place  of  his  parents.  His  father 
lived  to  the  age  of  110  years  and  his  mother  to  the  age  of  106  years, 
while  his  grandmother  reached  the  age  of  114  years. 

Davies  Parks  was  the  eighth  child  in  a  family  of  five  sons  and  four 
daughters,  and  as  his  parents  were  farmers  during  his  early  life,  he 
formed  habits  of  industry  and  laid  the  foundation  of  a  strong  and 
vigorous  constitution. 

His  advantages  to  obtain  an  education  were  very  limited,  but  possess- 

74  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

ing  a  remarkable  memory  and  being  of  a  studious  nature  he  acquired 
a  good  education.  By  occupation  he  was  a  farmer,  yet  he  practiced 
law  as  he  advanced  in  years. 

When  nineteen  years  of  age  he  was  married  in  Albany  county,  N.  Y., 
to  Catherine  Coon. 

He  belonged  to  a  company  of  militia  in  New  York  state,  and  in 
1814  was  called  into  the  service  in  the  war,  where  he  remained  until 
the  close  of  the  war,  being  a  drum-major.  He  remembered  well  the 
battle  of  Sackett's  Harbor  in  which  he  took  an  active  part. 

In  1833  he  moved  to  Sandusky  county,  O.,  where  he  remained  about 
two  years,  when  he  moved  to  the  territory  of  Michigan  and  settled  in 
the  township  of  Novi,  Oakland  county.  In  1853  he  moved  to  Dallas 
township,  Clinton  county,  Mich.,  where  three  years  later  his  wife  died 
leaving  him  with  eleven  children. 

In  1858  he  was  married  to  Mrs.  Dennis  Holmes,  who  survives  him 
at  the  age  of  87  years. 

Mr.  and  Mrs  Davies  Parks  moved  west,  living  in  Iowa  and  Nebraska, 
but  in  1873  they  returned  to  Dallas  township,  Clinton  county,  since 
which  time  he  has  resided  in  the  village  of  Fowler. 

Mr.  Parks  was  the  father  of  twelve  children,  ten  of  whom  are  living; 
forty-two  grandchildren,  of  whom  thirty-seven  are  living,  one  hundred 
and  one  great-grandchildren,  of  that  number  eighteen  are  living;  and 
twenty-two  great,  great-grandchildren,  of  whom  nineteen  are  living. 

Davies  Parks  was  always  very  liberal  both  in  his  religious  and  in 
his  general  views.  His  mental  faculties  were  almost  unimpaired;  his 
bodily  health  showed  the  effects  of  his  age,  yet  in  mild  weather  he 
was  on  the  streets  in  his  extreme  age;  he  enjoyed  the  fruits  of  his 
honest  and  faithful  toil. 

Intelligent,  cheerful,  and  contented;  only  waiting  till  the  angels  open 
wide  the  mystic  gate  there  to  enjoy  the  fruits  of  an  honest  and  faith- 
ful life. 

Davies  Parks  and  Peter  T.  Jolly  were  very  intimate  friends,  and 
during  a  conversation  between  each  other  there  was  an  agreement 
decided  upon  to  this  effect  that,  if  Peter  Jolly  died  first  then  Mr. 
Parks  was  to  preach  the  funeral  sermon,  and  if  Mr.  Parks  died  first 
then  Mr.  Jolly  was  to  preach  the  sermon.  It  is  sufficient  to  say 
that  Mr.  Jolly  officiated  at  the  funeral  of  his  esteemed  friend  Davies 

MBS,  ELIZA  PATTERSON. — Mrs.  Eliza  Patterson,  of  Bengal  township, 
died  at  her  home  April  21,  1893,  aged  80  years.  Mrs.  Patterson  was 


born  in  1813,  in  Ireland,  of  English  parents,  and  came  to  this  country 
in  1841,  settling  in  Rochester,  N.  Y.,  residing  there  fifteen  years,  and 
then  came  to  this  county  and  took  up  her  residence  in  Bengal  town- 
ship, where  she  has  since  resided.  She  had  fourteen  brothers  and 
sisters,  all  of  whom  lived  to  maturity,  and  of  them  four  brothers  and 
two  sisters  still  survive  her,  the  oldest  being  83.  Her  father  and 
mother  both  lived  to  a  good  old  age.  She  was  the  mother  of  seven 
children,  four  boys  and  three  girls,  all  of  whom  save  two  boys,  the 
oldest  and  youngest,  are  alive.  Mrs.  Patterson  was  a  lady  highly 
esteemed  and  had  been  a  member  of  the  Methodist  church  fifty  years. 

MRS.  SEAEL. — Mrs.  Searl,  who  was  formerly  known  as  Mrs.  J.  R. 
Tremblee,  died  at  Bath,  March  6,  1893,  aged  82  years.  She  was  born 
in  Herkimer  county,  N.  Y.,  in  1829,  came  to  Michigan  in  1838,  and 
settled  in  Bath,  near  Pine  Lake,  on  what  is  known  as  the  Wesnar 
farm  in  1846.  Mr.  Tremblee  died  in  1861,  and  she  remarried  in  1877. 
Her  last  husband  survives  her.  She  has  made  her  home  with  her 
daughter,  Mrs.  Sage,  for  some  time.  She  was  a  firm  believer  in  health 
reform  and  in  religion  was  an  Advent. 

MBS.  NANCY  A.  SIMMONS. — Mrs.  Nancy  A.  Simmons  died  at  the 
residence  of  Thomas  Krass,  in  North  Lansing,  March  14,  1893,  aged 
67  years.  She  was  mother  of  Dr.  R.  Simmons,  of  DeWitt.  The 
subject  of  our  sketch  was  born  in  Clarkston  township,  Monroe  county, 
N.  Y.,  in  1826.  She  came  to  Salem,  Michigan,  and  at  the  age  of 
nineteen  was  married  to  John  Simmons,  March  18,  1845.  In  1851 
they  came  ta  Olive  and  purchased  fifty  acres  now  owned  by  E.  H. 
Bedell.  In  1854  they  moved  to  Branch  county,  Michigan.  In  1865 
moved  to  Salem  again,  and  in  1878  they  came  to  Olive,  purchased 
seventy  acres  of  land,  erected  a  comfortable  home  on  the  same  and 
thought  to  settle  down  and  spend  their  remaining  days  there  in  peace. 
But  owing  to  the  failing  health  of  Mr.  Simmons  they  moved  to 
Colorado,  where  only  temporary  relief  being  secured  they  returned  and 
in  1882  bought  and  settled  in  DeWitt.  She  was  the  mother  of  three 
children,  only  one  of  whom  survives. 

MRS.  PETER  ULRICH. — Mrs.  Peter  Ulrich  died  at  her  home  in  Dallas 
township,  January  29,  1893. 

The  deceased  was  born  in  Germany  and  came  to  this  country  with 
her  parents  when  she  was  about  ten  years  old.  She  was  next  to  the 
youngest  of  six  children,  four  girls  and  two  boys,  and  had  she  lived 
until  August  would  have  arrived  at  the  age  of  58.  She  was  married 

76  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

in  Westphalia  township,  when  at  the  age  of  twenty,  to  her  present 
greatly  bereaved  husband,  Peter  Ulrich,  to  whom  thirteen  children 
have  been  born,  seven  girls  ,and  six  boys,  eleven  of  whom  survive  their 
mother,  the  other  two  having  died  in  infancy.  Nine  of  the  children 
reside  in  Dallas  township;  one  daughter  in  Scranton,  Pa.,  and  one  son 
in  Baltimore,  Md. 

The  deceased  was  an  earnest  and  consistent  Christian,  honored,  loved 
and  respected  by  all  who  knew  her. 

ROBERT  YOUNG. — Robert  Young  died  at  his  home  in  DuPlain 
township,  February  1,  1893,  aged  55  years. 

Mr.  Young  came  from  Indiana  to  this  county  before  the  late  civil 
war,  and  just  as  he  was  entering  his  manhood  career. 

Entering  the  union  army  in  Company  I,  of  the  27th  Michigan 
Infantry  in  December,  1863,  he  went  to  the  front,  and  at  the  memora- 
ble battle  of  the  wilderness,  in  May,  1864,  earned  an  empty  sleeve. 

On  being  discharged  in  October,  1864,  he  returned  to  the  farm,  and 
was  known  as  the  young  man  who  could  chop  as  much  wood  and  do 
as  much  work  with  one  arm  as  the  ordinary  man  could  do  with  two. 

Twenty  years  ago,  after  having  served  the  citizens  of  Olive  township 
as  supervisor  one  or  more  terms,  he  was  elected  register  of  deeds  of 
this  county,  and  at  the  expiration  of  his  term  of  office  he  originated 
and  managed  a  bank  at  Mt.  Pleasant,  this  State,  from  which  the  First 
National  bank  of  that  place  has  since  been  organized. 

Returning  to  St.  Johns  he  was  engaged  with  J.  S.  Osgood  in  the 
produce  business,  and  with  the  firm  of  Osgood  &  Young,  opened  the 
era  of  conscientious  prices  for  grain,  which  has  resulted  greatly  to  the 
advantage  of  our  village  and  the  surrounding  country. 

Retiring  from  this  firm,  he  has  given  the  last  years  of  his  life  to 
the  construction  of  buildings  and  farming. 

In  addition  to  several  residences  and  other  building,  in  company 
with  Mr.  Edward  Brown,  he  erected  three  stores  upon  Clinton  avenue, 
and  has  been  greatly  interested  in  farming,  and  was,  at  the  time  of 
his  decease,  carrying  on  about  two  hundred  acres  of  land. 

He  has  held  the  positions  of  superintendent  of  the  county  poor, 
commissioner  of  the  soldiers'  relief  fund,  president  and  treasurer  of 
the  Farmers'  Mutual  Insurance  company  of  Clinton  and  Gratiot 
counties,  and  other  offices  of  trust. 

He  did  not  ally  himself  with  the  membership  of  any  society,  but  he 
was  eminently  a  citizen  possessing  broad  and  equitable  views,  and 
embraced  in  his  great  heart  every  enterprise  that  looked  to  the 
improvement  of  his  fellow  men. 



BY   W.    B.   WILLIAMS.    • 
[Furnished  by  Esek  Pray,  supplemented  by  W.  B.  Williams.! 

DANIEL  B.  BOWEN.— Daniel  B.  Bowen,  of  the  township  of  Kalamo, 
died  July  2,  1892,  aged  81  years.  He  claimed  to  have  been  the  first 
settler  in  the  township;  settled  on  the  farm  where  he  died  in  the  year 

MRS.  PHEBE  CLARK. — Mrs.  Phebe  Clark,  widow  of  John  E.  Clark, 
settled  on  their  farm  in  Eaton  Rapids  township  in  the  year  1837,  and 
died  July  10,  1892,  aged  80  years. 

JOHN  S.  MONTGOMERY. — Captain  John  Scoot  Montgomery,  of  Hamlin, 
died  July  27,  1892,,  aged  55  years — born  in  the  township;  son  of  'the 
pioneer,  Captain  John  Montgomery. 

MRS.  CHAUNCEY  FREEMAN. — Mrs.  Chauncey  Freeman,  whose  maiden 
name  was  Ruth  Ann  Babcock,  was  born  in  Royal  ton,  Niagara  Co.,  N. 
Y.,  April  27,  1818.  She  was  united  in  marriage  to  Chauncey  Freeman, 
Sept.  17,  1839,  and  died  September  17,  1892,  on  their  53d  anniversary. 
Settled  on  their  farm  in  Eaton  township  in  1842. 

MRS.  SALLY  DE  GRAFF. — Mrs.  Sally  De  Graff,  of  the  city  of  Charlotte, 
was  born  March  3,  1806,  in  Ira,  Cayuga  county,  N.  Y.  December  16, 
1832,  she  married  Emanuel  De  Graff,  and  in  1842  moved  to  Calhoun 
and  a  few  years  later  to  Eaton  county.  She  died  October  25,  1892, 
aged  86  years,  mourned  by  a  large  number  of  relatives  and  prominent 
citizens  of  the  county. 

MRS.  SAMANTHA  BAKER. — Mrs.  Samantha  Baker,  of  Charlotte,  died 
October  19,  1892,  aged  91  years.  She  was  born  .in  Herkimer  county, 
N.  Y.,  and  was  an  early  pioneer  of  the  county. 

DAVID  KIMBALL. — David  Kimball  of  Sunfield,  died  November  26, 
1892,  aged  88  years;  a  pioneer  of  1853. 

JOSIAH  BoYER.--Josiah  Boyer,  of  Roxand,  died  December  19,  1892, 
a  resident  of  the  township  for  53  years. 

JOHN  A.  RICH. — John  A.  Rich,  of  Chester,  died  at  the  old  home 
December  25,  1892,  aged  nearly  93  years.  He  settled  in  Chester  in 

78  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

LORENZO  FOSTER. — Lorenzo  Foster,  of  Carmel,  died  January  8,  1898, 
aged  71  years;  a  resident  of  the  township  for  fifty  years. 

JAMES  M.  PETERS. — James  M.  Peters,  of  Brookfield,  a  prominent 
pioneer,  died  January  9,  1893,  aged  62  years. 

MRS.  LEANDER  KENT. — Mrs.  Leander  Kent,  of  Kalamo,  died  January 
20,  1893,  aged  72  years.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Kent  were  prominent  pioneers 
of  the  township  fifty  years  ago. 

DAVID  SCOTT.— David  Scott,  of  Vermontville,  died  March  6,  1893, 
aged  85  years.  Deceased  was  born  November  9,  1807,  at  Alburgh,  Vt., 
and  moved  his  family  to  Eaton  county  in  1850. 

PETER  WILLIAMS. — Peter  Williams  of  Brookfield  died  April  24,  1893, 
aged  79  years;  an  early  pioneer  of  the  township. 

EGBERT  NIXON.  —  Robert  Nixon,  of  Oneida,  died  April  26,  1893, 
aged  76  years.  A  pioneer  of  1836,  and  always  has  been  a  prominent 
citizen  of  the  county.  He  was  born  in  Otsego  county,  N.  ¥.,  May  25, 

MRS.  MARTIN  BEEKMAN. — Mrs.  Mary  V.  Beekman,  of  Chester,  died 
April  29,  1893,  aged  89  years  Mrs.  Beekman  was  born  in  New  Jersey, 
May  2,  1804;  married  to  Mr.  Martin  Beekman  in  the  spring  of  1840, 
and  came  to  their  home  where  she  has  since  resided. 

DR.  JAMES  HYDE. — Dr.  James  Hyde,  of  the  city  of  Eaton  Rapids, 
died  January  26,  1893,  aged  60  years.  He  came  to  Eaton  Rapids  with 
his  parents  when  nine  years  old,  and  was  born  in  Willsonburg,  N.  H., 
April  8,  1833. 

MRS.  HOMER  G.  BARBER. — Lucy  Dwight  Barber,  wife  of  Homer  G. 
Barber,  of  Vermontville,  died  May  1,  1893.  A  resident  of  the  county 
since  her  youth. 

MRS.  JANE  LAMB.— Jane  Ball,  born  August  4,  1808,  in  Ovid,  N.  Y.  In 
1825  married  Charles  Johnson,  who  died  a  few  years  later,  leaving  a 
son  who  grew  to  manhood  and  died  of  consumption  December  15,  1833. 
She  married  Richard  Lamb,  in  Clyde,  N.  Y.  They  moved  to  Michigan 
in  1835  and  settled  in  Linden,  Genesee  county,  where  he  built  the  first 
log  house  in  the  village.  By  him  she  had  one  son  and  five  daughters. 
On  December  15,  1870,  they  moved  to  Charlotte,  where  her  husband 
died  April  29,  1886.  She  died  in  Charlotte  May  25,  1893,  leaving  three 


daughters,    Mrs.  Stone,  of  Fen  ton,    Mrs.  Klock,  of  Charlotte,   and   Mrs. 
Arthur,  of  Dowagiac. 

STEPHEN  DAVIS. — Stephen  Davis  was  born  in  Pittstown,  Rensselaer 
county,  N.  Y.,  April  3,  1799.  When  15  years  of  age  he  moved  to 
Pompey,  Onondaga  county,  N.  Y.,  June  4,  1823,  he  was  married  at  Delphi 
in  the  same  county  to  Maria  Andrews.  In  1836  they  moved  to  Goguac 
Prairie,  in  Calhoun  county,  Mich.,  and  in  March,  1838,  to  Charlotte; 
later  he  bought  some  wild  land  in  Benton  and  cleared  up  a  farm 
there.  Mrs.  Davis  died  February  28,  1857,  and  for  the  last  28  years 
he  has  made  his  home  with  his  son-in-law,  Nathan  Johnson,  in 
Charlotte,  where  he  died  May  30,  1893,  aged  94  years. 

STEPHEN  TUTTLE. — Stephen  Tuttle  was  born  near  Dundas  in  Canada, 
November  26,  1807;  he  was  left  an  orphan  at  five  years  of  age;  lived 
with  a  Mr.  Fromon  until  21  years  of  age;  a  year  later  he  married 
Clarinda  Parker,  of  Batavia,  N.  Y.,  where  he  soon  removed;  while 
there  five  daughters  and  four  sons  were  born.  In  the  fall  of  1851 
they  removed  to  Eaton  county,  Mich.,  and  settled  on  a  farm  two  miles 
northeast  of  Charlotte.  Mrs.  Tuttle  died  in  1868;  his  second  wife  was 
Mrs.  Conkrite,  of  Danby,  who  lived  only  two  years.  He  then  married 
Mrs.  Eliza  Eay,  who  still  survives  him.  He  was  a  member  of  the  M. 
E.  church  until  1845,  when  he  left  them  and  joined  the  First  Day 
Advent  church.  There  being  no  church  of  that  order  in  Charlotte, 
he  again  united  with  the  M.  E.  church,  of  which  he  was  a  member  at 
the  time  of  his  death,  June  3,  1893.  Eight  of  his  children  are  still 
living:  Wm.  M.  Tuttle,  Batavia,  N.  Y.;  Mrs.  John  Pixley,  of  Grand 
Rapids;  John  W.,  of  Battle  Creek;  A.  Clark  Z.,  of  Dimondale;  Mrs. 
Philo  Collins,  of  Grand  Rapids;  Mrs.  Julia  Daniels,  of  California;  and 
Roby  Strong,  of  Kalamazoo;  Stephen  N.  Tuttle.  All  the  above  but 
Julia  Daniels  and  Wm.  M.  were  present  at  the  funeral. 


MBS.  HARBISON  G.  CONGER.— Deniza,  wife  of  Harrison  G.  Conger, 
died  May  23,  1893,  at  her  home  on  section  2  in  Burton,  of  heart 
disease,  after  an  illness  of  a  year  and  a  half's  duration.  Deceased, 
who  was  widely  known  and  highly  respected,  was  born  in  Kentucky 

80  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

seventy-five  years  ago  and  was  a  daughter  of  Stephen  J.  and  Betsey 
Seeley.  She  came  to  this  county  with  her  parents  at  the  age  of 
sixteen  years,  and  fifty-three  years  ago  was  united  in  marriage  to  Mr. 
Conger.  They  took  up  their  residence  on  a  new  farm  in  Davison  and 
lived  thereon  for  some  years.  Forty- three  years  ago  they  removed  to 
Burton.  Deceased  was  one  of  the  pioneers  of  the  county  and  was  for 
many  years  a  member  of  the  M.  E.  church.  Besides  her  husband  she 
leaves  three  children  and  three  brothers.  The  children  are  Mark  D., 
of  Burton;  Mrs.  L.  G.  Herrington,  of  Otisville;  and  Mrs/  Holden 
Phillips,  of  Kichfield.  The  brothers  are  M.  D.  Seeley,  of  Ludington ; 
Judson,  of  Burton;  and  Norris,  of  Otisville.  About  three  years  ago 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Conger  celebrated  their  golden  wedding. 

JOHN  DARLING. — John  Darling  died  at  his  home  in  Gaines,  March  3, 
1893,  aged  89  years. 

He  was  born  in  Onondaga  county,  N.  Y.,  and  came  to  Michigan 
forty  years  ago,  removing  later  on  to  Gaines.  He  leaves  five  children. 

MR.    EGGLESTON. — Mr.   Eggleston  died  at  his  home  in  July,  1892. 

Mr.  Eggleston  was  born  September  14,  1810,  in  Champlain  county, 
N.  Y.  His  boyhood  days  were  spent  in  labor  on  the  farm,  and 
he  had  the  educational  advantages  of  the  common  schools  of  that 
time.  January  10,  1836,  he  married,  in  Orleans  county,  Malinda 
Beecher,  who  survives  him.  In  1837,  they  settled  in  the  woods 
near  the  Half-way  House  in  Flint,  remaining  there  two  years.  He 
then  bought  a  farm  on  section  seventeen,  not  far  from  the  farm 
on  which  he  died.  He  and  his  family  had  to  be  ferried  across  the 
river  by  the  Indians  to  go  to  the  new  home.  When  they  located 
in  their  little  cabin  their  nearest  neighbors  were  in  what  is  now 
Flint  city,  one  or  two  families  at  Flushing,  and  one  or  two  at 
Swartz  Creek.  There  were  literally  no  roads,  but  he  had  to  go  to 
mill  at  Birmingham  in  Oakland  county — a  journey  that  required  as 
much  time  as  it  would  now  to  go  to  St.  Paul  and  back.  He  and  his 
faithful  wife  wrought  out  their  destiny  in  the  wilderness,  and  did  their 
full  share  of  pioneer  work,  and  bore  their  full  share  of  the  hardships 
and  privations  of  the  time.  They  cleared  up  the  forest,  reared  their 
children,  gave  them  an  education,  instructed  them  in  the  principles  of 
integrity  and  duty,  so  that  when  the  sons  grew  up  they  became  good 
citizens  and  the  daughters  good  housekeepers.  In  time  they  changed 
the  wilderness  into  a  farm  of  broad  acres,  with  a  large  and  elegant  house, 
ample  barns,  good  orchards,  and  surrounded  themselves  with  the 
comforts  of  life.  When  Mr.  Eggleston  died  he  had  done  his  part  of 


the  world's  work  and  was  gathered  to  his  fathers  like  well  ripened 
fruit.  Mr.  Eggleston  had  no  church  affiliations,  but  was  a  liberal 
supporter  of  religious  institutions,  and  his  example  and  voice  were  on 
the  side  of  justice  and  morality. 

Besides  his  wife  the  following  children  survive  him:  Lyman,  Chaun- 
cey  J.,  and  Jasper;  Mrs.  J.  H.  Carey  and  Mrs.  Robert  Noble  of  Flint 
township,  Mrs.  Robert  Knight  of  Maple  Grove,  Mrs.  Wm.  Goods  of 
Flint,  and  Mrs.  Charles  Packard  of  Saginaw.  The  latter  spent  thirteen 
weeks  in  caring  for  her  father,  showing  a  filial  devotion  rarely  excelled. 
Mr.  Eggleston  was  buried  in  the  Cronk  cemetery  beside  his  parents 
and  two  children  who  died  in  infancy.  A  good  man  has  passed  away 
but  the  memory  of  an  upright  and  useful  life  survives  him. 

DR.  ISAAC  N.  ELDRIDGE.— Dr.  Isaac  N.  Eldridge  died  at  his  home 
in  Flint,  January  18,  1893,  of  heart  failure. 

At  the  time  of  his  death,  Dr.  Eldridge  was  the  pioneer  physician  of 
Flint.  He  was  born  at  Bergen,  N.  Y.,  August  5,  1818.  When  quite  a 
young  man  he  came  to  Michigan  and  settled  at  Ann  Arbor,  from  which 
place  he  came  to  Flint  about  forty  years  ago  and  has  since  been  a 
successful  practicing  physician  here.  Dr.  Eldridge  was  a  man  of 
eminence  in  his  profession.  His  success  and  skill  as  a  practitioner 
won  for  him  a  wide  reputation.  To  his  efforts,  probably  more  than 
any  other  one  influence,  was  due  the  establishment  of  the  School  of 
Homeopathy  as  a  branch  of  the  Michigan  State  University,  and  for 
years  he  was  connected  with  the  school  as  a  member  of  the  board  of 
examiners  or  in  some  other  capacity.  He  was  a  man  of  character  and 
education.  He  was  a  close  student  and  although  an  old  man,  with  a 
large  practice  to  look  after,  kept  thoroughly  abreast  of  the  times  in  all 
advancement  made  in  his  profession  up  to  the  present  day.  He  was  a 
manly  man  who  had  the  courage  of  his  convictions.  It  was  his  nature 
to  be  frank  and  honest,  and  in  conversation  he  often  expressed  himself 
so  frankly  that  it  sometimes  gave  him  the  appearance  of  being  incon- 
siderate of  others'  feelings;  but  such  was  never  the  case;  few  people 
possess  a  more  sympathetic  or  sensative  nature  'or  delicacy  of  feeling 
than  Dr.  Eldridge  did,  and  no  man  was  ever  more  unwavering  in  his 
loyalty  to  a  friend  or  a  principle  he  believed  in  than  was  he. 

He  never  sought  office,  but  has  at  different  times  been  called  to 
positions  of  public  trust,  and  always  filled  the  place  with  credit  to 
himself  and  satisfaction  to  the  public. 

He  enjoyed  the  respect  of    the  community,  and    the  faith  reposed  in 

82  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

him  by  most  of  his  patients  was  something  remarkable.  He  was  a 
member  of  the  Court  street  Methodist  church  since  1851. 

Besides  a  widow  he  leaves  four  sons  and  two  daughters,  viz.:  Dr.  C. 
S.  Eldridge  of  Chicago,  John  H.,  Monty,  Fred  A.,  and  Mrs.  F.  H. 
Humphery  of  Flint,  and  Mrs.  Woodbury  of  Detroit. 

The  physicians  of  Flint  held  a  meeting  and  passed  resolutions  of  an 
appropriate  character. 

DANIEL  FROST. — Daniel  Frost  of  Flint  township  died  February  13, 1893> 
of  heart  failure.  He  was  about  seventy  years  old,  and  was  an  old 
settler  in  this  county.  For  a  great  many  years  he  owned  and  lived 
upon  a  farm  now  owned  by  George  Caldwell,  on  the  Flushing  road. 
From  there  he  came  to  the  city  to  live,  but  later  bought  and  moved 
onto  the  "Wood"  farm  in  Flint  township  where  he  died.  He  was  a 
straightforward,  upright  man,  who  enjoyed  the  confidence  and  respect 
of  all  who  knew  him.  He  leaves  a  widow  and  five  children,  viz.;  A.  C. 
Frost  of  Flint,  Arthur  and  Burt  Frost  of  Flint  township,  Mrs.  Eeed 
Howland  of  Mundy,  and  a  daughter  who  lives  at  home. 

MRS.  GEO.  J.  W.  HILL. — Mrs.  Geo.  J.  W.  Hill  died  at  her  home  in 
the  town  of  Flint  May  28,  1893,  of  heart  failure,  aged  sixty-five  years. 
The  deceased  was  born  at  Bath,  New  York,  but  had  lived  in  Genesee 
county  for  nearly  fifty  years.  She  was  well  known  and  highly  esteemed 
and  respected  in  this  community,  where  she  and  her  husband  resided 
eo  long.  She  was  a  lady  of  literary  taste  and  culture,  and  was  one  of 
the  charter  members  of  the  late  Ladies'  Library  Association  of  Flint, 
and  its  last  treasurer.  The  children  who  survive  her  are  Frank  B.  of 
Denver,  Arthur  G.  of  Escanaba,  Flora  of  Ann  Arbor,  and  Harry,  Sarah, 
Helen  and  Alice  who  are  at  home.  The  present  address  of  Fred,  who 

is  in  the  west,  is  not  known. 


ADAM  C.  KLINE. — Adam  C.  Kline  died  in  Grand  Blanc  September 
18,  1892,  after  a  long  illness. 

Deceased  was  born  May  31,  1812,  in  the  Mohawk  Valley,  town  of 
Amsterdam,  Montgomery  county,  N.  Y.  He  came  to  Flint,  Michigan, 
late  in  1835,  engaged  in  blacksmithing  in  1836  in  company  with  the 
late  Daniel  S.  Freeman.  For  many  years  he  engaged  in  farming  in 
Grand  Blanc.  Besides  a  widow  he  leaves  seven  sons  and  two  daughters, 
Samuel  and  Mrs.  Darwin  Forsyth  of  Flint,  Daniel  F,,  Kichard,  John, 
Levi,  and  Miss  Carrie,  of  Grand  Blanc;  Charles  of  Shiawassee  county; 
and  Andrew  of  Nebraska.  Also  three  brothers  and  one  sister,  Mrs. 


Bradley,  of  Eldorado,  Kansas;  James,  of  Kingston,  Minnesota;  Joseph 
and  George,  of  Flint. 

JOSEPH  KLINE. — Joseph  Kline,  a  brother  of  Adam  C.  Kline,  died  at 
his  home  in  Flint,  on  November  10,  1892,  quite  unexpectedly,  having 
been  upon  the  street  only  a  few  hours  before  dissolution  took  place. 
The  deceased  was  born  at  Amsterdam,  N.  Y.,  August  20,  1823.  He 
came  to  Michigan  in  1836,  and  located  at  Grand  Blanc,  but  soon 
afterwards  came  to  Flint  and  settled.  He  had  resided  where  he  died 
for  thirty-seven  years.  He  was  a  man  of  quiet,  unassuming  character, 
and  took  little  active  part  in  public  affairs,  but  was  highly  esteemed  by 
all  who  knew  him.  He  was  an  honorable,  upright,  Christian  man.  He 
joined  the  Court  street  M.  E.  church  in  1847,  and  was  a  charter 
member  of  the  Garland  street  M.  E.  church. 

His  family  consists  of  a  wife,  one  son,  Louis  T.,  of  Alpena,  and  one 
daughter,  Mrs.  D.  M.  Eddy,  of  Flint,  all  of  whom  survive  him. 

JUDGE  WARNER  LAKE. — Judge  Warner  Lake  died  at  his  home  in 
Flint,  June  13,  1892,  aged  82  years. 

Judge  Lake  was  born  at  Mt.  Morris,  N.  Y.,  October  4,  1809.  April 
4,  1833,  he  married  Elizabeth  Butler,  at  Mt.  Morris,  by  whom  he  had 
three  children,  Martin  and  Mrs.  Chauncey  Wisner,  of  Saginaw,  born  in 
Mt.  Morris,  and  Charles,  now  of  Coldwater,  born  in  Genesee,  north  of 
Flint,  on  the  farm  now  owned  by  O.  D.  Wager.  The  family  came  to 
Michigan  in  1837.  He  settled  in  the  village  of  Flint  and  built  the 
Exchange  hotel  opposite  the  present  court  house,  the  second  hotel  in 
Flint.  A  number  of  years  he  carried  on  this  hotel  and  ran  a  line  of 
.•stages  to  Pontiac.  Later,  for  a  short  time,  he  lived  on  a  farm  north  of 
the  city  above  named.  In  1842  he  removed  to  Hartland,  Livingston 
county,  and  engaged  in  farming,  returning  to  Flint  in  1850.  In  1852 
he  was  elected  judge  of  probate,  which  office  he  held  eight  years.  In 
1859  he  was  appointed  trustee  of  the  Kalamazoo  asylum. 

Soon  after  the  war  broke  out  he  was  made  provost  marshal  of  this 
•congressional  district  with  headquarters  here.  Soon  after  the  close  of 
the  war  he  was  appointed  deputy  assessor  of  internal  revenue,  which 
office  he  held  for  a  number  of  years.  Since  retiring  from  that  office 
he  has  been  prominent  in  the  insurance  business,  being  a  member  of 
the  local  board  of  underwriters. 

His  wife  died  June  17,  1882.  She  was  a  woman  of  strong  religious 
•convictions,  a  member  of  the  Baptist  church,  and  a  vigorous  temper- 
ance worker. 

Judge  Lake   was  a    man   of   warm    heart    and    generous    impulses,   a 

84  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

good  citizen,  loyal  to  the  core,  and  in  his  prime  was  a  man  of  much 
influence  in  the  community.  His  death  even  at  this  advanced  age  will 
be  sincerely  mourned  by  scores  of  men  who  have  known  the  genial 
kindness  of  his  heart. 

Besides  the  three  children  named,  he  leaves  one  brother  in  Mt. 
Morris,  N.  Y.,  also  several  grandchildren. 

Judge  Lake  was  not  a  member  of  any  church,  but  was  treasurer  of 
the  Baptist  church  in  Flint  many  years,  and  he  illustrated  in  his 
daily  life  the  precepts  of  a  correct  Christian  morality. 

MRS.  HANNAH  M.  HOPKINS. — Mrs.  Hannah  Miles  Hopkins  who  was 
prostrated  by  a  stroke  of  apoplexy  Monday  morning,  passed  peacefully 
away  Saturday  afternoon,  June  18,  1892,  at  the  residence  of  Frank  E. 
Willett,  where  she  had  been  making  her  home  much  of  the  time 
during  the  past  few  years.  The  deceased,  whose  maiden  name  was 
Miles,  was  born  in  Homer,  Cortland  county,  N.  Y.,  May  20,  1821.  In 
June,  1839,  she  came  to  Flint,  and  on  January  14,  1847,  she  was 
united  in  marriage  to  Henry  Hopkins,  who  died  in  September,  1853. 
On  April  18,  1864,  she  was  married  to  Geo.  S.  Hopkins,  and  four 
years  later  she  was  again  left  a  widow.  Since  that  time  she  had. 
occupied  positions  of  trust  in  different  households,  and  in  an  humble 
way  she  showed  herself  to  be  a  true  Christian  and  by  example  taught 
many  lessons  of  patience  and  self-denial.  She  was  greatly  esteemed 
by  all  who  knew  her  and  her  death  has  caused  sincere  regret  among  a 
large  circle  of  friends  and  acquaintances  who  had  learned  to  respect 
and  admire  her  for.  her  many  sterling  qualities  of  character.  She 
leaves  to  mourn  her  loss  one  son,  Nelson,  of  Flint,  and  one  grand- 
daughter, Alice  L.  Hopkins,  who  is  a  member  of  the  family  of  Wm, 
A.  Miller. 

IRETUS  PERRY.— Iretus  Perry  died  February  3,  1893,  at  his  residence 
in  Flint.  Deceased  was  born  in  Grand  Blanc  in  1837,  and  was  a  son 
of  the  late  George  Perry.  He  was  raised  on  a  farm  and  on  reaching 
manhood's  estate  was  united  in  marriage  to  Miss  Emma  Adams,  who 
with  one  child,  Mrs.  Elmer  Halsey,  survives  him.  After  his  marriage 
the  deceased  moved  to  Fenton  and  later  to  Byron,  where  he  was 
engaged  in  the  drug  business  for  some  time.  He  then  moved  back  to 
Fenton  and  later  to  Flint  township,  subsequently  removing  to  Union 
City  and  engaging  in  the  hardware  business.  Six  years  ago  he  took 
up  his  residence  in  Flint. 

Mr.  Perry  was  highly  respected  by  all  who  knew  him,  and  besides- 
his  wife  and  child  he  leaves  several  brothers  and  sisters,  among  them 


Kay  of  Grand  Blanc,  Robert  and  Oliver  of  Fenton.  One  of  the  sisters, 
Mrs.  Frary,  lives  in  Fenton,  and  the  other  two  in  California. 

SEYMOUR  PERRY. — Seymour    Perry   died   February    6,    1893,  of   heart 


Deceased    was   born   in   Monroe    county,   N.  Y.,  March  13,  1818.     In 

1820  he  came  to  Michigan  and  settled  with  his  parents  in  Grand 
Blanc  township  where  he  has  lived  continuously  for  67  years.  He 
leaves  a  wife  and  six  children:  Lee,  Joshua  K.,  Mrs.  Henry  Mason, 
Mrs.  Geo.  R.  Mason,  Ella,  and  Mrs.  Frank  Swift.  Mr.  Perry  was  one 
of  the  prominent  farmers  of  his  township  and  an  ardent,  life  long 
republican.  His  work  has  been  well  done  and  his  name,  honored  and 
revered,  will  live  long  in  the  memory  of  his  fellows. 

E.  W.  RISING. — E.  W.  Rising,  founder  of  the  village  of  Davison, 
died  April  30,  1893,  at  his  residence  in  that  village  from  the  effects  of 
a  stroke  of  paralysis  received  two  weeks  ago.  His  death  has  caused  a 
gloom  in  Davison,  in  the  upbuilding  of  which  village  he  had  been  so 
greatly  interested,  and  his  death  is  a  severe  blow  to  the  promising  little 
town.  Mr.  Rising  during  his  lifetime  did  more  than  any  other  person 
toward  the  upbuilding  of  Davison,  erecting  the  Davison  hotel,  a  brick 
block  with  four  stores,  Rising's  hall  and  the  New  Era  roller  mills.  At 
the  time  of  his  death  he  was  engaged  in  the  erection  of  two  brick 
stores,  the  material  for  which  was  on  hand,  and  the  foundation  had 
been  completed  for  two  other  brick  stores. 

E.  W.  Rising  was  born  in  Franklin  county,  N.  Y.,  on  October  8, 
1822,  and  was  a  son  of  Sylvester  and  Sally  Rising.  At  the  age  of 
nine  years  he  removed  with  the  family  to  Niagara  county  in  the  same 
state,  where  he  grew  to  manhood,  and  was  united  in  marriage  to  Mary 
Ann  Drake.  In  1848  he  came  to  Richfield,  this  county,  with  his  wife 
and  settled  on  a  farm  of  80  acres,  which  he  added  to  and  brought  to 
such  a  state  of  perfection  that  for  some  years  he  was  awarded  the 
premium  offered  by  the  State  agricultural  society  for  the  best  farm  in 
Michigan.  He  always  took  a  great  interest  in  the  society  and  all 
things  connected  with  agriculture,  and  was  for -many  years  a  member 
of  the  executive  board  of  the  State  agricultural  society  and  was  chair- 
man of  the  Agricultural  College  board  at  the  time  the  buildings  were 
erected.  Mr.  Rising  was  also  president  of  the  Genesee  county  agri- 
cultural society  for  some  years,  and  a  short  time  before  his  death 
received  an  appointment  as  delegate  to  the  agricultural  congress  at  the 
World's  Fair  at  Chicago  the  following  October.  He  also  served  as 
postmaster  at  Davison  under  President  Cleveland. 

86  ANNUAL,  MEETING,  1893. 

In  1872  he  sold  his  farm  in  Eichfield  and  moved  to  the  present  site 
of  Davison  and  purchased  a  farm  of  240  acres.  With  McQuigg  & 
Hyatt  he  platted  the  village  of  Davison  and  a  few  years  later 
purchased  their  interest.  All  his  endeavors  were  concentrated  toward 
the  welfare  and  upbuilding  of  the  village,  which  will  prove  an 
enduring  monument  to  his  industry  and  perseverance.  The  sites  of 
the  M.  E.  and  Baptist  churches  at  Davison  were  given  by  Mr.  Rising 
to  these  church  societies.  He  was  a  man  highly  respected  by  all  who 
knew  him,  and  his  death  is  sincerely  regretted. 

Besides  his  wife  he  is  survived  by  his  father,  who  is  now  in  his 
ninety-third  year,  his  brother  Henry  C.%  of  Davison,  and  three  sisters 
all  of  Richfield.  They  are  Mrs.  Oscar  Clemens,  Mrs.  John  Moore, 
and  Mrs.  James  Root.  Mr.  Rising  was  a  member  of  Davison  Lodge, 
236,  F.  &  A.  M.,  and  the  interment  was  made  with  Masonic  ceremonies. 

DANIEL  H.  SEELEY. — Daniel  H.  Seeley,  perhaps  the  oldest  living 
pioneer  of  Genesee  county,  died  at  his  home  in  Genesee  township, 
June  28,  1892,  at  the  age  of  87  years.  He  was  born  in  Bridgeport, 
Conn.,  April  13,  1805,  and  came  to  Flint  in  1836  when  there  were  only 
ten  families  and  seven  buildings  here.  Indians,  however,  were  plenti- 
ful, and  it  was  no  unusual  sight  to  see  as  many  as  four  hundred 
braves  with  their  families  pass  the  home  of  this  old  settler.  He  was 
married  in  Brockport,  N.  Y.,  September  2,  1827,  to  Miss  Julia  A.  Taylor. 
As  above  stated  he  came  to  Flint,  bringing  his  young  wife  with  him  in 
the  spring  of  1836,  building  the  eighth  house  erected  in  the  city.  He 
also  built  a  tailor  shop  and  store,  the  latter  being  the  second  business 
place  erected  in  the  city.  The  first  court  here  was  held  in  his  shop  and 
the  first  meeting  of  the  board  of  supervisors  took  place  in  the  same  place. 
In  1843  Mr.  Seeley  moved  on  his  farm  in  Genesee  township  where  he 
has  since  lived.  He  was  obliged  to  cut  a  road  to  the  log  shanty  he 
found  on  the  place  before  lumber  could  be  hauled  to  it.  Constant 
protection  was  required  against  the  inroads  of  wild  animals,  of  which 
there  were  plenty. 

In  more  respects  than  one  the  late  Daniel  H.  Seeley  of  Genesee, 
was  a  remarkable  man.  One  of  his  chief  characteristics  was  the  love 
he  bore  his  children  and  grandchildren.  Although  himself  deprived 
of  that  advantage,  he  gave  his  children  a  college  education,  and  has 
educated  or  was  educating  at  the  time  of  his  death,  each  and  every 
one  of  his  grandchildren.  Mr.  Seeley  possessed  in  a  remarkable 
degree  that  virtue  esteemed  the  greatest  by  the  Great  Teacher  of 
Judea,  and  possessed  in  its  true  sense  by  so  few — the  virtue  of 


charity.  No  man  was  ever  heard  to  utter  one  word  of  reproach 
against  this  honest  old  pioneer,  and  more  remarkable  still,  no  man  ever 
heard  him  utter  aught  but  good  of  his  fellows.  In  his  death  the 
county  has  lost  one  of  its  most  valued  citizens,  and  his  children  one 
who  was  more  to  them  than  father. 

Mr.  Seeley  was  a  prominent  member  of  the  Congregational  church, 
and  was  a  man  of  excellent  character  and  much  influence  in  the 
community.  He  was  a  successful  farmer  and  stockbreeder.  His  farm 
was  a  model  of  good  cultivation,  neatness,  and  good  order,  and  his 
home  was  elegant  and  even  luxurious.  He  illustrated  in  his  deport- 
ment and  way  of  living  how  entirely  possible  it  is  for  a  farmer  to  be 
a  gentleman,  if  it  is  in  him  to  be  a  gentleman.  He  was  courteous 
and  polite  in  his  manners,  correct  in  his  speech,  affable  but  dignified 
in  his  intercourse  with  men,  neat  in  his  dress  and  personal  appear- 
ance— a  thing  which  is  not  necessarily  beyond  the  attainment  of  any 
reasonably  prosperous  farmer.  His  aged  wife  survives  him.  Three 
sons  and  one  daughter  are  also  living.  They  are  Hon.  Marvia  L. 
Seeley,  who  resides  on  the  home  farm,  Dr.  Frank  T.  Seeley  of  Iowa, 
and  Theron  V.  Seeley  of  Mt.  Morris  village.  The  daughter  is  Mrs. 
F.  A.  Burroughs  also  of  Mt.  Morris.  Another  daughter  was  Mrs.  A. 
R.  Bray,  now  deceased,  mother  of  Assistant  Prosecuting  Attorney 
Everett  L.  Bray. 

MR.  ABEL  SEELYE. — Mr.  Abel  Seelye,  of  Davison,  died  at  his  home 
in  that  township  on  Nov.  7,  1892,  aged  74  years.  The  deceased  was 
one  of  the  fast  disappearing  pioneers  of  the  county  and  was  among  the 
first  settlers  of  Davison  township.  He  enjoyed  the  esteem  and  good 
will  of  a  very  large  circle  of  acquaintances,  and  with  his,  ends  a  busy 
and  useful  life. 

DR.  A.  A.  THOMPSON. — Dr.  A.  A.  Thompson,  one  of  Flint's  most 
respected  citizens  and  foremost  physicians  died  at  his  home  August  23, 
1892.  Dr.  Thompson  was  born  at  Richmond,  Vermont,  sixty-three 
years  ago.  He  was  a  graduate  of  Oberlin  college  and  of  the  Michigan 
State  University.  He  was  a  successful  physician  and  business  man, 
and  was  prominent  in  social  circles  as  well.  He  was  surgeon  of  the 
Twelfth  Michigan  Infantry  during  the  war.  He  was  professor  of  anat- 
omy in  Olivet  College,  and  represented  the  United  States  as  her  consul 
at  Goderich,  Canada,  for  some  time,  besides  filling  other  places  of 
public  trust;  he  was  a  man  of  brains  and  high  intellect.  His  manner 
was  mild  and  pleasing;  he  was  the  soul  of  honor  and  was  always  an 
ideal  gentleman  under  any  circumstances.  He  stood  high  in  his 

88  ANNUAL,  MEETING,  1893. 

profession,    and    the    news    of    his    death    was    met    everywhere    with 
expression  of  sincere  regret. 

GEORGE  S.  WOODHULL. — George  S.  Woodhull,  a  wealthy  pioneer  of 
Fenton  township  residing  near  Long  Lake  and  the  owner  of  Wood- 
hull's  landing  at  that  place,  died  June  7,  1891,  after  a  brief  illness. 
Deceased  was  about  70  years  of  age  and  located  in  Fenton  in  1843. 
He  held  various  town  offices  in  Fenton  and  for  a  number  of  years  was 
president  of  the  Genesee  Union  Pioneer  Society.  Deceased  leaves 
four  children,  one  son  and  three  daughters,  and  ten  grandchildren. 

IRA  D.  WRIGHT. — Ira  D.  Wright  died  at  his  home  on  the  Miller 
road,  just  outside  the  western  city  limits  of  Flint,  May  7,  1893.  He 
was  one  of  the  oldest  pioneers  of  Genesee  county  and  one  of  the 
founders  of  the  city.  The  death  of  Mr.  Wright  marks  the  close  of  a 
long  and  eventful  life.  He  was  born  in  Washington  township,  Cheshire 
county,  N.  H.,  August  3,  1808.  In  1814  he  removed  with  his  parents 
to  Bethany,  Genesee  county,  N.  Y.,  where  he  was  reared  to  manhood. 
In  1834  the  subject  of  this  sketch,  together  with  Eobert.  F.  Stage  and 
A.  C.  Stevens,  came  to  Flint,  then  a  small  village,  and  purchased  in 
Genesee  county  some  three  thousand  acres  of  land,  including  a  tract  of 
two  hundred  acres  which  embraced  what  is  now  a  portion  of  the  city 
of  Flint  lying  between  Court  street  and  the  river,  and  east  of  Saginaw 
street.  This  land  was  then  in  a  wild  state.  They  at  once  set  a  force 
of  men  clearing  this  land  and  returned  to  New  York.  The  next  spring 
they  returned  and  much  of  this  land  was  then  planted. 

In  October,  1835,  they  opened  the  first  general  store  in  the  county 
at  Grand  Blanc.  The  goods  were  moved  to  Flint,  where  a  suitable 
building  had  been  erected,  in  June,  1836.  In  the  second  story  of  this 
building  the  pioneers,  without  regard  to  sect  or  creed  met  for  worship. 
The  deceased  in  company  with  Mr.  Stage,  also  had  the  honor  of 
erecting  the  first  building  for  school  purposes  in  this  city.  This  was 
a  board  shanty  twelve  by  sixteen  feet,  erected  in  1836  on  the  east  side 
of  Saginaw  street.  Miss  Philanda  Overton  was  employed  as  teacher, 
and  education  was  furnished  free  to  the  hardy  children  of  the  pioneers 
of  Flint.  The  deceased  and  his  partner,  Mr.  Stage,  also  built  the  first 
dam  and  first  saw  mill  in  the  city.  After  running  this  mill  for  seven 
years,  Mr.  Wright  engaged  in  the  business  of  landlooking.  He  held 
the  office  of  deputy  United  States  timber  agent  for  three  years  and 
during  that  time  entered  50,000  acres  of  pine  lands  for  one  firm. 

Mr.  Wright  settled  on  the  farm  where  he  has  since  lived  and  where 
he  died,  on  section  9,  Smith's  reservation,  Flint  township,  1853.  March 


22,  1842,  he  was  married  to  Miss  Marietta  Ingersoll,  daughter  of  one 
of  the  pioneers  of  Oakland  county,  who  died  October  27,  1891.  Mr. 
Wright  at  the  time  of  her  death  told  his  children  he  would  not  long 
survive  her.  He  leaves  two  children,  Etta  and  Melvin  W. 

As  highway  commissioner  Mr.  Wright  laid  out  the  first  road  in  Flint 
township  and  Genesee  county.  He  has  also  held  the  office  of  deputy 
United  States  Marshal.  In  politics  Mr.  Wright  was  a  democrat  and 
cast  his  first  vote  for  Andrew  Jackson.  There  were  only  four  families 
-of  white  people  in  this  city  when  he  came.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
State  pioneer  association.  Mr.  Wright  has  always  been  a  generous 
contributor  to  churches,  benevolences  and  educational  institutions.  His 
hospitality  was  proverbial. 

Detroit,  May  9,  1893. 

FRIEND  RANKIN — A  letter  from  a  Flint  friend  today,  advises  me  of  the  death 
of  another  old  citizen — a  veritable  pioneer — Mr.  Ira  D.  Wright. 

One  of  the  first  men  pointed  out  to  me  after  my  arrival  in  Flint  thirty-five 
years  ago,  was  "Ira  Wright;"  and  the  name  was  not  unfamiliar  to  me.  I  had 
heard  of  Ira  Wright  long  before  I  saw  him,  or  had  heard  of  such  a  place  as 

Like  myself,  but  more  than  twenty  years  before  me,  he  had  come  to  Mich- 
igan from  the  same  village  in  western  New  York;  and  it  was  from  his  former 
companion,  Mr.  John  H.  Stanley,  in  whose  store  I  was  for  a  time  a  youthful  clerk, 
that  I  heard  of  the  genial,  fun-loving  young  fellow,  who  had  determined  to  seek 
his  fortune  in  the  wilds  of  Michigan.  This'  early  friend  of  Mr.  Wright  had 
many  amusing  tales  to  tell  of  youthful  escapades,  wherein  the  jolly  Ira  was 
foremost  and  funny,  amongst  the  young  bucks  of  the  village. 

Mr.  Wright  enjoyed  often  to  stop  on  the  street,  and  ask  concerning  the  men 
whom  he  left  behind  as  young  fellows,  a  half  century  before. 

The  familiar  figure  of  this  amiable  old  gentleman  will  be  missed  on  the  streets 
he  had  trodden  so  long;  while  words  of  kindness  and  respectful  regard  will 
always  accompany  a  mention  of  the  name  of  Ira  D.  Wright. 

M.  S.  ELMORE. 

BY   WM.    DRAKE. 

ARTHUR  H.  CRANE. — Hon.    Arthur   H.    Crane   died   June   4,  1892,  of 
paralysis,  aged  78  years.     He  was  well  known  as  a  representative  farmer 
in  both  Hillsdale  and  Lenawee,  having  served  on  the  boards  of  super- 
visors of  both  counties.     He  was  a  member  of    the  legislature  from  '69 

90  ANNUAL,  MEETING,  1893. 

to  '72,  and  was  esteemed  as  a  gentleman  of  sterling  character  and 
strong  intellect.  He  was  married  three  times,  a  wife  and  children 
surviving  him. 

ISAAC  ORCUTT. — Died  in  Warren,  Idaho  county,  Idaho,  Saturday, 
February  4,  1893,  Isaac  Orcutt,  a  native  of  New  York,  aged  68  years. 
Mr.  Orcutt  was  one  of  the  pioneers  of  Florence  and  Warren  basins, 
and  a  better  man  never  trod  the  footstool.  Until  within  the  last  eighteen 
months  he  was  possessed  of  extraordinary  strength  and  physical  endur- 
ance, but  he  finally  was  prostrated  with  dyspepsia  and  the  end  was 
expected  for  some  time.  The  entire  population  turned  out  next  day  to 
pay  the  last  sad  rites  over  the  remains  of  one  who  was  the  embodi- 
ment of  all  the  virtues  which  belong  to  the  fast  departing  race  of 
pioneer  heroes.  'No  death  has  occurred  in  Warren  within  our 
recollection  which  excited  such  feelings  of  genuine  grief. — Idaho  Free 



We  are  indebted  to  N.  W.  Thompson  of  Ft.  Wayne,  Indiana,  for 
the  following  interesting  history  in  connection  with  the  life  of  the 
deceased : 

"  Isaac  Orcutt  was  a  pioneer  to  Hillsdale  county.  His  father,  Amba 
Orcutt,  moved  into  Florida  (now  Jefferson)  in  September,  1836,  and 
his  daughter  (now  Mrs.  Phebe  Jones,  residing  at  5221  South  Halsted 
street,  Chicago),  was  born  in  October,  1836,  being  the  first  white  child 
born  in  the  town  of  Florida,  which  at  that  time  comprised  the  present 
townships  of  Jefferson,  Ransom  and  east  one-half  of  Amboy.  Ike  was 
the  oldest  of  nine  children,  the  youngest  born  in  1850.  One  child 
died  in  infancy  in  1848.  Since  that  time  there  have  been  no  deaths 
of  the  children  until  Ike's  death  broke  the  circle. 

"  Ike  went  to  California  in  1852,  in  company  with  four  of  his  uncles, 
Fred,  George,  Henry  and  Cornelius  Duryee.  He  went  to  British 
Columbia  in  1861,  then  to  Florence,  Idaho,  in  1862  or  '63,  and  since 
then  has  resided  in  the  Salmon  Kiver  mountains.  He  told  me  in  1888 
that  he  had  not  seen  a  railroad  train  in  22  years,  and  had  not  lived 
in  that  time  where  you  could  get  to  him  with  a  wagon  only  by  mount- 
ain trails." 

GEORGE  ANSON  SMITH.— Hon.  Geo.  A.  Smith,  of  Somerset,  died  at 
his  home  in  that  village  January  29,  1893. 

He  was  born  in  Danbury,  Conn.,  March  8,  1825,  and  was  nearly  68 
years  of  age. 

Deceased  was  an  honored  citizen  of  Somerset  and  Hillsdale  county, 
where  he  resided  from  the  age  of  14  years,  leaving  an  honorable  record 


and  respected  family.  Mr.  Smith  has  long  occupied  a  prominent  place 
in  public  matters  in  the  county  and  state.  He  was  elected  to  the  lower 
house  of  the  legislature  in  1863,  and  served  two  terms  afterward  as 
senator  from  the  district  composed  of  Hillsdale  and  Branch  counties. 
He  was  also  president  of  the  county  agricultural  society,  and  served 
twenty  years  as  postmaster  in  his  own  place.  Public  spirited  and 
progressive,  combining  the  qualities  of  the  successful  farmer  and  busi- 
ness man,  he  will  be  missed  in  his  own  home  .and  in  public  life. 

Mr.  Smith  leaves  a  wife,  five  sons,  and  three  daughters:  Fred  S., 
farmer  and  stock  dealer,  farm  adjoining  homestead;  Azariel,  miller  and 
banker,  Addison,  Mich.;  Rev.  Geo.  Le  Grande,  Chicago;  Stewart  K., 
civil  engineer,  Seattle,  Wash.;  Frank  R.,  at  home  in  charge  of  home- 
stead; Mrs.  A.  T.  Daniels,  Topeka,  Kan.;  Mary  A.,  and  Catherine  B., 
at  home. 

HORACE  TURNEE. — Horace  Turner  died  on  September  6,  1892.  He 
had  lived  in  South  Adams  43  years.  Mr.  Turner  was  born  at  Otisca, 
Madison  county,  New  York,  July  5,  1807;  was  married  in  1829  to 
Deborah  Terril,  and  moved  to  Michigan,  living  at  Palmyra  for  a  time. 
In  1849  he  moved  upon  the  farm  four  miles  east  of  Hillsdale,  then  an 
almost  unbroken  wilderness.  Here  they  endured  all  the  hardships  of  a 
pioneer  life.  Six  children  were  given  them,  four  of  whom  are  living, 
three  daughters  and  one  son,  who  with  the  aged  companion,  now  87 
years  old,  are  left  to  mourn.  For  63  years  they  walked  the  rugged 
path  of  life  side  by  side,  rejoicing  in  the  sunshine  and  sorrowing  in 
the  shade.  He  was  a  faithful,  consistent,  hard  working,  untiring 
Christian  and  an  honest  man.  His  family,  neighbors,  and  all  who 
knew  him  best  will  unite  in  saying  he  has  not  knowingly  taken  one 
penny  that  belonged  to  others.  In  politics  he  was  a  staunch  republican. 
Strictly  a  temperance  man,  he  believed  in  the  equality  of  man  and 
that  religious  duties  consisted  in  doing  justice,  toving  mercy,  and 
endeavoring  to  make  his  fellow  beings  happy. 

HON.  ROBERT  WOKDEN. — The  remains  of  Robert  Worden  were 
brought  to  Hudson  and  buried  in  the  Goodrich  cemetery,  in  Pittsford 
township,  where  he  first  settled  fifty-nine  years  ago,  and  where  he 
resided  until  a  few  years  ago.  He  died  at  the  home  of  his  daughter, 
Mrs.  Post,  in  Owosso,  May  2,  1893.  Mr.  Worden  was  elected  treasurer 
of  Hillsdale  county  in  1843,  which  office  he  held  two  terms.  In  1852 
he  was  elected  to  the  legislature  from  the  first  representative  district 
of  this  county. 

The  following  is  from  the  Hudson  Post  of  May  6,  1893: 

92  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

Mr.  Worden  was  one  of  the  pioneers  of  this  vicinity,  and  but  few  of 
his  comrades  of  early  days  remain  on  earth.  He  came  to  Michigan  in 
1834  and  purchased  a  tract  of  government  land,  the  old  farm  which  he 
sold  to  Dr.  Billings  a  few  years  ago,  and  which  is  located  one  mile 
north  and  one  mile  west  of  Hudson. 

Robert  Worden  was  honored  in  years  gone  by,  having  been  elected 
to  the  legislature,  and  also  to  the  office  of  county  treasurer,  and  other 
positions  of  trust.  In  politics  a  radical  democrat,  he  was  always  ready 
to  advocate  his  belief,  and  in  times  of  eampaign  was  counted  on  as  an 
active  and  effective  political  worker. 

Mr.  Wordon  was  very  widely  known  and  had  many  friends  who 
remembered  him  as  he  was  in  days  gone  by.  He  was  a  true  friend 
and  bitter  enemy.  His  memory  will  be  kindly  treasured,  for  he  was 
one  of  the  rugged  pioneers  whose  life  work  was  the  clearing  away  of 
the  forests  and  making  productive  a  country  which  is  the  pride  of  the 
present  generation. 


BY   C.    B.    STEBBINS. 


June  15. — In  Lansing,  Henry  S.  Sleeper,  aged  51  years.  He  was 
county  clerk  in  Kalamazoo  seven  years,  and  deputy  commissioner  of 
the  State  land  office  twelve  years. 

June  17. — In  Williamston,  George  Burchard,  Sr.,'aged  70  years. 

July  5. — In  Lansing,  A.  M.  Cheney,  aged  55  years.  He  came  to 
Michigan  38  years  ago. 

July  16. — Mrs.  Kate  E.  Burr,  one  of  the  early  settlers  of  Lansing, 
Aged  73  years. 

July  28. — In  Lansing,  Mrs.  Mary  A.  Nash,  aged  75  years.  She  had 
resided  in  Lansing  38  years. 

July  28. — In  Lansing,  Francis  E.  West,  aged  76  years.  He  helped 
survey  the  town  of  Lansing.  In  the  latter  part  of  his  life  he  was 
totally  blind. 

August  10.— In  Meridian,  Charles  W.  Smith,  aged  62  years.  He  had 
resided  in  Michigan  45  years  and  in  Meridian  39  years. 


August  19. — Russell  Blair,  33  years  a  resident  of  Lansing,  died  at 
Hastings,  aged  87  years.  He  was  buried  at  Lansing. 

September  10. — Mrs.  Thomas  Shipp,  a  resident  of  Lansing  since  1856, 
aged  64  years. 

September  15. — Nathan  Welden,  aged  72  years.  He  was  a  resident 
of  Lansing  from  its  organization. 

September  18. — In  Lansing,  George  W.  Bliss,  aged  54  years.  He 
was  born  in  Washtenaw  county  and  came  to  Lansing  in  1874. 

October  9. — Mrs.  A.  Houghton,  of  Lansing,  aged  87  years. 

October  10. — Thomas  Meagber  died  while  sitting  at  the  breakfast 
table,  aged  62  years.  He  was  a  Canadian  by  birth  and  had  resided  in 
Lansing  27  years. 

October  29. — Fred  Bauerly,  aged  59  years.  He  was  of  German  birth, 
and  had  resided  in  Lansing  35  years. 

October  31. — L.  A.  Torrance,  aged  72  years.  He  had  lived  many 
years  on  his  farm  just  outside  of  the  city  of  Lansing. 

November  7.— Dr.  Theophilus  C.  Abbot,  LL.  D.,  twenty-three  years 
president  of  the  Agricultural  College,  aged  76  years.  His  biography 
will  appear  at  large  on  another  page. 

November  14. — Mrs.  Sally  A.  Williams,  aged  68  years.  She  resided 
in  Lansing  since  1844. 

November  15.— Charles  Westcott,  aged  72  years.  He  came  to  Lan- 
sing in  1848,  coming  from  Warren,  Ohio. 

November  20. — Mrs.  Mary  Loftus,  aged  61  years.  She  was  born  in 
Ireland  and  had  lived  in  Lansing  27  years. 

November  20. — James  Ennis,  aged  80  years.  He  was  born  in  New 
York,  and  settled  in  Eaton  Rapids  in  1868,  coming  to  Lansing  in  1886. 


January  18. — Mrs.  M.  R.  Scammon,  aged  81  years.  She  was  a 
resident  of  Lansing  since  1855. 

January  27. — Daniel  Searles,  an  early  pioneer  of  Mason,  aged  80 
years.  He  resided  fifty  years  on  one  farm. 

February  13. — Miss  Nancy  S.  Fuller,  of  Vevay,  .aged  52  years.  She 
came  to  Michigan  in  1856,  and  spent  a  large  part  of  her  life  in 

February  20. — Uncle  Harry  Grovenburg,  aged  about  83  years.  He 
was  one  of  the  first  settlers  of  Delhi,  where  he  resided  49  years.  He 
was  buried  on  the  sixty-first  anniversary  of  his  marriage. 

March  9.— Hiram  Johnson,  aged  88  years.  He  had  resided  near 
Okemos  many  years. 

94  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

March  19. — Luke  Hazen,  of  Lansing,  aged  80  years.  He  came  to 
Michigan  in  1835,  was  representative  from  Hillsdale  county  in  1848, 
supervisor  in  the  town  of  Allen  three  terms,  town  clerk  of  Litchfield 
three  terms,  treasurer  eleven  years,  and  county  clerk  four  years. 

March  20. — Mrs.  Emily  F.  McKibbin,  aged  75  years.  She  came  to 
Vevay  from  Vermont  in  1836  and  had  resided  in  or  near  Lansing  since 

March  24. — John  A.  Clippenger,  aged  --  years;  one  of  the  pioneer 
residents  of  Lansing. 

March  27. — Mrs.  Maria  B.  Pinckney,  aged  65  years.  She  came  to 
Lansing  with  her  husband,  Wm.  H.  Pinckney  in  1850, 

March  31. — Thomas  E.  McCurdy,  aged  68  years.  He  had  resided  in 
the  vicinity  of  Okemos  over  30  years. 

March  31. — Mrs.  Mary  P.  Strong,  aged  77  years.  She  came  to 
Lansing  in  1856  with  her  husband  who  was  for  many  years  foreman 
of  the  State  Kepublican  bindery. 

May  2. — Bernard  C.  Kelly,  a  resident  of  Lansing  for  over  30  years, 
aged  56  years. 

May  4. — Mrs.  Rhoda  Barnes,  aged  56  years.  She  came  to  Lansing 
in  1848,  was  married  to  Mr.  Barnes  in  1855,  and  for  35  years  had 
resided  in  Delhi. 

May  11. — Mrs.  S.  M.  Barrett,  aged  83  years.  She  came  from  New 
York  to  Lansing  in  1853,  where  she  had  since  resided. 

May  17. — Charles  Foster,  of  Okemos,  aged  68  years.  He  had  resided 
in  Lansing  and  vicinity  43  years. 

May  21. — Jason  D.  Patridge,  aged  86  years  and  seven  months.  He 
was  born  in  Vermont  and  was  an  old  resident  in  the  vicinity  of 

May  23. — Mrs.  Sarah  A.  Bidelman,  aged  60  years.  She  had  lived 
in  or  near  Lansing  many  years. 

EDWIN  BEEVES  OSBAND. — Edwin  Beeves  Osband  was  born  in  Nankin, 
Wayne  county,  Mich.,  on  Sunday,  March  20,  1836,  and  died  at  Lansing, 
Mich.,  December  8,  1892,  aged  56  years,  8  months  and  18  days.  He 
was  the  youngest  of  six  sons  born  to  William  and  Martha  (Beeves) 
Osband.  His  parents  were  natives  of  New  York  state  and  settled  in 
Nankin  in  1825. 

Edwin  was  reared  upon  his  father's  farm  and  educated  in  the  district 
schools  except  a  few  months  attendance  at  the  then  existing  college  at 
Leoni,  and  also  at  the  opening  of  the  Michigan  Agricultural  College 


in  1857,  he    entered  it  with   the   design  of   completing  the    course,  but 
after  a  few  months  ill  health  compelled  him  to  leave. 

He  learned  the  carpenter  and  joiner's  trade  and  worked  at  it  till  the 
summer  of  1861,  when  he  enlisted  in  Company  H,  1st  Michigan 
Engineers  and  Mechanics,  and  in  the  autumn  went  with  his  regiment 
to  the  front.  He  accompanied  the  advance  of  the  army  that  steamed 
into  Nashville  in  1862  after  the  confederates  evacuated  it.  Almost 
immediately  after  this  he  was  taken  sick  and  sent  to  the  hospital  at 
St.  Louis,  Mo.  His  sickness  proving  serious  and  protracted,  he  was 
permitted  to  return  home  to  secure  better  care  and  medical  aid.  After 
a  few  months  he  again  reported  at  Detroit  for  service.  Here  he  was 
offered  and  accepted  a  detail,  and  served  as  hospital  steward  at  Detroit 
till  early  in  1864,  when  he  returned  to  his  regiment  in  Tennessee.  He 
was  mustered  out  in  front  of  Atlanta  in  the  fall  of  1864,  just  before 
Gen.  Sherman  started  on  his  famous  march  to  the  sea. 

On  February  3,  1864,  before  he  rejoined  his  regiment  he  was  married 
to  Miss  Louise  F.,  daughter  of  Daniel  and  Marcia  (Ferris)  Straight, 
of  Nankin.  After  leaving  the  army  he  acquired  a  half  interest  in  the 
farm  formerly  owned  by  Rev.  Marcus  Swift,  of  Nankin,  and  in 
connection  with  farming  he  ran  a  country  store  in  his  residence  a  few 
months.  In  1866  he  removed  to  Lansing,  bought  a  lot  and  built  a 
residence  on  block  63,  at  the  corner  of  Lapeer  and  Seymour  streets, 
where  he  resided  till  1881.  He  then  removed  to  a  farm  he  had  bought 
one  mile  west  of  the  city  on  Saginaw  street,  where  he  resided  till  the 
time  of  his  death.  In  1886  he  accepted  the  management  of  the 
cooperative  (Grangers')  store  at  North  Lansing,  which  position  he  held 
three  years,  during  which  time  his  son,  D.  Gregory  Osband,  cared  for 
the  farm. 

As  a  business  man  Mr.  Osband  was  successful  and  left  his  family  in 
comfortable  circumstances.  He  was  industrious,  economical,  intelligent, 
strictly  temperate,  and  a  man  of  integrity.  He  was  honored  and 
highly  respected  by  his  neighbors,  among  whom  he  had  many  friends. 
He  was  an  official  member  of  the  Congregational  church,  with  which 
he  had  been  identified  many  years. 

His  last  sickness  was  painful  but  brief.  He  had  been  ailing  several 
weeks,  but  kept  about  his  business  till  the  night  of  Tuesday,  December 
6,  when  he  became  violently  ill.  The  next  day  his  physician 
pronounced  his  disease  peritonitis  of  an  aggravated  form  and  advised 
liim  that  if  he  had  any  business  to  do  he  had  but  little  time  to  do  it 
in.  He  had  kept  his  business  in  such  form  that  it  was  soon  arranged. 

96  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

The  end  came  the   next  (Thursday)    afternoon.     He   left  a  wife,  a  sonr 
and  two  daughters  to  mourn  his  loss. 

HELEN  M.  OSBAND.— Helen  M.,  wife  of  M.  D.  Osband,  died  at  her 
home  in  the  city  of  Lansing,  Mich.,  after  a  protracted  and  painful 
illness  of  twenty-one  months'  duration,  on  Wednesday,  August  3,  1892, 
aged  56  years  and  16  days. 

Mrs.  Osband  was  the  daughter  of  Dr.  Thomas  and  Lucretia  B. 
Hoskins,  and  was  born  at  Lima,  Washtenaw  county,  July  18,  1836.  In 
the  autumn  of  that  year  her  parents  removed  to  Marion,  Livingston 
county.  From  thence  in  the  summer  of  1838  they  returned  to  Wash- 
tenaw and  settled  at  Scio,  where  she  was  reared  and  received  her 
education  in  the  common  schools  of  that  locality,  except  a  term  of  six 
months  in  a  school  of  higher  grade  in  1852,  at  Leoni,  Jackson  county. 

While  in  her  teens  she  commenced  teaching  in  the  schools  of  the 
rural  districts  around  her  home.  As  a  teacher  she  was  eminently 
successful.  She  subsequently  served  a  year  as  assistant  in  the  House 
of  Correction,  as  the  Industrial  School  at  Lansing  was  then  called. 

On  November  15,  1859,  she  was  married  to  M.  D.  Osband,  of 
Lansing,  and  thenceforward  Lansing  became  her  home  till  her  death, 
except  a  few  years'  residence  in  Frederic,  Crawford  county,  in  1882-8. 

In  early  youth  she  united  with  the  M.  E.  church  in  Dexter,  an 
adjacent  village.  Her  religious  nature  was  warm,  broad  and  deep,  and 
unfolded  in  all  her  subsequent  years  into  a  symmetrical  Christian 
character.  In  Lansing  she  identified  herself  with  Sunday  school, 
missionary,  and  temperance  work,  and  with  the  interests  of  general 
society,  in  all  of  which  she  became  prominent  and  maintained  her 
positions  while  her  health  permitted.  Life  with  her  was  barren  unless 
she  could  administer  to  the  happiness  of  others.  Her  success  in  her 
schools  and  her  Sunday  school  work  was  secured  by  her  habit  of 
making  thorough  preparation  for  her  work  before  appearing  before  her 
classes.  Sh.e  also  loved  her  classes  and  each  member  thereof.  This 
gave  her  great  influence  over  them.  She  was  eminently  social  and 
always  welcome  in  the  social  circle.  She  was  gifted  in  speech,  warm 
in  heart,  and  bright  in  intellect,  and  was  widely  known  and  highly 
respected.  As  a  wife  and  mother  she  was  faithful,  loving,  and 
watchful.  During  her  last  illness  her  struggle  for  life  was  character- 
ized by  patience,  cheerfulness,  and  fortitude.  When  at  the  last  she 
was  told  that  her  sufferings  were  nearly  over  she  composedly  remarked 
"It  is  all  right."  She  left  a  husband,  a  mother,  a  son,  and  daughter 
to  mourn  her  departure.  She  has  gone  to  her  reward  and  the  world 
is  better  for  her  having  lived  in  it. 



PETER  H.  ADAMY. — Peter  H.  Adamy,  who  died  July  7,  1892,  was 
supposed  to  be  the  oldest  person  living  in  Sebewa.  He  was  born  in 
Minham  township,  Montgomery  county,  N.  Y.,  May  16,  1805,  of  German 
parentage,  and  his  grandfather  was  conspicuous  in  the  revolutionary 
war.  In  1810  he  moved  with  his  parents  to  Niagara  county  and  spent 
fifteen  years  in  clearing  up  and  cultivating  the  heavy  timbered  land  of 
that  country.  In  1827  he  enlisted  in  the  regular  army  for  five  years 
and  saw  service  in  the  Black  Hawk  war  under  General  Brooks,  who 
had  his  headquarters  at  Green  Bay.  During  a  part  of  this  time  Mr. 
Adamy  was  assigned  to  a  post  at  Chicago,  which  was  then  composed 
of  a  few  Indian  huts.  Here  he  spent  some  time  carrying  the  United 
States  mail  from  Chicago  to  Niles,  Michigan.  The  route  was  simply 
an  Indian  trail  on  which  creeks  had  to  be  waded  and  rivers  swum. 
Along  this  route  he  had  many  encounters  with  the  redskins. 

In  1833  he  left  the  army  and  went  back  to  Niagara  county  and 
spent  some  time  in  keeping  store  in  Buffalo.  In  1835  he  moved  to 
Cleveland,  Ohio,  and  on  the  2d  of  September  of  the  same  year  was 
married  to  Sophia  Van  Duzen,  and  lived  in  Cleveland  until  1853, 
when  he  moved  with  his  family  to  Monroe  county,  Michigan,  where  he 
lived  two  years,  and  then  moved  with  his  family  to  Allegan  county, 
where  he  lived  until  1862.  In  that  year  he  moved  to  Ionia  county, 
stopping  in  the  township  of  Orleans  for  one  summer,  and  then  settling 
in  the  township  of  Sebewa,  which  was  his  home  thereafter.  In  1843 
he  was  converted  to  the  christain  faith  under  the  preaching  of  the 
Rev.  Sutton  Hayden  and  became  a  member  of  the  Church  of  Christ, 
and  remained  a  devoted  Christian  the  remainder  of  his  life.  He  was  a 
good  soldier,  a  merchant,  a  farmer,  and  a  devoted  Christian,  and  one 
who  contributed  two  sons  to  the  federal  army  during  the  late  unpleas- 
antness with  the  south.  He  leaves  a  wife,  two  daughters  and  four  sons. 

FELLOW  GATES. — Fellow  Gates  died  at  his  home  in  Orange,  January 
15,  1893. 

The  deceased  was  born  in  Vermont  in  1802  and  was  married  to  Mary 
Williams  in  1827.  After  his  marriage  he  moved  to  New  York,  near 
Niagara  Falls,  and  from  there  went  to  Buffalo,  and  thence  to  Camden, 
Ontario.  In  the  year  1855,  he  moved  and  settled  in  the  township  of 
Orange,  Ionia  county,  where  he  and  his  sons  erected  a  log  cabin. 

98  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

To  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gates  eight  children  were  born,  four  sons,  Elias, 
Nathan,  Freeman,  and  George,  and  four  daughters,  Each  el,  Sarah, 
Elizabeth,  and  Caroline. 

Mrs.  Gates  died  April  11,  1881. 

Mr.  Gates  was  91  years  of  age,  and  leaves  four  sons  and  three 
daughters,  thirty-five  grandchildren,  twenty-four  great-grandchildren, 
three  great-great-grandchildren,  besides  a  large  number  of  friends  to 
mourn  his  loss.  He  was  a  kind  father  and  an  affectionate  husband, 
a  true  and  good  neighbor. 

ANNA  M.  HEYDLAUFF. — Anna  M.  Heydlauff  died  at  the  home  of  her 
daughter,  Mrs.  S.  Danner,  in  Ronald,  Michigan,  January  23,  1893,  aged 
83  years. 

Her  maiden  name  was  Anna  M.  Wagnor.  She  was  born  at  Haslech, 
Kingdom  of  Wurtenburg,  Germany,  January  12,  1811.  She  was  married 
to  C.  F.  Heydlauff  September  13,  1831,  and  in  1837  removed  to 
America.  Leaving  her  fatherland  and  all  that  was  dear  to  her,  crossed 
the  ocean,  landed  at  New  York,  remained  there  a  few  days,  and 
continued  their  journey  from  there  to  Detroit,  Michigan.  From  thence 
they  went  to  the  town  of  Freedom,  Washtenaw  county,  and  settled 
there,  then  an  unbroken  wilderness.  Here  they  resided  for  12  years,  toil 
and  privation  being  their  lot.  In  March,  1846,  they  removed  to  Ronald, 
Michigan,  where  she  resided  the  remainder  of  her  life.  Ronald  can 
truly  say  that  she  was  a  pioneer.  She  was  the  mother  of  nine  children, 
five  of  whom  survive  her,  as  follows:  John  Heydlauff  of  Day  county, 
South  Dakota;  Win.  F.  and  L.  H.  Heydlauff  of  Ronald,  Michigan; 
Mrs.  R.  Miller  of  Sheridan,  Michigan;  and  Mrs.  S.  Danner  of  Ronald, 
Michigan.  She  was  a  good  and  devoted  wife  and  a  loving  mother. 
She  led  a  quiet  life  always  looking  to  the  welfare  of  others.  Mother 
Heydlauff  was  a  faithful  Christian  to  the  last.  Her  life  was  so  true,  so 
pure,  so  unselfish,  so  full  of  love  toward  God  and  man.  She  had  the 
rare  Christ-like  attributes  of  love  for  the  sinner. 

REV.  SMITH  P.  GAMAGE. — Rev.  Smith  P.  Gamage  was  born  at 
Crosgrove,  Northampton  county,  England,  December  28,,  1810.  He  was 
converted  in  early,  life  and  united  with  the  Congregational  church  and 
became  a  preacher  at  the  age  of  19  years.  The  principal  points  of  his 
first  sermon  were  in  writing  and  were  present  at  his  funeral.  He 
came  to  America  in  1830  and  soon  afterward  was  ordained  on  Long 
Island,  near  Brooklyn,  and  was  married  to  Miss  Lydia  E.  King  the 
same  year.  On  the  breaking  out  of  the  rebellion  he  enlisted  as 


chaplain  in  the  75th  Regiment,  colored  infantry,  New  York  volunteers, 
&nd  while  in  the  service  contracted  diseases  which  terminated  only 
with  death.  In  1877  he  with  his  family  came  from  Isabella  county  to 
Portland,  where  he  continued  to  reside  until  his  death.  His  health 
had  prevented  any  settled  pastorate  though  he  occasionally  preached  in 
Sebewa  and  other  places.  He  was  fond  of  writing  and  had  contem- 
plated publishing  one  or  more  volumes  on  theological  subjects,  the 
material  for  which  he  had  on  hand.  For  several  years  he  was  the 
chaplain  to  the  local  post  of  the  G.  A.  R.  and  was  always  present  on 
Decoration  days,  though  for  the  last  two  years  of  his  life  he  was 
confined  to  his  house  nearly  all  the  time.  He  was  buried  as  he 
desired  by  the  attendance  of  the  post  at  his  funeral.  He  was  of  a 
very  amiable  disposition  and  was  much  liked  by  all  who  knew  him. 

MRS.  A.  L.  KELSEY. — Mrs.  A.  L.  Kelsey  died  at  her  home  October 
2,  1892,  aged  86  years. 

The  subject  of  this  sketch  was  the  daughter  of  Ebenezer  and 
Rebecca  Pinckney  Hoyt  and  was  born  in  July,  1806,  in  Montgomery 
county,  N.  Y.,  and  with  her  parents  she  removed  to  Rush,  Monroe 
oounty,  N.  Y.,  where  in  1825  she  married  the  late  Hon.  Levi  Kelsey, 
so  well  and  favorably  known  to  the  older  residents  of  Ionia  county, 
and  who  died  in  1867. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Kelsey  were  the  parents  of  seven  children,  all  of 
whom  became  residents  of  Ionia  county,  only  three  of  whom  are  now 
living,  A.  F.  Kelsey,  E.  P.  Kelsey,  and  Hannah,  wife  of  Wm.  B. 

Mrs.  Kelsey  came  to  Ionia  township  with  her  husband  and  family 
in  1857,  where  she  continuously  resided  until  her  death,  October  2,  1891. 

Although  she  had  been  quite  infirm  for  many  years,  her  robust 
constitution  gradually  yielding  to  repeated  attacks  of  acute  diseases 
and  to  more  than  four  score  years  of  labor,  anxiety,  and  sorrow,  yet 
her  last  sickness  was  of  but  few  days'  duration,  and  her  passing  away 
was  peaceful  and  quiet,  like  the  sleep  which  the  Father  gives  his 
beloved.  She  was  a  member  of  the  M.  E.  church  for  60  years. 

She  was  one  of  those,  the  tidings  of  whose  death  brings  memories  of 
many  words  of  cheer  and  acts  of  kindness,  and  with  such  memories 
come  sorrow  and  regret  that  not  oftener  were  spoken  words  of 
appreciation  and  of  gratitude. 

STEPHEN  J.  LINDLEY. — Stephen  J.  Lindley  died  at  his  home  in 
Danby,  December  5,  1892,  aged  79  years.  He  had  resided  in  Michigan 
since  1853. 

100  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

MKS.  HENRIETTA  PILKINTON. — Mrs.  Henrietta  Pilkinton  was  born  at 
West  Bloomfield,  New  York,  in  1820,  and  was  the  daughter  of  Mr. 
Harry  Bradley,  who  with  his  family  came  to  Northville,  Wayne  county, 
Michigan,  in  1829.  Here  she  made  a  profession  of  religion  and  united 
with  the  Congregational  church.  She  was  married  to  Stephen  Pilkin- 
ton in  1838,  and  with  their  little  family  moved  to  Sebewa,  Ionia 
county,  in  1840.  When  the  Congregational  church  of  Portland  was 
organized,  February  4,  1843,  she  with  her  husband  were  constituent 
members,  though  living  in  a  dense  wilderness  and  at  so  great  a 
distance  as  to  prevent  attendance  at  public  services  of  the  church,  and 
so  keenly  was  this  privation  felt  that  they  removed  to  Portland  in 
184-,  where  they  continued  to  reside  until  Mrs.  Pilkinton's  death, 
December  17,  1892.  The  severe  toil  in  clearing  new  land,  and 
privations  incident  to  an  unsettled  county,  laid  the  foundation  for 
disease,  undermining  the  otherwise  strong  constitution  and  culminating 
in  death  at  the  age  of  72  years.  Mrs.  Pilkinton  was  highly  esteemed 
as  a  neighbor  and  Christian  in  the  community  where  she  was  known. 

EDWARD  EABY.— Edward  Eaby  died  at  Ionia  •  November  30,  1892, 
aged  75  years.  He  was  a  member  of  Company  K,  14th  Michigan 
Infantry,  and  an  old  resident  in  this  locality,  having  worked  with  the 
first  gangs  in  the  construction  of  the  Detroit  and  Milwaukee  railroad. 

ALMON  EOSECRANS. — Almon  Eosecrans  died  at  his  home  in  Ionia 
November  10,  1892.  Mr.  Eosecrans  was  born  near  Lockport,  Niagara 
county,  N.  Y.,  May  3,  1817,  making  his  age  75  years,  6  months,  1 
week.  He  was  one  of  a  family  of  seven  children,  six  of  whom  were 
left  without  parents  while  very  young,  consequently  were,  of  necessity, 
separated  and  cared  for  in  different  homes. 

The  subject  of  our  sketch  was  taken  when  eight  or  nine  years  oldr 
to  live  with  a  Mr.  Holmes,  who  soon  after  moved  to  Wayne  county, 
Mich.  Mr.  Eosecrans  remained  with  them  until  he  arrived  at  maturity. 

Having  a  persevering  nature  and  undaunted  courage,  supported  by 
a  "never  say  fail"  will,  he  pushed  his  way  into  Ionia  county,  then  a 
wilderness.  In  the  year  1839  he  purchased  the  farm  he  owned  at  the 
time  of  his  death,  and  in  the  year  1840  was  married  to  Caroline 
Brown,  of  Oakland  county.  Soon  after  their  marriage  they  settled 
upon  their  land,  with  the  determination  to  convert  it  into  a  home. 
With  the  genuine  pluck  which  characterized  many  of  the  early 
pioneers  and  with  the  assistance  of  a  devoted  and  prudent  wife  (we 
have  often  heard  him  say,  "  If  ever  a  man  had  a  helpmate,  1  had 
one"),  he  cleared  and  improved  his  farm,  reared  and  educated  his 


family,  five  sous  and  two  daughters,  who  were  with  him  as  much  as 
possible  during  his  last  illness,  to  care  for  him  and  comfort  the 
surviving  widow,  who  is  past  70  years  of  age  and  keenly  feels  her 
loss,  but  mourns  not  as  one  without  the  hope  of  a  happy  reunion 
on  the  peaceful  shores  of  heaven. 

Mr.  Eosecrans  was  an  honest  hearted  Christian  and  a  strong  defender 
of  the  United  Brethren  faith,  to  which  church  and  cause  he 
contributed  liberally. 

The  most  sterling  integrity  and  scrupulous  honesty  characterized  his 
life,  both  in  dealings  and  conversation.  His  manner  of  expression  was 
plain  and  candid,  and  his  character  and  the  principles  of  his  life  were 
worthy  to  be  impressed  upon  the  mind  of  the  rising  generation. 

The  minister  very  fittingly  said  at  the  obsequies:  "As  the  aged  and 
respected  pioneers  pass  away,  it  behooves  us  to  recognize  the  traits 
which  made  their  lives  successful."  The  last  year  of  his  life  was 
especially  happy,  socially  and  spiritually.  He  has  always  been  a 
republican  in  politics  until  two  years  ago  when  he  voted  the 
prohibition  ticket. 

JAMES  BRONSON  SANFORD. — The  life  which  has  so  recently  gone  out 
from  among  us  deserves  more  than  a  passing  notice,  which  has,  for 
nearly  50  years,  mingled  in  the  business  of  Ionia  and  been  a  familiar 
figure  on  the  streets.  James  Bronson  Sanford  was  born  in  Ellisburgh, 
Jefferson  county,  N.  Y.,  August  8,  1822.  When  three  years  old  his 
parents  removed  to  Camden,  Oneida  county.  He  came  to  Ionia  with 
his  sister,  Mrs.  Emily  Warner,  in  1839,  and  was  engaged  in  L.  S. 
Warner's  store  for  a  number  of  years.  As  the  Indians  were  daily 
customers  he  learned  some  parts  of  their  language  so  as  to  trade  with 
them.  He  went  to  Chicago  in  1844  and  during  the  following  years 
was  connected  with  some  of  the  old  wholesale  and  retail  firms  of  Magie 
&  Co.,  Clark  &  Haines,  then  went  into  business  for  himself  at  396 
Lake  street.  He  was  married  to  Maria  Yeomans,  daughter  of  Erastus 
Yeomans,  September  8,  1846,  raised  six  sons  and  three  daughters. 
The  eldest  son  died  three  years  since,  the  other  children  all  survive 
him  and  were  all  present  at  the  funeral.  He  returned  to  Ionia  in 
1855  and  took  up  farming.  While  in  Chicago  he  united  with  St. 
James  Episcopal  church  and  was  one  of  three  male  members,  in  the 
early  history  of  the  church  here.  His  mother's  family  was  identified 
with  the  early  settlement  of  central  New  York,  his  mother  being  the 
second  white  child  born  at  Fort  Stanwix,  near  Rome  in  Oneida  county. 
He  died  September  13,  1892,  aged  70  years,  one  month  and  five  days. 






Date  of  death. 





Samael  Adams 

Oct  31    1892 

Grass  Lake 



Asil  D  Avery 

Sept  24  1892 


New  York 


PClisha  S  Balcom 

Oct.  27  1892 

Jackson  . 

Rhode  Island 


Nov  22  1892 




Mary  Ann  Beckwith 

July  12,  1892 


New  York  ... 


Oct  11    1892 




Helen  Beyhan  

Feb.  8,  1898... 
Aug.  1,  1892 

Jackson  . 

New  York 

Resident  of  county  30  yrs. 


Sylvester  Buck 

Oct.  8,  1892 

Jackson  . 

New  York 


Bishop  Barns 

Dec.  2.  1892 


New  York.... 


Susan  Cady 

Nov.  24,  1892 


New  Hamp... 


July  26,  1892 




Joseph  Christopher 

July  24,  1892 


New  York 


Margaret  Cline 

Dec.  31,  1892 




Eliphaz  Dagget 

Nov.  4,  1892 


New  York 


Calvin  Edwards 

Aug.  2  1892 




Mrs  Charlotte  Ellis 

Jan    16  1893 


Resident  30  years 


Wm.  Erwin 

Nov.  12  1892 


New  York 


Chas.  Evans 

Aug.  24,  1892 


New  York 


Eliza  Finch 

Oct.  6,  1892 




Benjamin  Francisco 

Aug.  28,  1892 


Vermont  .  . 


Shubal  Fuller 

July  21  1892 


New  York 


Mrs.  Sarah  Jane  Garfield 

Feb.  15,  1893 


Resident  of  county  55  yrs. 


Sarah  Geiger 

Nov.  19,  1892 




David  Green 

Dec.  26,  1892 


New  York 


Perry  D  Hawley 

Sept  10  1892 

Resident  40  years. 

John  F.  Hoover 

Dec.  11  1892 


New  York 


George  Hnntington 

Oct.  16,  1892 




Joseph  Irwin 

Aug.  8,  1892 




Wm.  B  Joslin 

Oct  7    1892 


Noah  Keeler 

July  10  1892 


New  York 


Willard  C.  Lewis 

Oct.  10,  1892 




Ira  Lowell 

Feb.  15,  1893 

Spring  Arbor 

Old  resident    .— 

Ann  M.  T>nr»as 

Aug  27   1892 



Bernard  Markey  

Oct.  21,  1892.. 


Resident  for  40  years  


Ira  McGonegal 

Dec  13  1892 





Name.  , 

Date  of  death. 






lyTinirida  MoKflfl 

July  29,  1892  . 

Jackson  . 

New  York.... 


Elizabeth  McQuillen 

Sept.  9,  1892 




Mary  W.  Merrimaii 

June  10,  1892 


New  York   .  . 


Patton  Morrison 

Aug.  31,  1892 


New  York 


Mary  J.  Moshier 

Nov.  21,  1892 


Old  resident 


Wm.  C.  Nicholas 

Sept.  18,  1892 


New  York 


Wm    Northrup 

Oct.  8,  1892 


New  York 


Eliza  M.  Olds 

June  21,  1892 




Lorinda  Pease 

Sept.  10,  1892 

Grass  Lake 

New  York 



Lncinda  Pickett         .    . 

July  27,  1892 


New  York 


Wm.  Raven    

Sept.  16,  1892 




Mark  L.  Ray 

Oct.  8,  1892 




Hosea  Reeve 

Aug.  18,  1892 


New  York 


Harriet  E.  Robison 

Aug.  3,  1892 



Mrs.  Anna  Rogers  

June  26,  1892 


Resident  since  1858. 


Catherine  Scott  

Oct.  15,  1892.. 


New  York.... 


Philip  B.  Shaw 

July  16,  1892 




Dorcas  Sprague            ..  . 

Oct.  7,  1892 




Burton  Spencer  

Dec.  12,  1892  . 

Jackson  ... 

New  York  . 


Gillet  Stephens  

July  19,  1892.. 

Hanov«r  . 

New  York.... 


Zenas  Stilson 

Dec.  1,  1892 


New  York 


Wallace  W.  Sutton    .  . 

Feb.  17,  1893 

Leoni    . 

Old  resident 


Ebenezer  Taylor  

July  5,  1892 

Grass  Lake  . 

New  York 


Martin  Tripp 

Dec.  11,  1892 


New  York 


Charles  C.  Turner 

Aug.  8,  1892 


New  York 

Resident  55  years 


Abraham  Van  Gordon 

Dec.  10,  1892 



Mrs.  Susan  F.  Wallace  

Feb.  8,  1893... 

Spring  Arbor 


Rath  Wallack 

Oct.  24,  1892 


New  York 


Perry  Weatherby 

July  30,  1892 


Old  resident 

Thomas  Wheaton  .  . 

Aug.  18,  1892  . 

Grass  Lake    . 

New  York 


Clarissa  White  

Nov.  2,  1892... 




Martha  White 

Aug.  31,  1892 


New  York 


Reuben  White    . 

Dec.  15,  1892 


New  York 


Rosina  Wickwire.  

Dec.  4,  1892... 

Black  man  


Thomas  Woodliff 

Oct.  21,  1892 




Caroline  Woods  

Aug.  9,  1892... 


New  York.... 


Sarah  Young  

Nov.  9,  1892... 


New  Jersey 

Resident  40  years 


JOSEPH  F.  BAILEY. — Joseph  F,  Bailey   died   at  the  family  residence, 

533  North  Blackstone  street,  Jackson,  November  4,  1892,  aged  61  years. 

Deceased  was  born  in   Fairfield,  Vt.,  in   1831,   and   came  to   Jackson 

104  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

forty  years  ago.  He  had  been  a  member  of  the  First  M.  E.  church 
thirty-nine  years,  and  there  are  but  three  members  living  who  united 
with  the  church  so  far  back. 

He  leaves  a  wife  and  three  children,  one  son  and  two  daughters. 

JAMES  W.  BENNETT. — James  W.  Bennett  died  at  Batavia,  N.  Y., 
November  10,  1892.  Mr.  Bennett  was  a  native  of  New  York,  and  for 
a  time  had  a  place  in  the  custom  house  in  New  York  city.  He  was  a 
lawyer  by  profession  and  came  to  Jackson  in  1854,  where  he  has  since 
resided.  During  his  residence  here  he  was  quite  interested  in  politics, 
being  an  ardent  democrat.  He  was  elected  circuit  commissioner,  and 
was  also  elected  justice  of  the  peace  in  Jackson.  At  one  time  he  held 
the  place  of  city  attorney.  Squire  Bennett  had  been  in  poor  health 
for  some  time.  He  was  well  known  in  Jackson  and  his  familiar  figure 
will  be  missed. 

CHAUNCEY  K.  BRONSON. — Chauncey  K.  Bronson  died  at  his  home  in 
Minneapolis,  Minn.,  February  10,  1893,  aged  71  years. 

Mr.  Bronson  came  to  Jackson  with  his  parents  in  the  days  when 
Michigan  was  a  territory.  He  was  born  in  Detroit  and  came  from 
that  city  to  Jackson  when  but  a  boy,  and  for  over  fifty  years  resided 
in  this  city  continuously.  All  of  those  years  Mr.  Bronson  was  in  the 
dry  goods  trade,  and  had  a  personal  acquaintance  with  nearly  every 
farmer  in  the  county,  as  well  as  residents  of  the  city.  He  was  a  man 
noted  for  his  generosity,  and  recipients  of  his  aid  and  fatherly  advice 
will  ever  hold  him  in  grateful  remembrance.  Some  eleven  years  since 
he  removed  to  Minneapolis,  but  after  taking  up  his  abode  in  that  city 
frequently  visited  Jackson. 

The  news  of  his  death  will  be  received  with  sorrow  by  his  numerous 
friends  in  this  city  and  county. 

Deceased  leaves  a  widow  and  three  children,  a  daughter  at  Glendive, 
Montana;  a  son  at  Whatcom,  Washington;  a  son,  Frank,  manager  of 
the  Fidelity  National  bank,  at  Chicago;  and  a  brother,  George,  at 
Tacoma,  Washington. 

OLIVEB  E.  COLE. — Oliver  K.  Cole  died  at  his  home,  corner  of  Black- 
stone  and  Franklin  streets,  Jackson,  August  26,  1892. 

Mr.  Cole  was  79  years  of  age  and  had  been  an  invalid  for  the  last 
15  years  of  his  life,  with  bronchial  consumption. 

Rome,  Oneida  county,  N.  Y.,  was  the  birthplace  of  the  deceased.  In 
1837  he  left  the  state  of  New  York  for  Michigan,  being  one  month  on 


the  road.  The  journey  was  made  on  foot  to  Camden,  Hillsdale  county, 
where  Mr.  Cole  settled.  His  nearest  neighbors  were  one  and  a  half 
miles  distant  from  his  cabin  and  the  nearest  market  was  Jonesville, 
twenty  miles  away.  At  that  time  Reading  and  Camden  constituted 
one  township,  and  there  were  but  thirty-one  voters  in  this  entire 
township.  Mr.  Cole  moved  to  Jackson  a  few  years  later,  and  for 
twenty-one  years  be  was  employed  in  the  prison.  For  five  years  he 
was  stationed  at  the  outside  gate,  and  for  sixteen  years  he  was 

Mr.  Cole  leaves  a  widow,  Mrs.  Sarah  P.  Cole,  and  a  brother,  Clark 
Cole,  whose  home  is  on  Ingham  street,  Jackson. 

PETER  E.  DEMILL. — Peter  E.  DeMill,  of  Detroit,  formerly  a  resident 
of  Jackson,  and  one  of  the  first  county  officers  of  Jackson  county,  also 
a  member  of  Jackson  lodge  No.  4,  I.  O.  O.  F.  ever  since  it  was 
instituted,  being  initiated  in  the  lodge  on  the  first  night  of  its 
existence,  August  17,  1844,  and  a  continuous  member  ever  since,  died 
at  his  residence  in  Detroit  October  31,  1892,  aged  85  years. 

He  represented  Jackson  lodge  No.  4  in  the  grand  lodge  of  Michigan 
in  1850,  and  was  elected  grand  warden  in  1852,  being  a  member  of  the 
order  forty-eight  years. 

Past  Grand  Masters  F.  M.  Foster  and  C.  H.  Haskins  went  to 
Detroit  to  represent  Jackson  lodge  No.  4,  of  Jackson,  at  the  funeral. 

PHILO  M.  EVERETT. — The  Marquette  Mining  Journal  has  the  follow- 
ing obituary  notice  of  Philo  M.  Everett,  who  will  be  well  remembered 
by  the  older  residents  of  the  Central  City: 

The  oldest  resident  of  Marquette,  the  pioneer  of  Marquette  county 
and  of  the  Lake  Superior  iron  country,  the  man  to  whom  the  Indians 
showed  the  great  "  iron  mountain "  which  became  the  Jackson  mine, 
oldest  of  all  the  mines  of  the  Lake  Superior  country,  breathed  his  last 
on  September  28,  1892,  at  the  residence  of  his  son-in-law,  Hon.  D.  H. 

Philo  Marshall  Everett  was  born  at  Winchester,  Conn.,  October  21, 
1807.  While  a  young  man  he  settled  in  New  'York  state,  where  he 
was  married  to  Miss  Mehitable  E.  Johnson,  of  Utica,  in  1833.  In 
1840  he  moved  to  Jackson  and  engaged  in  mercantile  business,  together 
with  the  forwarding  and  commission  business. 

Mr.  Everett  first  came  to  Lake  Superior  in  June,  1845,  in  charge  of 
an  exploring  party  sent  out  by  a  little  body  of  men  there  organized 

106  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

into  the  Jackson  Mining  company,  afterwards  the  Jackson  Iron 
company.  With  this  party  he  discovered  and  located  the  famous 
Jackson  mine,  and  after  the  summer  here  he  returned  home.  In  1857 
he  brought  up  for  the  Elys  the  first  locomotive  ever  seen  on  the  shore 
of  Lake  Superior.  Afterward  he  engaged  in  the  mercantile  business 
here,  and  later  in  banking  and  insurance,  accumulating  considerable 
property,  which  was  swept  away  in  the  terrible  depression  throughout 
this  region  following  the  panic  of  1871. 

Mr.  Everett  took  great  interest  in  politics,  having  been  an  ardent 
republican  from  the  first  formation  of  the  party  "under  the  oaks." 

In  the  fall  of  1883,  shortly  after  the  celebration  of  their  golden  wed- 
ding, Mrs.  Everett  died,  and  since  then,  .in  feeble  health,  with  sight 
and  hearing  greatly  impaired,  he  has  made  his  home  with  his  daughter, 
Mrs.  D.  H.  Ball.  His  other  children  are  Mrs.  B.  P.  Robins  and  C. 
M.  Everett,  of  Jackson,  Edward  P.  Everett,  of  Grand  Rapids,  and 
Catherine  E.  Everett,  now  living  in  Chicago. 

JAMES  GILDART. — James  Gildart,  an  old  pioneer  of  Waterloo  town- 
ship, died  March  8,  1893,  in  Brooks,  Kan.,  aged  79  years.  He  came 
to  Michigan  in  1841  from  Staffordshire,  Eng.,  and  is  well  remembered 
by  many  old  residents  of  Waterloo.  He  was  the  father  of  Win.  B. 
Gildart,  the  editor  and  founder  of  the  Stockbridge  Sun. 

MRS.  WILLIAM  GUNN. — Mrs.  William  Gunn  died  April  16,  1893,  at 
her  home  in  Blackman,  aged  67  years. 

Mrs.  Gunn  had  resided  in  Michigan  for  forty-nine  years,  and  for 
forty-six  years  had  resided  in  Sandstone  and  Blackman  townships. 
Mrs.  Gunn  was  well  known  in  this  county  and  was  warmly  regarded 
for  her  many  excellent  qualities  as  a  friend,  wife,  mother,  and 
neighbor.  Her  death  will  be  learned  with  sorrow  by  her  many  friends, 

JOHN  HACKETT. — John  Hackett  died  October  13,  1892,  at  the 
residence  of  his  daughter,  Mrs.  Bracey,  on  East  Main  street,  Jackson. 

Mr.  flackett  had  resided  in  Jackson  county  for  many  years,  having 
lived  on  his  farm  in  Leoni  for  25  years.  He  was  born  in  Ireland  and 
came  to  Jackson  at  an  early  day,  and  continued  to  reside  here  up  to 
the  time  of  going  on  the  farm.  His  age  was  70  years. 

NATHANIEL  B.  HALL.— Nathaniel  B.  Hall  died  June  7,  1892. 
Mr.  Hail  was  born  at  Bennington,  Vt,    September  2,  1826,   and  was 
consequently    nearly    66    years    of    age.     He    grew    up    in    the    Green 


Mountain  state  and  engaged  in  business  there.  At  the  breaking  out  of 
the  war  he  gave  up  his  private  business  and  for  two  years  gave  his 
entire  time  to  the  work  of  organizing  military  companies  and  sending 
them  to  the  front.  In  1864  he  enlisted  as  major  of  the  14th  Vermont 
volunteers,  and  did  valiant  duty  at  the  front  until  the  close  of  the  war, 
participating  in  the  battle  of  Gettysburg  and  other  noted  engagements. 

In  1870  he  came  to  Jackson  and  engaged  in  the  insurance  business 
with  the  late  James  Gould  and  N.  C.  Lowe.  He  was  a  lawyer  by 
profession  and  was  a  member  of  the  Jackson  county  bar,  but  seldom 
practiced  in  court.  He  was  not  a  politician  in  any  sense  of  the  word, 
and  although  often  urged  to  accept  nominations  to  office  persistently 
declined.  He  was,  however,  prevailed  upon  to  accept  an  appointment 
at  one  time  as  a  member  of  the  board  of  public  works,  a  position 
which  he  filled  with  honor  and  integrity.  A  year  ago  he  was  appointed 
a  member  of  the  board  of  police  commissioners,  but  tendered  his 
resignation  several  weeks  ago,  which,  however,  was  not  accepted  until 
last  Monday  night.  Mr.  Hall  was  a  member  of  Jackson  Chapter  E. 
A.  M.  He  leaves  a  wife  and  three  children,  Mrs.  Harriet  Kennedy, 
Harry  K.  Hall,  and  Mrs.  Dolly  Blanchard. 

Mr.  Hall  was  a  gentleman  of  high  attainments  and  of  the  greatest 
integrity.  His  sense  of  honor  was  always  of  the  most  pronounced  type 
and  he  was  among  Jackson's  most  progressive  business  men.  His 
estimable  qualities  made  for  him  hosts  of  friends  who  will  sincerely 
mourn  his  loss. 

ELIAL  W.  HEATON. — Elial  W.  Heaton  died  at  his  home  on  Green- 
wood avenue,  Jackson,  October  18,  1892,  aged  76  years. 

Mr.  Heaton  was  born  in  Clinton  county,  N.  Y.,  July  10,  1816. 
Before  reaching  his  majority  he  learned  the  trade  of  shoemaker,  which 
he  followed  several  years  after  he  came  to  this  city  in  1847.  In  1851 
he  embarked  in  the  meat  market  business  and  followed  that  calling 
until  1862.  During  that  time  he  supplied  the  State  prison  for  eight 
years  with  meat.  During  the  fifties  he  was  a  very  active,  energetic 
business  man  and  contributed  largely  of  his  time  and  money  to  advance 
the  interests  of  the  city.  In  politics  Mr.  Heaton  was  always  a 
democrat  but  never  held  but  one  office,  that  of  councilman  of  the 
village.  He  leaves  a  wife  and  five  children:  Frank  S.,  W.  P.,  Ed.  K., 
Fred  W.,  and  Mrs.  Fred  Slayton. 

NOAH  KEELER. — Noah  Keeler,  one  of  the  oldest  pioneers  of  Jackson 
county,  died  at  his  residence  in  the  township  of  Liberty,  July  10, 

108  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

1892,  in  his  81st  year.  Born  in  Avoca,  Steuben  county,  N.  Y.,  he 
worked  on  his  father's  farm  in  the  Cohocton  valley,  until  he  was  22 
or  23  years  old,  when  he  came  to  this  county  and  settled  on  the  farm 
on  which  he  died.  At  the  time  he  came  west,  Michigan  was  a  frontier 
territory  and  Jackson  county  very  thinly  settled.  There  were  at  that 
time  less  than  a  dozen  residents  in  the  township  and  the  country 
presented  the  appearance  of  an  almost  unbroken  wilderness.  Then  no 
railroad  had  been  thought  of,  and  only  a  few  short  stage  routes  were 
in  operation.  No  grist  mill  was  located  nearer  than  Ann  Arbor,  forty 
miles  distant.  The  first  grain  he  had  ground  he  carried  on  his 
shoulders  to  and  from  Ann  Arbor.  He  persevered,  however,  until  he 
won  an  elegant  home,  wealth,  and  an  honorable  position  in  society. 

He  was  honest  and  upright  in  every  act  of  his  long  life.  To  the 
deserving  poor  he  was  warm  hearted,  generous,  and  kind,  and  "  Uncle 
Noah,"  as  he  was  familiarly  called,  will  long  be  remembered  for  his 
honesty,  generosity,  and  many  kindly  deeds;  and  he  will  be  missed  by 
every  one  who  knew  him.  A  brusque,  and  sometimes  rough  manner, 
covered  a  strong  and  noble  heart. 

In  politics  he  was  an  uncompromising  Jeffersonian  democrat,  and 
had  been  a  subscriber  to  the  Jackson  Patriot  from  its  beginning.  He 
was  always  strong  in  his  convictions  of  right  and  maintained  them  in 
a  vigorous  manner. 

"Uncle  Noah"  leaves  a  widow  and  two  children,  Ransom  Keeler  and 
Mrs.  Joseph  Hawkins,  to  mourn  the  loss  of  the  husband  and  father. 

NELSON  KELLEY. — Nelson  Kelley  died  at  his  home  in  Columbia 
township,  September  11,  1892,  aged  69  years. 

His  death,  though  expected  is  a  severe  affliction  to  his  family,  and  a 
great  loss  to  the  community  where  he  had  lived  more  than  half  'a 
century.  Mr.  Kelley  was  a  pioneer  of  Jackson  county  and  ever  one  of 
its  best  citizens.  Born  in  Middletown,  N.  Y.,  in  1823,  he  came  with 
his  parents  to  Michigan  in  1839,  settled  on  a  crude  farm  in  the  present 
township  of  Columbia,  and  at  once  began  the  hard  life  of  a  pioneer 
farmer.  In  1844  he  married  Miss  Margaret  Brooks  and  purchased  a 
farm  near  Kelley's  corners  where  he  continued  to  reside  until  his  death. 
By  toil,  industry,  and  good  management  he  accumulated  a  large  farm 
estate,  numbering  upwards  of  400  acres,  together  with  much  other 
property.  Nelson  Kelley  was  a  man  of  broad  and  liberal  views,  upright 
and  honorable  in  all  the  affairs  of  life,  a  man  whose  friends  were  as 
numerous  as  his  acquaintances  and  who  never  had  an  enemy.  His 
aged  wife  survives  him  together  with  two  children,  Merchant  Kelley,  a 


prominent    farmer    of    Columbia,    and    Mrs.    John    S.    Flint,    wife    of 
Supervisor  Flint  of  that  townsMp. 

MRS.  SARAH  NIXON. — Mrs.  Sarah  Nixon,  of  South  Jackson,  widow  of 
the  late  William  Nixon,  departed  this  life  September  9,  1892,  aged  78 

Mrs.  Nixon  was  born  in  the  town  of  Washington,  Dutchess  county, 
N.  Y.,  April  17,  1814,  removing  to  Sharon,  Washtenaw  county  in  1835, 
and  was  married  to  William  Nixon  in  1887.  They  resided  in  Sharon 
until  1873,  when  they  came  to  South  Jackson,  where  the  remainder  of 
their  days  were  passed.  Seven  children  were  born  to  them  five  of 
whom  are  now  living.  They  are  Mrs.  Martin  Rowe,  Norman  and 
Eugene  Nixon,  of  South  Jackson;  Mrs.  Arthur  Root,  of  Liberty,  and 
Mrs.  Darius  Manchester  of  Jackson.  Mrs.  Nixon  was  a  woman  of 
strong  character,  always  standing  for  the  right.  It  is  but  a  few 
months  since  that  her  companion  of  fifty-five  years  left  for  the  other 

MARTIN  OLDS. — Martin  Olds  died  at  his  home  in  Jackson  October  1, 

In  the  removal  of  Mr.  Olds  by  death,  another  of  those  hardy  pioneers 
who  assisted  in  transforming  this  region  from  an  absolute  wilderness 
into  a  place  of  beauty  is  taken  away. 

Mr.  Olds  was  born  in  England  seventy-six  years  since.  When  a 
young  man  he  came  to  America  and  settled  in  Oakland  county.  He 
came  to  Jackson  county  about  40  years  since  and  located  a  farm  in 
Spring  Arbor,  where  he  continued  to  reside  up  to  twelve  years  ago, 
when  he  retired  and  removed  to  Jackson,  in  order  to  be  near  his  only 
child,  Mrs  Charles  W.  Fowler,  who  died  about  one  year  ago.  Since 
coming  to  Jackson  Mr.  Olds  has  resided  at  his  late  residence  on 
Greenwood  avenue. 

Mr.  Old's  life  has  been  an  exemplary  one.  When  a  young  man  he 
united  with  the  Freewill  Baptist  church  in  his  native  land,  and  has 
been  a  consistent  member  of  that  denomination  for  a  period  of  more 
than  fifty  years.  Deceased  was  ever  generous,  possessing  a  great  heart, 
and  his  voice  was  always  on  the  side  of  the  weak  and  oppressed.  His 
many  acts  of  kindness  to  neighbors  and  friends  will  never  be  forgotten 
while  life  lasts. 

Deceased  leaves  a  widow  and  son-in-law,  Mr.  Fowler. 

CHAS.  W.  PENNY. — Chas.  W.  Penny  died  at  his  home  in  Ann  Arbor 
December  6,  1892. 

110  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

Mr.  Penny  was  one  of  the  first  settlers  in  Jackson,  and  for  a  number 
of  years  was  in  the  dry  goods  business,  being  associated  with  S.  S. 
Vaughn  and  later  with  Charles  King.  Mr.  Penny  removed  to  Ann 
Arbor  several  years  ago. 

He  leaves  a  wife,  Mrs.  Henrietta  C.  Penny,  and  two  daughters,  Mrs. 
A.  F.  Lange,  of  Berkley,  California,  and  Miss  Jessica  Y.  Penny,  a 
teacher  in  the  Ishpeming  schools. 

DANIEL  D.  PETKIE. — Daniel  D.  Petrie  died  at  his  home  in  Jackson 
October  11,  1892. 

Mr.  Petrie  was  born  April  13,  1830,  at  Little  Falls,  Herkimer 
county,  N.  Y.,  and  came  to  Michigan  in  1838,  with  his  parents  and 
settled  in  Concord  township,  where  he  resided  for  many  years.  Mr. 
Petrie  spent  a  portion  of  his  time  after  reaching  manhood  in  teaching 
and  acted  as  an  attorney  in  the  justice  courts.  He  served  one  term  as 
justice  in  Concord  township,  after  which  he  moved  to  Parma,  where 
he  opened  a  furniture  and  undertaking  establishment.  While  living 
at  Parma  he  served  four  terms  as  justice  or  sixteen  years  in  all.  Nine 
years  ago  he  removed  to  Jackson,  where  he  has  since  resided.  Mr. 
Petrie  was  married  May  27, 1855,  to  Miss  Charlotte  Walker,  who, 
with  three  daughters  and  two  sons  survive  him. 

Mr.  Petrie  was  a  member  of  the  Baptist  church  at  Parma,  and  was 
an  earnest  worker  in  church  and  Sunday  school. 

CHAS.  H.  PLUMMER. — Chas.  H.  Plummer  died  at  his  home  in  Saginaw 
November  2,  1892. 

Mr.  Piummer  was  a  native  of  Maine  and  was  born  in  Kennebec 
county,  July  10,  1840.  His  father  was  of  English  descent,  while  in 
his  mother's  veins  coursed  the  true  Scotch  blood;  and  he  was  proud 
of  her  who  molded  his  early  ideas  and  energy. 

Mr.  Plummer  was  born  upon  a  farm,  but  he  never  took  kindly  to 
tilling  the  soil,  and  at  an  early  age  he  longed  to  cut  loose  and  make 
his  way  in  the  world,  and  was  not  content  until  he  had  entered  the 
saw  mills  and  forests  of  Maine,  where  he  found  congenial  occupation, 
and  there  he  remained  -  until  1861,  when  the  civil  war  broke  out. 
Fired  with  patriotism  he  walked  twelve  miles  to  a  recruiting  station 
and  enlisted,  though  the  commanding  officer  hesitated  to  accept  him 
on  account  of  his  youth.  He  refused  a  commission  and  served  in  the 

It  was  his  seeming  desire  through  life  to  be  classed  among  the 
people,  and  while  he  was  ambitious,  it  was  not  of  that  character  so 


often  witnessed  among  men,  to  domineer  or  dictate  At  the  expiration 
of  two  years  he  again  enlisted  for  the  war,  and  was  among  the  first 
to  enter  Richmond  in  1865. 

At  the  close  of  the  war  he  returned  to  the  lumber  business,  but  he 
was  not  content  with  the  narrow  fields  of  Maine  and  embarked  alone 
and  unaided  for  Minnesota,  when,  after  five  years'  experience,  he 
removed  to  Michigan,  and  in  1869  began  operations  with  Daniel 
Hardin  and  W.  S.  Green  &  Son  at  Saginaw.  Later  the  firm  of 
Sturtevant,  Green  &  Plummer  was  organized  at  Saginaw,  with  Mr. 
Plummer  as  manager.  He  also  became  a  member  and  was  made 
manager  of  the  Plummer  Logging  Company,  and  with  various  other 
extensive  lumber  institutions,  all  of  which  proved  successful.  Still 
later  he  opened  a  flouring  mill  in  Saginaw  City  and  became  president 
of  the  Plummer  Lumber  Company  of  Sandusky,  O.  In  1884  he 
opened  a  lumber  yard  and  planing  mill  in  Jackson  which  proved  a 
well  paying  investment.  ' 

When  it  is  considered  that  Mr.  Plummer  never  had  the  advantage 
of  superior  schools,  but  was  self  educated  and  equipped  by  his  own 
experience  his  achievements  border  on  the  marvelous. 

Mr.  Plummer  had  large  property  interests  in  Jackson,  the  same 
being  estimated  at  the  value  of  $60,000.  He  was  prominently  identified 
with  the  business  interests  of  Jackson  and  was  largely  instrumental  in 
its  growth  and  prosperity.  He  had  recently  built  nineteen  houses  on 
lots  owned  by  him  there.  His  generosity  was  great,  but  unostentatious. 
Many  a  poor  family  of  Jackson  will  attest  the  truth  of  this. 

As  is  well  known,  he  met  with  financial  reverses  during  the  past 
year,  but  his  indomitable  will  and  energy  would  have  overcome  all 
obstacles  had  he  lived  a  short  time  longer. 

Personally,  Mr.  Plummer  was  the  most  affable  of  men,  and  he 
counted  his  friends  by  the  thousand. 

MR.  AND  MRS.  PHILANDEB  REMINGTON. — Philander  Remington  died  at 
his  home  in  Grand  Rapids  January  14,  1892,  aged  90  years. 

Mr.  Remington  lived  in  Jackson  for  many  years  until  his  removal  to 
Grand  Rapids  eighteen  or  twenty  years  ago.  He  was  a  member  of 
Jackson  lodge  No.  4,  I.  O.  O.  F.,  and  Grand  Master  Haskin  went  to 
Grand  Rapids  to  attend  the  funeral.  He  was  an  ardent  democrat, 
having  voted  for  Andrew  Jackson  and  for  every  democratic  candidate 
for  the  presidency  since  that  time. 

Mrs.  Remington  died  January  13,  1892,  aged  84  years,  and  the  aged 

112  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

couple  were  buried  in  one  grave,  after  having  lived  together  happily 
and  harmoniously  for  about  sixty-five  years.  They  were  both  members 
of  the  Congregational  church. 

MRS.  HIRAM  H.  SMITH. — Mrs.  Hiram  H.  Smith  died  March  11,  1893, 
at  the  family  residence,  1601  East  Main  street,  Jackson. 

Mrs.  Smith  was  a  daughter  of  Philo  Bates  and  was  born  in  Genesee 
county,  N»  Y.,  October  16,  1819. 

As  a  member  of  her  father's  family  she  moved  to  Ionia  county, 
Michigan  in  1885.  From  about  1843  she  was  a  frequent  visitor  with 
her  relatives  in  Jackson,  and  in  1849  she  became  the  wife  of  Dr.  Geo. 
W.  Gorham  of  that  city.  Dr.  Gorham  died  in  1860,  and  in  1865  she 
became  the  wife  of  Hiram  H  Smith,  her  death  now  terminating  a  happy 
union  of  twenty-eight  years. 

Her  two  children,  Seymour  B.  Gorham  of  Ionia,  Michigan,  and 
Samuel  Denton  Gorham  of  Jackson,  Tennessee,  survive  her,  and  she 
has  also  a  mother's  place  in  the  hearts  of  her  stepchildren,  Henry  H. 
Smith,  Dwight  8.  Smith,  and  Mrs.  E.  M.  Newman,  all  of  Jackson. 
The  deceased  was  a  sister  of  Mrs.  C.  R.  Knickerbocker  of  Jackson, 
and  of  Philo  T.  Bates  and  William  Bates,  both  still  living  in  Ionia. 
The  place  filled  by  Mrs.  Smith  was  in  the  hearts  of  the  many  rather 
than  the  few.  She  was  loved  by  everybody  she  knew,  and  she  was  equally 
at  home  among  all  classes.  Her  decease  leaves  a  void  in  the  hearts  of 
very  many  people.  Her  genial  manner  and  kind  impulses  will  cause 
her  to  be  long  remembered.  The  loss,  irreparable  to  him  who  has 
been  her  home  companion  during  so  many  years,  is  one  in  which  he 
has  "the  sympathy  of  their  long  list  of  friends  and  acquaintances. 

Mrs.  Smith  was  a  member  of  the  Episcopal  church  of  Jackson  for 
more  than  forty  years  preceding  the  time  of  her  death. 

SIDNEY  S.  SMITH. — Sidney  S.  Smith  died  at  his  home  in  Eives 
October  21,  1892,  aged  75  years.  Mr.  Smith  was  one  of  Jackson 
county's  oldest  residents,  having  lived  in  this  county  some  forty  years, 
coming  here  from  Vermont.  Mr.  Smith  was  a  life  long  democrat  and 
a  great  admirer  of  Grover  Cleveland. 

Deceased  celebrated  his  golden  wedding  in  January.  He  is  survived 
by  his  aged  wife  and  all  of  his  children,  viz.,  Mrs.  Haight,  St.  Louis; 
Mrs.  Bugby  and  Mrs.  Frank  Northrup,  Chicago;  Edgar  Smith,  Eives; 
and  Mrs.  S.  B.  Mettler,  of  Jackson. 


MBS.  SARAH  E.  STONE. — Mrs.  Sarah  E.  Stone  died  at  the  home  of 
her  son  in  Horton,  August  9,  1892,  aged  84  years,  8  months. 

The  deceased  was  a  daughter  of  Jonathan  and  Ruth  Brown,  and  was 
born  in  the  state  of  New  Jersey,  town  of  Railway,  November  20,  1807. 
She  came  to  Michigan  with  her  parents  in  1834.  Subsequently  she 
made  the  acquaintance  of  her  future  husband,  Chas.  S.  Stone.  It  is 
believed  they  were  the  first  to  be  united  in  marriage  in  Hanover 
township,  they  settled  on  a  tract  of  land  and  endured  all  the 
hardships  and  toils  of  a  pioneer  life. 

They  became  the  parents  of  eight  children,  six  of  whom  are  still 
living,  four  being  residents  of  Hanover  township:  Julia  M.,  wife  of 
Maynard  Sharpe;  Mary  H.,  wife  of  Harry  D.  Griswold;  Hattie, 
deceased  wife  of  B.  C.  Hatch;  Myra  J.,  wife  of  C.  E.  P.  Hatch;  Albert 
N.  Stone,  Orlando  C.  Stone,  and  Delia  S.,  wife  of  Teeter  Blair. 

The  deceased  at  the  time  of  her  death  was  the  mother  of  six  living 
children,  grandmother  of  sixteen,  and  great-grandmother  of  thirteen, 
making  a  total  of  thirty-five  living  descendents. 

JOHN  H.  TELFORD. — John  H.  Telford,  one  of  Jackson's  best  known 
citizens  and  a  man  held  in  high  esteem,  died  at  his  home,  111  First 
street,  August  9,  1892.  Mr.  Telford  was  a  successful  business  man, 
who  had  a  very  large  circle  of  friends.  He  was  born  in  Ulster 
county,  Ireland,  October  1,  1833.  He  was  brought  up  there,  coming  to 
this  country  in  1857.  Settling  in  Troy,  N.  Y.,  Mr.  Telford  engaged  in 
the  flour  milling  business.  He  remained  in  this  line  until  tne  close  of 
the  war,  when  he  removed  to  Jackson. 

Mr.  Telford  carried  on  a  grain  business  here  for  a  number  of  years, 
embarking  in  the  coal  and  wood  business  in  1878.  At  the  time  of  his 
death  and  for  the  past  nine  years  he  was  senior  member  of  the  firm 
of  John  H.  Telford  &  Son,  the  junior  partner  being  John  H.  Telford, 
Jr.  The  deceased  leaves  this  son  and  two  daughters.  His  wife  died 
thirteen  years  ago.  He  was  a  member  of  St.  Paul's  church. 

MRS.  FREDERIC  WARREN. — Mrs.  Frederic  Warren  died  at  Spring 
Arbor  February  4,  1$93,  aged  70  years. 

Deceased  was  born  in  Steuben  county,  N.  Y.,  in  1823,  and  has  lived 
in  Michigan  most  of  the  time  since  an  early  day.  She  was  a  member 
of  the  Wesleyan  Methodist  church,  a  devoted  Christian  and  a  kind 
friend  and  neighbor,  who  will  be  sadly  missed  by  all  who  knew  her. 
She  leaves  a  husband  and  four  daughters,  Mrs.  Young,  Mrs.  Baldwin, 
Mrs.  Ira  Cole,  and  Mrs.  Charles  Shaw,  all  of  Jackson. 

114  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

JOHN  WEBB.— John  Webb,  for  nearly  50  years  a  resident  of  Jackson, 
died  suddenly  at  his  home  February  19,  1893. 

He  was  born  in  the  borough  of  Down  ton,  in  Wiltshire,  England,  May 
27,  1821,  and  there  acquired  a  common  school  education;  being  reared 
to  habits  of  industry  and  the  principles  which  make  of  men  good 
citizens  and  reliable  members  of  society.  Orphaned  at  an  early  age  he 
was  thrown  upon  his  own  resources  and  went  to  work  in  a  bakery  in 
Bradford,  where  he  learned  the  trade  and  continued  until  the  spring 
of  1844.  Then  he  came  into  the  states,  following  his  trade  in  different 
cities  and  finally  located  in  Detroit. 

In  1846  he  came  to  this  county.  He  still  followed  his  trade  and  at 
the  expiration  of  two  and  one-half  years  associated  himself  in  partner- 
ship with  Joseph  Butler,  a  partnership  which  existed  harmoniously  for 
sixteen  years.  Mr.  Webb  then  purchased  the  entire  business  which  he 
conducted  successfully,  while  Mr.  Butler  retired  to  the  farm  which 
they  owned  jointly.  Mr.  Webb  removed  his  business  to  the  Empire 
block,  which  likewise  was  owned  by  himself  and  partner,  but  of  which 
he  was  at  the  time  of  his  death  sole  proprietor.  He  carried  on  the 
bakery  and  confectionery  business  there  until  1872,  then  selling  out 
and  renting  his  building,  withdrew  from  the  active  cares  of  life. 

In  April,  1843,  almost  fifty  years  ago,  he  was  married  to  Miss  Jane 
McLeod,  a  native  of  Cork,  Ireland,  a  daughter  of  an  Irish  gentleman 
who  married  an  English  lady.  She  has  been  a  helpmeet  to  Mr.  Webb 
always  and  the  source  of  much  happiness;  she  survives  him.  But  one 
child  was  born  to  them,  Emily,  now  the  wife  of  E.  P.  Burrell  of 

MRS.  JULIA  WHITE.— Mrs.  Julia  White,  mother  of  Mrs.  Spencer 
Moulton,  died  June  12,  1892,  at  the  home  of  her  daughter  on  Mechanic 
street,  Jackson,  aged  68  years. 

MRS.  White  came  to  Michigan  with  her  father,  the  late  George 
Stranaham  of  Columbia,  fifty-five  years  ago,  since  which  time  she  has 
always  resided  in  Jackson  county.  Her  husband,  Tenny  White  died 
twelve  years  ago. 

MRS.  ELLEN  WILMORE.— Mrs.  Ellen  Wilmore,  wife  of  Thomas  Wil- 
more,  died  August  17,  1892,  at  her  residence,  312  West  Mason  street, 
Jackson,  aged  69  years.  Mrs.  Wilmore  was  born  in  Philadelphia  and 
came  to  this  State  in  1848,  when  it  was  a  mere  wilderness,  settling  in 
Jackson  county,  where  she  had  resided  ever  since.  All  who  knew  her 


•esteemed  her  for  her  amiable  disposition  and  many  kindly   deeds.     She 
,  leaves  a  husband  and  six  children. 

MICHAEL  WUNDERLICH.— Michael  Wunderlich,  who  died  August  15, 
1893,  was  one  of  the  oldest  German  residents  of  Jackson.  He  was  67 
years  of  age  and  came  to  Jackson  forty  years  ago,  and  for  the  past 
thirty-one  years  has  been  in  the  employ  of  the  Michigan  Central  rail- 
road. He  was  a  member  of  the  German  Workingmen's  society  No.  1; 
Court  Jackson  lodge  No.  43,  I.  O.  (X  F.;  Jackson  lodge  No.  4,  I.  O. 
O.  F. ;  Wildey  encampment  No.  5,  and  Jackson  lodge  No.  17,  F.  and 
A.  M.  His  wife  died  last  February.  He  leaves  three  children,  Lewis 
Wunderlich,*  Mrs.  F.  W.  Hahn,  and  Miss  Anna,  Wunderlich. 

TUNIS  VROOMA.N.— Tunis  Vrooman  died  February  25,  1893,  at  his 
residence  in  Summit,  of  old  age.  He  was  born  in  Middleburg,  Scho- 
harie  county,  N.  Y.,  and  would  have  been  91  years  of  age  the  29th  of 
next  April.  Mr.  Vrooman  came  to  Michigan  in  the  fall  of  1835  and 
located  at  Jacksonburgh,  near  Summit  on  section  19.  He  was  four 
times  married;  in  1823  to  Hannah  Knieskern  of  Carlisle,  N.  Y.,  who 
died  six  years  after  of  consumption.  Two  years  later  he  married  Eliza 
€raig  of  Shelby,  Orleans  county.  She  died  in  1853  and  two  years 
thereafter,  her  sister  Mary  became  his  wife.  The  latter  died  in  1868, 
and  January  26.  1871,  he  married  his  fourth  and  present  wife,  Mrs. 
Eliza  Huggins  Freeman  of  Jackson.  The  deceased  leaves  six  children: 
Mrs.  Hannah  Walworth,  Moscow,  Hillsdale  county;  Mrs.  Olive  Brickley, 
David  Vrooman,  and  Mrs.  Cornelia  Goldsmith  of  Isabella  county;  Mrs. 
Melinda  Creech,  Gratiot  county;  and  Tunis  Vrooman,  Jr.,  of  Summit. 
Mr.  Vrooman's  farm  consisted  of  one  hundred  and  sixty  acres  of  land 
in  flourishing  condition.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Christian  church, 
as  is  also  his  wife.  The  deceased  was  a  democrat,  and  he  was  a  man 
highly  respected  in  the  com*munity. 





Date  of 



Date  of 



June      19 

Mrs.  Jerusha  Cook 


Dec.     12 

Mrs.  Jerome  T.  Cobb 



Francis  L.  C.  Denison. 



Garrett  Stuart 



*A.  D.  P.  Van  Buren.            .  . 



John  Maloy 


July        7 

John  Phillips                  




Worlender  Fellows 


Jan.      9 

I.  M.  White 



Mrs.  Seneca  Smith 



Mrs.  D  wight  May 



Anson  L.  Ranney. 



Russell  Mason 



Freeman  Chandler.. 



Thomas  Rix 



Martha  A.  Hawes. 



Mrs.  Albert  B.  Judson 



Hiram  D.  Loveland.  .  _. 


Feb.      2 

George  Hoyt. 



*  Hiram  Arnold  



William  M.  Beeman 


Aug.      11 

Edmund  8.  Weeks  



James  Wrieht 



John  Potter  



Henry  Vandelere..     



Catherine  E.  Lovill 



Dr.  John  Briggs 



Loretta  Shaf  ter  Ransom 


March  20 

Alpheus  Rood                       . 



Justin  Cooper 



Fitch  Drake 


Sept.     19 

Parmelia  Ashley     . 



George  Nesbitt 



John  Stiver  ...  '.  



Bridget  Nolan 


Oct.        6 

Maria  Abraham 


April     7 

George  Judge                       .  - 



Julia  E.  Stuart  _  



Samuel  D.  Walbridge  



Frederick  Woodhams 



Flaria  Vandewalker 



Stephen  Smith 



Mrs.  E.  A.  Bradley 



John  Glynn  _  . 



Albert  Plough 



Mrs.  Freegift  Kolston  


May     11 

Sarah  Bush 



Mrs.  Sarah  M.Burdick  



Almira  J,  Hogeboom.. 



Julia  K.  Krum. 



John  Wilson 


Nov.      18 

Susan  Gould.    . 



Mrs.  E.  P.  Oatman 



Mrs.  Joseph  Beckley..      .  . 



William  Worthington 



Mrs.  William  De  Visser.... 



Dinnis  Coogan  . 


Dec.        5 

William  Parker 



Mrs.  Hiram  Moon 



George  Van  De  Walker 


June     2 

*Stephen  F.  Brown 



Joseph  Beckley 


*  State  pioneer. 


JONATHAN  PARSONS.— Jonathan  Parsons  died  at  Saratoga,  N.  Y., 
whither  he  had  gone  for  treatment,  on  August  17,  1892,  aged  72  years, 
and  was  brought  to  his  home  at  Kalamazoo  for  interment.  He  was 
born  in  West  Springfield,  Massachusetts,  October  7,  1820,  and  lived 
there  during  his  boyhood.  When  a  young  man  he  removed  to 
Marshall.  Michigan,  and  stayed  there  a  short  time,  going  from  there 
to  Bellevue,  where  he  was  a  clerk  in  the  employ  of  the  late  J.  P. 
Woodbury.  In  the  early  forties  he  went  to  Kalamazoo,  and  engaged 
in  the  dry  goods  business  with  the  late  William  A.  Wood,  continuing 
in  the  same  a  few  years.  He  afterwards  engaged  with  the  late  Hon. 
Allen  Potter  and  Mr.  Henry  Gale  in  the  hardware  business.  March  1, 
1860,  a  partnership  was  formed  by  him  in  the  hardware  business  with 
the  late  Mr.  Henry  Wood,  which  continued  until  March  1,  1888,  since 
which  time  he  has  not  been  actively  engaged  in  business  pursuits. 

Mr.  Parsons  was  a  staunch  republican  and  had  seen  the  party  pass 
through  many  changes.  He  was  three  times  elected  to  the  State 
legislature,  and  served  several  times  as  a  member  of  the  village  board 
of  trustees.  He  had  been  a  member  of  the  First  Presbyterian  church 
for  about  a  half  century,  and  was  a  member  of  the  session  for  many 
years.  He  was  also  an  elder  and  was  clerk  of  the  board  of  elders  at 
the  time  of  his  lamented  death.  Mr.  Parsons  was  at  one  time  a  trustee 
of  Michigan  Female  seminary  of  Kalamazoo. 

His  business  interests  were  large  and  varied.  He  was  a  director  of 
the  Michigan  National  Bank,  a  heavy  stockholder  in  the  Kalamazoo 
Paper  Mill,  and  also  had  an  interest  in  the  Parsons  Paper  Company 
of  Holyoke,  Massachusetts.  Mr.  Parsons  owned  the  old  homestead  at 
West  Springfield,  Massachusetts,  which  has  been  in  the  family  about  two 
hundred  years.  Among  his  interests  was  a  large  mint  farm  at 

As  a  member  of  the  legislature  Mr  Parsons  served  his  constituency 
well,  voting  on  all  questions  as  he  thought  would  best  serve  his  State. 
As  a  trustee  of  Michigan  Female  Seminary  he  had  the  best  interests 
of  that  institution  at  heart.  As  an  active  member  and  supporter  of 
the  church' he  will  also  be  missed,  and  as  a  business  man  his  word 
was  all  that  was  necessary  to  obtain  and  hold  the  confidence  of  the 
people.  Mr.  Jonathan  Parsons  was  a  thoroughly  good  man  and  his 
life  may  be  well  considered  an  example  in  the  community  where  he 
had  lived  so  many  years. 

He  leaves  a  wife  and  three  sons  and  three  daughters:  Mrs.  C.  M. 
Phelps  of  Holyoke,  Mass.;  Miss  Adella  of  Kalamazoo;  Mrs.  Edward  P. 
Bagg  of  Holyoke,  Mass.;  and  Mr.  E.  C.  Parsons  of  Kalamazoo,  Mr. 

118  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

George    S.    Parsons    of    Holyoke,    Mass.,    and    Mr.    Allen    Parsons    of 

GEORGE  NESBITT. — George  Nesbitt,  whose  death  occurred  March  25, 
1893,  at  the  ripe  age  of  87  years,  was  one  of  the  very  few  who  settled  in 
Kalamazoo  county  as  early  as  1830.  Mr.  Nesbitt  settled  on  as  beautiful 
a  piece  of  government  land  as  could  be  found  in  the  State,  which  he 
cultivated  and  on  which  he  erected  all  the  buildings  necessary  for  a 
comfortable  home'  for  himself  and  family,  and  all  necessary  buildings 
for  farming  purposes.  This  was  his  Prairie  Ronde  home  where  he 
resided  till  the  day  of  his  death.  He  was  of  a  very  quiet,  domestic 
nature;  one  that  required  no  laws  to  keep  him  from  transgressing  on 
the  rights  of  others,  but  on  the  other  hand  set  such  an  example  to 
others  as  helped  to  make  the  neighborhood  a  more  desirable  place  to 
live  and  to  enjoy  all  that  makes  man's  own  broad  acres  a  home  so 
independent  over  the  city  or  the  village. 

Mr.  Nesbitt's  education  was  sufficient  to  enable  him  to  fill  any  office 
in  the  gift  of  the  citizens  of  his  township,  and  while  he  never  sought 
office  he  held  the  office  of  supervisor  for  a  number  of  years,  and  'the 
office  of  justice  of  the  peace  for  some  forty  years,  but  only  used  it  to 
legalize  documents  to  go  on  record,  always  preferring  that  his  neigh- 
bors should  be  at  peace  with  each  other  without  his  assistance 

Those  first  settlers  had  a  hard  struggle  to  obtain  the  bare  necessities 
of  life;  and  clothed  themselves  in  a  cheap,  home  made  material,  and 
they  became  so  enured  to  that  mode  and  manner  of  living  that  when 
more  prosperous  times  came  to  them  they  did  not  feel  like  entering 
into  the  more  modern  extravagant  way  of  living,  or  to  run  any  risk  of 
losing  the  home  they  had  struggled  hard  to  obtain. 

STEPHEN  F.  BROWN. — Hon.  Stephen  F.  Brown  was  born  in  London 
county,  Virginia,  December  31,  1819,  and  came  with  his  father  to 
Michigan  when  a  boy  at  the  age  of  11  years,  and  settled  on  a  farm  in 
the  township  of  Schoolcraft,  December,  1830.  His  only^  chance  to 
procure  an  education  was  at  a  district  school,  then  kept  three  months 
in  the  winter,  the  other  nine  months  he  was  employed  on  his  father's 
farm,  but  he  was  very  ambitious  to  fit  himself  to  take  an  active  part 
in  politics;  first  began  to  speak  at  school  lyceums,  then  on  the  stump 
in  the  interest  of  the  whig  party,  and  after  the  organization  of  the 
republican  party  he  became  a  Jealous  member  and  represented  his 
county  as  its  representative  two  terms  in  the  State  legislature,  in  1856 
and  1858;  in  1860,  1864,  and  1884  as  senator,  which  offices  he  filled 


honestly  and  so  ably  as  to  render  himself  very  popular  with,  his 
constituents  and  was  ever  after,  as  long  as  he  lived,  looked  upon  as  one 
who  had  served  them  honestly  and  faithfully.  He  was  a  great  admirer 
of  Henry  Clay  from  whose  life  and  speeches  he  first  entered  the  field 
of  politics,  and  he  became  a  very  convincing  public  speaker. 

He  was  the  first  master  of  the  State  Grange  of  Michigan  and  served 
as  its  treasurer  ten  years,  filling  both  offices  in  a  very  acceptable 
manner.  He  has  also  filled  the  office  of  president  of  the  Kalamazoo 
county  pioneer  society.  He  purchased  a  farm  near  the  old  homestead 
where  he  resided  until  he  died,  June  2,  1893,  highly  respected  by  all 
who  knew  him.  He  did  more  than  his  full  share  in  saving  the 
country  during  the  late  war  by  furnishing  two  sons  in  the  cavalry,  all 
he  had  old  enough  to  serve  their  country.  His  family  consisted  of 
these  two  sons,  one  daughter,  and  one  other  son,  then  an  infant.  Mrs. 
Brown,  then  speaking  of  her  family,  said  she  had  two  sons  in  the 
cavalry  and  one  in  the  infantry.  The  men  of  Stephen  F.  Brown's 
stamp  are  fast  passing  away.  What  his  farm  produced  by  good 
management  and  hard  labor  he  used  prudently  to  support  himself  and 
family.  He  commenced  life  at  a  time  when  the  latch  string  always 
hung  out  and  when,  if  he  had  money,  he  had  no  fear  of  being  robbed. 
His  home  farm  life  and  domestic  habits,  and  surrounded  by  neighbors 
of  like  character,  enabled  him  to  live  more  in  accord  with  nature's 
simple  requirements  and  away  from  the  strife  and  turmoil  and  the 
mode  and  manner  of  too  many  now  in  the  villages  and  cities,  who  are 
living  on  the  fruits  of  others'  labor. 

Having  been  intimately  acquainted  with  Mr.  Brown  for  over  fifty 
years  has  induced  me  to  write  this  imperfect,  humble  tribute  to  his 

H.  B. 

120  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 


JAMES  BLAIR. — James  Blair  died  at  his  residence  in  Grand  Rapids, 
vDecember  18,  1892,  from  heart  disease. 

Mr.  Blair  was  born  at  Blair's  Landing  on  Lake  George,  in  New 
York  state,  January  2,  1829.  When  twelve  years  of  age  he  removed 
with  his  parents  to  Jackson,  Michigan,  and  a  year  or  two  later  located 
on  a  farm  near  Grand  river,  about  eight  miles  below  Grand  Rapids. 
Farm  life  did  not  suit  his  active  nature,  and,  when  the  Mexican  war 
broke  out  he  desired  to  enlist,  but  his  parents  objected.  Seeing  a 
steamer  coming  up  the  river  one  day,  he  left  his  oxen  and  plow 
standing  in  the  field,  boarded  the  boat  and  went  to  Grand  Rapids, 
where  he  signed  enlistment  papers,  but  being  too  young,  his  father 
took  him  back  to  the  farm.  Soon  afterwards  he  went  to  Grand  Rapids, 
and  engaged  as  a  clerk  in  W.  D.  Robert's  and  other  stores.  Later  he 
was  a  partner  with  the  late  Lewis  Porter  in  the  clothing  business. 
During  the  war  he  was  with  the  army  of  the  Potomac  as  a  suttler. 
About  1868  he  entered  the  law  office  of  Col.  Geo.  Gray,  then  the 
leader  of  the  Kent  county  bar,  as  chief  clerk.  Here  he  acquired  a 
taste  for  the  commercial  branch  of  law  practice  and  in  1871  opened  a 
law  office  for  himself.  A  few  months  later,  when  Col.  Gray  left  Grand 
Rapids,  Mr.  Blair  formed  a  partnership  with  the  Hon.  L.  D.  Norris 
and  purchased  the  retiring  attorney's  office  and  business.  The  follow- 
ing year  Willard  Kingsley  became  a  partner  and,  excepting  one  year, 
has  been  associated  with  Mr.  Blair  ever  since.  Mr.  Norris  left  the 
firm  and  Judge  J.  W.  Stone  went  in.  Upon  the  election  of  the  latter 
to  congress,  Messrs.  Eggleston  and  Kleinhans  took  his  place,  but  Mr. 
Eggleston  soon  after  withdrew,  and  the  present  firm  of  Blair,  Kingsley 
&  Kleinhans  was  formed  and  became  the  oldest  law  firm  in  Grand 

OLIVER  BLEAK.— Oliver  Bleak,  who  has  been  in  the  grocery  business 
at  the  corner  of  Lagrave  and  Fulton  streets,  Grand  Rapids,  for  so 
many  years,  died  at  his  residence  over  his  store,  June  6,  1893,  aged  78 

Oliver  Bleak  was  born  in  Holland,  December  14,  1824.  He  served 
in  the  Holland  army  as  a  lad,  then  in  the  dykes  department,  where 
by  his  special  ability  before  he  was  twenty-four  years  old,  he  secured 
a  position  worth  some  $5,000  a  year.  His  mother  had  come  to  the 


United  States  previously,  was  settled  near  Buffalo,  and  so  he  and  his 
wife,  at  her  urgent  request,  followed  her,  coming  in  1848.  He  settled 
on  a  dairy  farm  near  his  mother,  and  that  was  his  home  until  1855, 
when  he  came  to  Grand  Rapids  to  live  and  bought  the  corner  lot, 
where  he  died,  for  $900.  That  year  he  built  the  brick  store  where  he, 
has  lived  and  done  business  ever  since,  and  which  has  never  been 
changed  in  rooms  since.  He  lived  for  a  little  time  in  the  small  house 
at  the  rear  of  the  lot.  Mr.  Bleak  was  a  very  quiet,  retiring  man.  an 
honest  citizen,  a  good  neighbor,  a  reliable  friend.  He  had  the  respect 
and  esteem  of  all  who  knew  him.  His  wife  preceded  him  some  three 
years  ago.  He  leaves  two  sons,  Harry  and  Oliver,  and  two  daughters, 
Mrs.  A.  M.  Maris  and  Miss  Cornelia;  the  last  has  always  lived  at 
home.  He  leaves  a  sister,  Mrs.  Yander  Meulen  of  Buffalo;  a  half 
brother,  Mr.  C.  De  Vlieger,  and  a  half  sister,  Mrs.  L.  Fisher  of  Sand 

JOHN  CORDES. — John  Cordes  died  of  pneumonia  May  16,  1893,  at  his 
home  in  the  city  of  Grand  Rapids,  aged  71  years.  Mr.  Cordes  was 
among  the  pioneers  of  the  Germans;  was  born  at  Westphalia,  Germany. 
Came  to  this  country  with  his  parents  in  1836,  then  14  years  of  age; 
settled  in  Clinton  county,  Mich.;  in  1843  he  came  to  Grand  Rapids 
and  secured  work  in  the  plaster  quarries.  In  May,  1850,  he  joined  the 
company  of  Bostwick  &  Smith  ;<  id  went  to  California.  Returning  in 
1857  with  $2,000*  in  gold  he  imTi  diately  invested  it  in  groceries  and 
opened  a  store  on  Canal  street,  v  here  he  had  been  continuously  in 
business  ever  since. 

Mr.  Cordes  married  Mrs.  Anne  Thome,  who  with  three  stalwart  sons 
survive  him,  and  are  his  successors  in  business. 

HON.  E.  S.  EGGLESTON. — Hon.  E.  S.  Eggleston,  for  many  years  a 
prominent  lawyer  of  Grand  Rapids,  died  suddenly,  August  8,  1892,  at 
the  home  of  his  brother,  J.  L.  Eggleston,  in  Parma,  Mich.,  where  he 
was  visiting. 

Ebenezer  S.  Eggleston  was  born  in  Batavia,  N.  Y.,  May  12,  1825. 
He  came  west  in  1837  and  took  up  his  residence  in  Litchfield,  Hills- 
dale  county,  where  he  received  his  education  in  the  public  schools. 
He  afterwards  studied  law,  and  in  1851  he  came  to  Grand  Rapids  and 
was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1852.  He  soon  became  recognized  as  one 
of  the  leading  lawyers  in  western  Michigan  and  soon  won  distinction. 
He  was  elected  prosecuting  attorney  for  Kent  county  in  1856  and 
conducted  the  affairs  of  that  office  with  credit  to  himself  and  to  his 

122  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

constituency.  In  1861  he  was  appointed  consul  to  Cadiz,  Spain,  by 
President  Lincoln,  and  held  the  office  four  years,  discharging  the 
duties  with  marked  efficiency.  Eeturning  to  Michigan  he  was  elected 
a  representative  to  the  State  legislature  of  1873-4  from  the  first 
district  of  Grand  Bapids:  During  his  term  in  this  capacity  he  served 
as  an  active  member  of  the  judiciary  committee  and  chairman  of  the 
committee  on  private  corporations. 

Mr.  Eggleston  during  his  residence  in  Grand  Eapids  formed  several 
law  partnerships.  His  first  was  with  Solomon  L.  Withey,  under  the 
firm  name  of  Withey  &  Eggleston.  Colonel  George  Gray  was  after- 
wards a  member  of  the  firm.  Mr.  Eggleston  withdrew  from  the 
partnership  at  the  time  of  his  appointment  as  minister  to  Cadiz.  On 
his  return  he  entered  into  partnership  with  United  States  District 
Attorney  A.  D.  Griswold,  and  wag  himself  made  assistant  United 
States  district  attorney,  and  conducted  most  of  the  prosecutions  for  the 
government.  His  next  partner  was  Jacob  Kleinhans,  with  whom  he 
remained  for  several  years.  The  firm  afterward  became  Blair,  Eggles- 
ton, Kingsley  &  Kleinhans.  Mr.  Eggleston  withdrew  from  the  firm 
and  remained  alone  for  a  number  of  years.  He  then  formed  a 
partnership  with  James  E.  McBribe,  with  whom  he  was  associated  for 
several  years,  and  during  the  past  three  years  he  has  been  alone,  his 
advanced  age  and  failing  health  being  a  great  drawback  to  his  active 
practice.  Among  the  celebrated  cases  in  which  he  \^as  engaged  were 
the  Clay- Con  verse*  law  case;  the  Phillips  murder  case,  in  which  he  was 
leading  counsel;  the  Bronson  murder  case,  the  Yanderpool  murder  case, 
tried  in  Hastings,  in  which  he  was  retained  by  the  county  of  Manistee, 
and  the  Christ  murder  case,  tried  in  Grand  Eapids.  In  all  of  these 
cases  Mr.  Eggleston  greatly  distinguished  himself. 

October  9,  1877,  Mr.  Eggleston  met  with  a  crushing  blow  which 
saddened  his  later  years,  and  from  which  he  never  recovered.  His  son, 
Herbert  W.  Eggleston,  a  bright  young  man  of  great  promise,  was 
accidentally  killed  while  out  hunting  near  Traverse  City.  The  news 
of  the  accident  was  a  terrible  shock  to  the  father  and  it  is  said  by 
those  who  knew  him  well,  that  he  was  scarcely  himself  after  that  time. 
Another  great  shock  was  the  death  of  his  wife,  about  five  years  ago. 
The  only  surviving  member  of  his  immediate  family  is  the  married 
daughter  in  Boston,  Mass.  In  a  few  days  after,  this  daughter,  Bertha 
Eggleston  Ely,  the  last  of  his  family,  died  at  Boston. 

ISRAEL  VICTOR  HARRIS.— Israel  Victor  Harris  died  at  The  Clarendon 
in  the  city  of  Grand  Eapids  on  Sunday,  October  17,  1886. 


Captain  Harris  was  born  at  Pine  Plains,  Dutchess  county,  N.  Y.y 
April  2,  1815,  received  an  academic  education  and  until  his  removal  to 
Michigan  in  1836  was  engaged  in  farming,  was  commissioned  a  captain 
of  the  N.  Y.  state  militia  by  Governor  Marcy.  He  arrived  at  Detroit 
in  December,  1836,  and  in  the  following  spring  made  his  way  on  foot  to 
Grand  Rapids,  where  he  was  soon  joined  by  his  youngest  brother  Silas  G. 
with  whom  he  formed  a  co-partnership  with  James  M.  Smith,  with  the 
firm  name  of  Smith,  Harris  &  Co.,  keeping  a  general  store,  groceries, 
dry  goods  and  lumbermen's  supplies.  The  partnership  was  dissolved  in 
1844.  His  brother  Silas  was  elected  to  the  state  legislature  at  25  years 
of  age  and  served  as  speaker  of  the  house  with  much  credit.  He  was 
of  delicate  health  and  died  early.  Myron  Harris,  another  brother,  came 
to  Grand  Rapids  a  year  or  two  later,  with  whom  he  located  eight  or 
ten  miles  west  on  Sand  Creek,  now  in  Talmage  township,  Ottawa 
county,  and  engaged  in  lumbering  and  real  estate  business. 

Captain  Harris  was  supervisor  of  Talmage  for  six  successive  years, 
and  in  1852  was  elected  to  the  state  senate  running  against  Thomas  W. 
Ferry,  for  the  district  which  then  embraced  Ottawa  county  and  all  of 
those  north  to  Mackinac;  was  a  candidate  for  re-election  but  was 
defeated  by  Mr.  Ferry;  he  then  retired  from  official  life  but  remained 
prominent  in  the  counsels  of  the  democratic  party.  In  later  years  his 
residence  had  been  at  Grand  Haven  where  he  was  cordially  and  uni- 
versally respected.  He  was  always  public  spirited  and  influential  in 
promoting  enterprises  for  the  welfare  and  development  of  his  town  and 
of  the  Grand  River  valley. 

JUDGE  ISAAC  H.  PARBISH. — Isaac  H.  Parrish  died  of  apoplexy  in 
the  city  of  Chicago,  September  10,  1892,  and  was  brought  to  Grand 
Rapids  for  burial.  Judge  Parrish  was  born  in  Ontario  county,  N.  Y., 
April  2,  1826  and  came  to  Oakland  county,  Mich.,  in  1834.  His  youth 
was  spent  on  a  farm,  the  family  living  in  a  log  house  in  the  woods, 
and  his  early  education  was  obtained  in  a  log  school  house  in  Farm- 
ington,  Michigan.  After  he  was  20  years  of  age  he  read  law  and  was 
admitted  to  the  bar  in  1848,  then  for  twelve  years  he  practiced  suc- 
cessively at  Pontiac,  in  Wisconsin  and  at  Chicago.  He  came  to  Grand 
Rapids  in  1861,  in  1865  he  was  appointed  clerk  of  the  United  States 
court  here  and  held  that  position  ten  years,  after  which  he  returned  to 
law  practice.  In  1881  he  was  elected  judge  of  the  superior  court  of 
the  city  of  Grand  Rapids  and  ably  filled  the  position  during  the  term 
of  six  years. 

Judge  Parrish    from    time    to  .time    during    his    residence    in    Grand 

124  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

Rapids  was  a  contributor  to  the  local  papers  furnishing  interesting  his- 
torical sketches  of  persons  and  events. 

He  leaves  a  widow,  four  daughters  and  a  son. 

REV.  JAMES  W.  REID. — Rev.  James  W.  Reid,  pastor  of  the  Second 
street  M.  E.  church  of  Grand  Rapids,  died  at  his  home  January  21, 
1893.  He  was  born  in  Machias,  Maine,  April  7,  1837.  His  father's 
family  moved  to  Michigan  in  1859,  and  settled  near  St.  Joseph.  He 
early  took  to  teaching  in  Michigan  and  Wisconsin,  and  in  1861  studied 
law,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  under  Judge  B.  F.  Graves.  In  the 
early  60's  he  practiced  law  in  this  village,  being  a  member  of  the  law 
firm  of  Wilkinson,  Reid  &  Cahill.  It  was  while  practicing  his  profes- 
sion here  that  he  was  converted,  and  immediately  joined  the  Methodist 
Episcopal  church  and  entered  the  ministry  in  the  year  1868.  His 
appointments  in  the  order  named  have  been  as  follows:  Traverse  City, 
Tekonsha,  Homer,  Grand  Haven,  Portland,  Greenville,  Girard,  Union 
City,  St.  Joseph,  Charlotte,  Three  Rivers,  Grand  Rapids. 

Mr.  Reid  originated  the  present  system  of  conference  finance,  now 
endorsed  by  the  general  conference,  and  was  for  many  years  treasurer 
of  the  Michigan  conference.  He  was  also  the  author  of  what  is  known 
as  "  The  long  roll  call,"  of  which  Chaplain  McCabe  says,  "  He  could 
not  have  done  the  church  as  great  service  if  he  had  given  $100,000  to 
the  cause."  Of  late  years  the  Rev.  Mr.  Reid  has  been  actively  inter- 
ested in  developing  a  system  to  better  provide  for  the  necessities  of 
worn  out  preachers,  and  has  seen  his  own  conference  improve  from  an 
offering  of  $1,500  to  an  annual  fund  of  $10,000. 

He  has  always  been  an  active  friend  of  camp  meeting,  an  aggressive 
evangelist  worker,  and  was  one  of  the  projectors  of  the  Eaton  Rapids 
camp  meeting  and  the  originator  of  the  Michigan  State  Revival  Band 
and  its  first  president,  and  was  one  of  the  chief  workers  for  the 
Hackley  Park  camp  meeting.  A  firm  believer  in  the  principles  of  the 
Prohibition  party  he  resigned  his  charge  two  years  ago  to  accept  the 
chairmanship  of  that  party's  state  central  committee,  and  for  weeks 
and  months  he  devoted  his  time,  money,  and  energy  to  the  work. 
The  campaign  over,  he  was  again  received  by  the  district  conference 
and  assigned  to  a  church  in  Ravenna.  So  loud  were  the  remonstrances 
of  his  old  parishioners  in  Grand  Rapids,  however,  that  Bishop  New- 
man was  prevailed  upon  to  restore  him  to  his  old  charge,  which  he 
had  held  ever  since. 

MR.  and  MRS.  PHILANDER  REMINGTON. — Philander  Remington  died 
at  his  home  in  Grand  Rapids,  January  14,  1892.  Mrs.  Remington 
died  January  13,  1892.  For  sketches  see  page  111. 


CHAS.  A,  EOBINSON.— Chas.  A.  Kobinson  died  January  11,  1893,  aged 
about  70  years. 

Mr.  Robinson  came  to  Plymouth,  Wayne  county,  from  the  state  of 
New  York  in  an  early  day.  Removed  to  Grand  Rapids  in  1855, 
opening  a  livery  business  with  John  Coldron.  He  was  a  leader  in  the 
Knights  of  Labor  when  they  were  first  organized;  was  also  prominent 
in  G.  A.  R.  circles,  being  a  member  of  the  10th  Michigan  Cavalry. 

Deceased  leaves  a  wife  and  Tson,  Wm.  A.,  also  a  daughter,  Mrs.  Mary 
L.  Turner.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Old  Residents'  Association  of 
the  Grand  River  valley. 

JAS.  D.  ROBINSON.— Captain  Jas.  D.  Robinson  died  September  18r 
1892,  aged  70  years. 

Capt.  Robinson  was  born  in  Belfast,  Ireland,  April  17,  1822.  Came 
to  Grand  Rapids  in  1843  and  worked  at  his  trade  (mason)  for  a 
number  of  years;  built  a  home  in  1848,  at  the  corner  of  2d  and 
Scribner  streets,  it  being  the  first  brick  house  erected  on  the  west  side 
of  the  river  in  Grand  Rapids.  He  went  to  California  in  1850,  over- 
land; on  account  of  an  injury  received  in  the  mines  he  returned  by  the 
Isthmus  or  Panama  route.  In  1861  he  enlisted  in  the  1st  Regiment 
Michigan  Engineers  and  Mechanics,  and  was  made  captain  of 
Company  C  of  that  regiment. 

Captain  Robinson  married  Almeria  Church,  of  Marshall,  in  1853;  his 
widow  and  three  daughters  survive  him. 

He  had  acquired  considerable  property  and  was  the  president  of 
the  Fifth  National  bank,  also  of  the  Grand  Rapids  Savings  bank. 

DR.  CHARLES  SHEPARD. — One  by  one  the  pioneers  who  saw  Grand 
Rapids  expand  from  a  hamlet  in  the  wilderness  into  a  city  of  100,000 
souls,  are  passing  away.  On  March  8,  1893,  Dr.  Charles  Shepard,  the 
pioneer  physician,  whose  name  is  a  household  word  not  only  in  Grand 
Rapids  but  throughout  the  State,  peacefully  passed  to  the  other  life 
through  the  portals  of  sleep. 

Charles  Shepard  was  born  July  18,  1812,  in  Herkimer,  Herkimer 
county,  N.  Y.  He  was  the  son  of  Silas  Shepard,  his  mother's  maiden 
name  being  Anna  White.  The  doctor  spent  his  early  youth  at  school 
and  with  his  father  in  the  carpenter  shop.  At  18  he  began  to  read 
for  his  profession  in  the  office  of  Dr.  Harvey  W.  Doolittle,  of 
Herkimer,  and  graduated  in  March,  1835,  from  the  college  of  physi- 
cians and  surgeons  of  the  western  district  of  New  York,  situated  at 
Fairfield.  He  practiced  a  few  months  in  Jefferson  county,  N.  Y.,  and 
then  came  to  Grand  Rapids,  arriving  here  October  20,  1835,  and  gave 

126  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

out  that  he  had  come  to  stay  and  grow  up  with  the  promising  village. 
He  was  the  third  regular  physician  to  establish  in  the  village,  but  the 
other  two  have  long  since  passed  away,  and  Dr.  Shepard  for  many 
years  has  enjoyed  the  reputation  of  being  the  oldest  practitioner  in  the 
city.  His  first  call  was  to  Ada,  where  he  vaccinated  150  Indians  on  a 
contract.  The  work  of  a  physician  in  those  early  days  was  extremely 
arduous.  There  were  no  roads  about  the  country  and  he  rode  on 
horseback,  frequently  going  fifty  miles  through  the  wilderness  to  see 
one  patient.  On  one  occasion  he  rode  to  Muskegon  to  perform 
operations  on  several  sailors  injured  by  shipwreck.  At  that  time  the 
city  was  made  up  of  a  sawmill  and  boarding  house.  The  young 
physician  was  guided  by  one  undeviating  principle  in  those  early  days; 
if  called,  he  went;  no  question  of  compensation  was  allowed  to  be  a 
factor  in  the  case.  The  demand  meant  necessity;  nobody  had  time  to 
nurse  fanciful  disorders.  When  done  with  a  case  he  went  home  to 
sleep,  no  matter  what  the  hour,  and  it  came  to  be  understood  that 
absence  from  home  invariably  meant  professional  business. 

Dr.  Shepard  was  brought  into  prominent  notice  in  1837  by  some 
notable  surgical  operations  performed  upon  the  badly  frozen  crew  of  a 
vessel  which  was  wrecked  near  the  mouth  of  the  Muskegon  river. 
During  1813,  1860,  and  1872,  he  spent  much  time  in  visiting  the 
medical  and  surgical  institutions  of  New  York  City,  and  lost  no 
opportunity  to  keep  at  the  very  front  of  his  profession.  He  was 
particularly  noted  as  a  surgeon.  In  treating  the  diseases  of  women  his 
practice  was  simply  unlimited,  and  he  was  conceded  by  his  fellows  to 
be  without  a  peer  in  that  line  in  the  State.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
State  medical  association  and  was  president  of  the  Grand  Rapids 
medical  society.  In  politics  he  was  a  republican,  having  been 
converted  from  democracy  in  1848.  He  served  as  alderman  for  several 
years,  and  was  mayor  during  1855.  In  1876  he  represented  Michigan 
in  the  international  medical  congress  at  Philadelphia.  He  was  a 
Mason  for  twenty  years. 

The  older  residents  will  associate  Dr.  Shepard's  memory  with  the 
old  fashioned  stone  residence  and  office  on  the  hill  where  now  the 
Shepard  building  stands,  the  hill  and  house  having  both  disappeared 
some  years  ago.  This  was  where  his  daily  life  was  spent  for  forty 
years,  and  it  contained  the  medical  library,  which  was  one  of  the  finest 
in  the  State  and  in  which  he  spent  his  time  almost  constantly  when 
not  otherwise  engaged.  He  was  also  greatly  interested  in  microscopical 
research  and  owned  the  finest  outfit  of  that  kind  in  the  city.  In  1887 


he  purchased  the  property  at  Jefferson  avenue  and  Oakes  street  from 
L.  H.  Randall,  and  removed  from  the  old  homestead  on  the  hill. 

In  religious  belief  Dr.  Shepard  was  in  early  youth  an  evangelical 
believer,  but  in  later  years  he  embraced  the  doctrines  of  Emanuel 
Swedenborg.  Dr.  Shepard's  leading  characteristic,  however,  was  his 
practical  charity,  especially  in  his  connection  with  the  U.  B.  A.  Home. 
He  was  president  of  its  board  of  managers  and  also  chief  of  the 
medical  staff.  Through  the  courtesy  of  fellow  practitioners  he  was  also 
given  an  honorary  position  on  the  staff  of  St.  Mark's  hospital.  He 
was  always  in  favor  of  allowing  physicians  of  all  schools  to  practice  in 
the  U.  B.  A.  Home  and  finally  gained  his  point,  which  resulted  in 
allowing  all  physicians  to  practice  there. 

He  was  married  in  1836  to   Lucinda  A.  Putnam,  who  died   in  April, 

1873.     Their   two    daughters  and  a  son   by  this    marriage   are  all  dead. 

He   was   married    the    second   time   to    Dora  Sage,  at    Portland,    Conn. 

*  They  have  had  two  sons,  Charles  and  Silas  E.  Shepard,  both  of  whom 

are  living  and  are  aged  15  and  11  years  respectively. 

BILIUS  STOCKING. — Ripe  with  age,  Bilius  Stocking  peacefully  passed 
away  May  28,  1893,  at  the  residence  he  has  occupied  for  more  than 
half  a  century  on  Seventh  street,  Grand  Rapids,  at  the  head  of  the 
street  which  he  marked  out  and  which  was  named  in  his  honor.  Since 
the  earliest  day  he  has  lived  here,  and  until  the  infirmities  of  age 
overcame  him,  he  was  a  vital  part  of  the  city's  life,  and  was  esteemed 
by  all  who  knew  him  for  his  sterling  qualities  as  a  man  and  citizen. 

Mr.  Stocking  was  born  in  St.  Lawrence  county,  N.  Y.,  on  June  12, 
1808,  and  in  the  fall  of  1833,  with  his  brother  Daniel  C.,  he  came 
west  and  spent  the  winter  in  St.  Joseph,  Michigan.  »In  May  following, 
fifty-nine  years  ago  this  month,  they  came  to  Grand  Rapids,  then  a 
little  hamlet  in  the  woods.  They  made  the  trip  on  foot,  following  an 
Indian  trail  and  two  nights  slept  in  the  woods  and  one  at  Gull  Prairie. 
They  remained  here  two  weeks,  meantime  visiting  Grand  Haven, 
thence  returned  as  they  came  to  St.  Joseph,  and  thence  by  steamer  to 
Chicago,  and  from  there  to  Ottawa,  111.,  near  which  place  Daniel 
Stocking  purchased  160  acres  of  land.  The  brothers  returned  to  the 
East,  the  trip  occupying  four  weeks,  and  in  the  fall  of  1836  Mr. 
Stocking  again  started  for  Grand  Rapids,  coming  by  water  to  Fairport, 
Ohio,  and  the  rest  of  the  way  on  foot,  arriving  there  in  the  fall.  That 
winter  he  chopped  wood  and  split  rails  and  the  following  spring  settled 
upon  the  place  where  he  died,  which  he  purchased  of  the  gov- 
ernment as  soon  as  the  land  was  opened  for  sale,  at  three  dollars  an 

128  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

acre.  He  took  a  quarter  section,  and  with  his  own  hand  he  cleared 
away  the  forest,  and  under  his  direction  the  farm  became  one  of  the 
best  in  the  county.  As  the  city  grew  his  neighbors  became  more 
numerous,  and  the  city's  boundaries  were  extended,  and  the  farm  of 
early  days  is  now  a  part  of  the  city,  and  many  of  the  acres  have  been 
cut  up  into  building  lots  and  are  occupied  by  cozy  homes.  The  old 
homestead,  with  the  wide  lawn  in  front,  and  the  meadow  patch  at  the 
side,  and  the  apple  and  pear  trees  still  standing,  is  the  same  as  it  has 
been  for  many  years  and  is  one  of  the  landmarks  in  that  part  of  the 
city.  In  the  early  days,  while  all  was  still  in  the  forest  state,  without 
compass  or  guide,  Mr.  Stocking  marked  out  a  road  southeasterly  from 
his  own  front  door  to  Bridge  street,  and  this  is  now  Stocking  street 
and  is  lined  with  houses.  The  street  was  named  in  his  honor  and 
his  name  will  always  be  connected  with  it. 

Mr.  Stocking  was  treasurer  of  Walker  township  from  1843  to  1846 
inclusive,  represented  the  township  on  the  board  of  supervisors,  served 
as  justice  of  the  peace,  was  under  sheriff  one  term,  and  held  various 
other  minor  offices  and  was  always  identified  with  the  city's  best  inter- 
ests and  prosperity.  He  was  charitable  and  benevolent,  and  yet  he 
gave  so  quietly  that  it  was  rarely  known.  He  was  formerly  a  repub- 
lican, but  of  late  years  affiliated  with  the  prohibitionists.  In  religion 
he  was  a  believer  in  the  Swedenborgian  doctrines  and  was  a  life  long 
member  of  the  New  Church. 

In  his  family  life  Mr.  Stocking  was  peculiarly  happy.  He  married 
in  1838,  Miss  Mary  H.  Hunt,  and  his  marriage  by  the  Rev.  James  Ballard, 
was  one  of  the  earliest  in  the  city.  For  more  than  half  a  century 
they  traveled  hand  in  hand,  sharing  the  joys  of  life,  dividing  the 
sorrows  and  growing  old  together.  She  survives  her  companion  of  a 
lifetime  and  in  her  bereavement  has  the  sympathy  of  a  wide  circle  of 
friends.  Five  children  were  born  to  them  and  two  daughters  survive, 
Mrs.  John  Widdicomb  and  Miss  Alida  C.  Stocking. 

ARTHUR  WOOD. — Arthur  Wood  died  April  24,  1893,  at  his  residence 
in  Grand  Rapids,  aged  61  years,  11  months. 

Mr.  Arthur  Wood  was  born  in  Bristol,  Eng.,  May  22,  1832.  His 
parents  came  to  this  country  when  he  was  four  years  old  and  settled 
near  Worcester,  Mass.  In  1856  he  came  to  Grand  Rapids,  working  at 
the  carpenter  trade,  but  later  as  bookkeeper  for  R.  E.  Butterworth. 
In  1857  and  1858  he  was  employed  on  the  Democrat,  by  Jacob  Barns, 
then  editor  of  the  paper.  In  the  summer  of  1862  he  raised  a  company 
for  the  .4th  Michigan  Cavalry,  but  after  six  months  service  he  was 


obliged  to  resign  on  account  of  deafness  and  returned  home.  In  1863 
he  accepted  a  position  on  the  Detroit  Free  Press  under  Mr.  Barns, 
where  he  remained  nearly  five  years. 

In  1867  he  returned  to  Grand  Rapids  and  embarked  in  the  carriage 
business  with  Luther  Colby  and  H.  P.  Colby,  under  the  name  of 
Colby,  Son  &  Co.,  but  later  bought  out  his  partners  and  gradually 
built  up  an  important  business. 

In  1860  he  was  married  to  Sarah  F.  Colby,  daughter  of  Luther 
Colby,  who  is  still  living.  There  were  five  sons  born  to  them,  four  of 
whom  are  living,  all  having  an  interest  in  their  father's  business,  being 
stockholders.  One  brother,  C.  W.  Wood,  of  Battle  Creek,  still  survives 

Mr.  Wood  was  a  Mason,  being  a  member  of  Valley  City  Lodge  No. 
34,  and  in  politics  a  democrat. 

BY    S.   C.    STACY. 

MRS.  ISAAC  ADAMS. — Mrs.  Isaac  Adams  is  dead.  The  journey  was 
finished  at  Omaha,  Nebraska,  January  20,  1893.  It  was  a  long  one, 
spanning  this  entire  century,  save  the  opening  and  the  remainder  of 
the  present  decade.  The  heart  that  has  just  ceased  its  beatings  began 
to  pulsate  when  this  republic  was  an  experiment  and  this  continent, 
beyond  the  seaboard  states,  an  unknown  wilderness.  It  was  before  the 
second  war  with  England,  during  the  first  administration  of  President 
Madison.  There  then  lived  in  the  village  of  Charlemont,  amid  the 
Berkshire  hills  of  Massachusetts,  a  plain  young  couple  of  Puritan 
descent,  John  and  Elizabeth  Fisher.  In  1811  their  first  child  was 
born  and  christened  Mary.  As  years  passed  brothers  and  sisters 
entered  the  household  until  the  family  circle  numbered  twelve  sons 
and  daughters.  In  addition  to  the  village  schools  the  children  from 
time  to  time  were  given  the  advantages  afforded  by  academies  in 
neighboring  towns.  An  epoch  in  the  life  of  Mary  was  the  winter  of 
'29,  when  she  attended  a  select  school  for  girls  by  Mary  Lyon,  founder 
of  the  Mt.  Holyoke  seminary.  Finally  the  time  came  when  the  anxious 
parents  decided  that  the  future  of  their  flock  demanded  a  wider  field 
for  operations  than  their  snug  New  England  home.  In  1836  the  great 

130  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

migration  was  undertaken.  The  rocky  seventy  acre  homestead,  and  the 
father's  cabinet  shop  were  converted  into  money;  the  stage  coach 
winding  along  the  valley  of  the  Deerfield,  over  Hoosac  Mountain  to 
Troy,  was  chartered;  fond  farewells  were  chokingly  uttered;  eyes 
blinded  in  tears  looked  for  the  last  time  upon  the  dear  scenes  of 
childhood,  and  the  long  journey  westward  was  begun.  At  Troy  there 
was  the  transfer  to  the  Erie  canal,  and  at  Buffalo  the  canal  boat  was 
exchanged  for  the  lake  steamer.  At  Monroe,  Michigan,  family  and 
household  goods  were  transferred  to  wagons,  and  hauled  by  ox  teams 
to  their  new  home  in  the  forest,  three  and  one-half  miles  north  of 
Tecumseh,  now  the  farm  of  the  youngest  son,  John  Fisher.  During 
the  succeeding  thirteen  years  Mary  Fisher,  as  eldest  daughter,  contin- 
ued to  share  with  her  mother  the  responsibilities  of  pioneer  life.  In  1839 
she  was  one  of  fifteen  who  organized  the  Baptist  church  of  Tecumseh. 
Of  this  little  band  of  fifteen  she  was  the  last  survivor. 

In  1849  she  became  the  wife  of  Isaac  Adams.  Their  companionship 
lasted  thirty  years,  terminating  with  the  death  of  Deacon  Adams  in 
1879.  For  the  past  ten  years  Mrs.  Adams  has  resided  with  her  only 
son,  Isaac,  at  Omaha,  excepting  one  year  spent  at  Lincoln,  Nebraska, 
with  her  daughter,  Francina,  now  Mrs.  J.  J.  Wilson.  In  early  life 
Mrs.  Adams  was  not  robust,  but  care  and  prudence  brought  into 
healty  action  her  vigorous"  constitution  so  that  for  the  last  forty  years 
of  her  life  she  scarcely  experienced  any  sickness.  In  August  last, 
paralysis  rendered  her  helpless.  Realizing  that  there  was  no  relief, 
she  longed  to  be  free  from  the  bonds  which  time  had  forged.  With 
the  opening  of  the  year  the  disease  assumed  a  new  phase,  but  to  her 
its  progress  was  not  unwelcome.  She  predicted  that  ere  the  23d  of 
January,  the  fourteenth  anniversary  of  the  departure  of  him  whose 
memory  she  cherished  so  tenderly,  she  would  have  joined  him.  As 
the  month  grew  apace  she  numbered  the  days  as  one  waiting  a  long 
and  anticipated  meeting.  Thus  was  "the  passing  of  this  life,  long  and 
ripe.  The  milestones  along  its  way  can  be  pointed  out,  but  who  can 
conceive  the  scope  of  its  century  of  influence!  She  inherited  many  of 
those  traits  that  have  enabled  the  sons  and  daughters  of  New  England, 
though  comparatively  few  in  numbers,  to  stamp  their  character  upon 
all  genuine  American  institutions.  To  her,  Christianity  and  the  highest 
Christian  morality  was  not  a  faith  and  practice  necessary  to  be  accepted 
and  cultivated,  but  it  was  ingrained  and  instructive.  Anything  else 
was  simply  unnatural  and  abhorent.  Her  influence  was  confined  to  the 
family  circle.  There,  though  silent,  it  was  as  vital  and  all-pervading 
as  the  atmosphere.  Prior  to  the  attack  of  paralysis  her  faculties,  both 


physical  and  mental,  never  waned.  She  never  grew  old.  She  enjoyed 
the  life  of  a  growing  city.  Her  surroundings  and  new  associations 
were  always  agreeable.  The  past  had  no  more  grasp  upon  her  than 
upon  one  who  knows  of  it  from  hearsay  only.  She  was  abreast  of  the 
times,  in  full  sympathy  with  the  busy  and  progressive.  She  made 
herself  companionable.  She  leaves  to  her  children  and  relatives  the 
best  of  legacies,  an  inestimable  fund  of  precious  memories. 

EDMUND  W.  BORDEN. — Edmund  Woodmansee  Borden,  the  second  son 
of  Tyler  and  Hannah  Borden,  was  born  in  Monmouth  county,  New 
Jersey,  March  30,  1822. 

Orphaned  by  his  mother's  death  when  he  was  but  eleven  years  old, 
by  which  event  the  family  was  broken  up,  he  was  almost  immedi- 
ately thrown  upon  his  own  resources.  Being  drawn  by  the  teachings 
of  his  pious  mother,  he  soon  left  the  farm  where  he  had  been  engaged 
for  a  term  of  years,  and  buying  up  his  unexpired  time,  he  went  to 
New  York  city  to  prepare  himself  for  preaching  the  gospel.  This  he 
did  by  learning  the  tailor's  trade,  studying  as  he  worked,  and  attend- 
ing night  school.  He  thus  supported  himself  and  obtained  a  substantial 
basis  for  a  thorough  education,  which  he  afterward  acquired  by  private 
tutors,  by  a  course  of  study  at  the  University  of  Michigan,  and  by  a 
remarkably  patient,  persevering,  and  thorough  reading  of  the  masters 
of  learning  in  its  various  branches.  His  logical  and  close  reasoning 
powers  were  always  based  upon  verified  truth. 

When  twenty  years  old  he  married  Miss  Margaret  Hopper  of  New 
York  city  and  with  her  removed  to  Michigan  in  1843,  a  land  then  in 
primeval  forest  and  far  away  from  the  city  of  New  !York,  while  as  yet 
railroads  were  but  just  beginning  to  be.  Taking  up  pioneer  life  at 
Battle  Creek  as  a  circuit  rider  of  the  M.  E.  church,  he  was  instant  in 
season  and  out  of  season  to  carry  the  gospel  message  to  all  within  his 

After  laboring  in  that  church  from  his  seventeenth  year,  when,  he 
was  licensed  as  an  exhorter,  his  ordination  taking  place  when  he  was 
twenty-one  years  of  age,  till  1858,  a  period  of  nearly  twenty  years,  his 
theological  views  undergoing  some  change,  he  united  with  the  Congre- 
gational denomination.  In  this  body  he  continued  his  ministry  about 
fifteen  years.  In  1873  he  transferred  his  standing  to  the  Presbyterian 
church,  finding  in  its  polity  and  system  of  doctrine  a  congenial  resting 
place  for  his  inquiring  and  independent  mind.  He  gave  up  settled 
pastoral  charge  in  1888  but  continued  to  preach  until  last  summer, 
his  last  discourse  being  a  funeral  sermon  on  the  27th  day  of  August, 

132  A*NNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

1892.  His  family  consisted  of  eight  children,  five  of  whom,  two  sons 
and  three  daughters  are  still  living. 

The  last  year  showed  rapid  decline  in  his  health,  but  he  was  still 
happy  and  fairly  well  at  the  anniversary  of  his  golden  wedding,  October 
6,  1892.  He  died  on  February  27,  1893,  at  his  home.  So  ended  a 
career  of  triumph  and  an  active  ministry  of  fifty-three  years  in  the 

Mr.  Borden  never  lost  a  month  of  service  nor  was  ever  absent  from 
his  pulpit  through  sickness.  He  never  took  any  vacations  and  as  a 
public  servant  of  Christ  was  faithful  in  all  his  charge. 

WM.  BRESIK— The  death  of  William  Bresie,  April  23,  1893,  at  the 
ripe  age  of  76  years,  removes  from  the  social  and  business  circles 
of  Tecumseh,  one  of  our  foremost  citizens.  But  few  men  typified 
better  than  he  the  restless  energy  and  activity  of  the  western  pioneer, 
and  his  life  was  a  long  and  eventful  one.  He  was  born  in  Tioga 
county,  New  York.,  April  25,  1817,  and  when  six  years  of  age  his 
father's  family  moved  to  Conesus,  Livingston  county,  New  York,  where 
the  subject  of  this  sketch  lived  for  ten  years,  obtaining  such  a  meagre 
education  as  the  schools  of  those  days  afforded.  At  the  age  of  seven- 
teen he  caught  the  prevailing  western  fever,  and  started  for  Buffalo 
afoot  and  alone.  Upon  arriving  there  he  took  a  boat  to  Detroit,  and 
thence  walked  to  Michigan  City,  Indiana.  Here  he  pbtained  work  at 
driving  stage  and  for  about  two  years  subsequently,  he  made  his  head- 
quarters in  Chicago.  In  the  spring  of  1839  he  returned  east,  and  upon 
the  20th  of  March  in  that  year  he  married  Mary  A.  Johnson  of  Grove- 
land,  Livingston  county,  with  whom  he  lived  a  most  happy  domestic 
life  for  over  half  a  century.  Soon  after  his  marriage  he  moved  to 
Conesus,  where  he  kept  the  village  hotel  for  about  six  years.  He  then 
lived  on  a  farm  in  Groveland  for  a  time,  and  from  there  moved  to 
Dansville,  Livingston  county,  where  he  kept  the  Western  hotel  for 
several  years.  In  1850  he  moved  to  Hornellsville,  Steuben  county, 
New  York,  and  began  work  on  the  Buffalo  &  New  York  City  railroad, 
now  the  N.  Y.,  L.  E.,  &  W.  Ry.  He  was  employed  first  as  baggage 
master  and  then  as  passenger  conductor  for  a  period  of  seven  years  on 
a  run  between  Buffalo  and  Hornellsville.  He  then  resigned  to  take  a 
position  with  Mr.  Geo.  B.  Gates,  who  was  proprietor  of  the  first 
sleeping  car  line — the  first  sleeping  car  having  been  put  in  use  about 
1858 — and  he  served  in  this  capacity  for  Mr.  Gates  during  a  period  of 
ten  years  running  on  the  New  York  Central,  the  Buffalo  &  Erie  and 
the  Cleveland  and  Ashtabula  railroads,  the  two  latter  now  forming  a 


part  of  the  Lake  Shore  system.  Mr.  Bresie  enjoyed  the  distinction  of 
being  the  first  regularly  appointed  sleeping  car  conductor.  He  was  in 
several  wrecks  but  always  escaped  unhurt. 

At  the  expiration  of  his  ten  years'  service  here,  he  took  charge  of  a 
sleeping  car  line  between  that  city  and  Chicago.  He  then  moved  to 
Glenville,  Ohio,  a  suburb  of  Cleveland,  where  he  dealt  largely  in  real 
estate.  While  a  resident  of  Glenville  he  became  a  pioneer  in  the 
operation  of  street  railways.  He  obtained  the  right  of  way  and  the 
original  charter  of  the  St.  Clajr  St.  K.  E.  Co.,  a  street  car  line  run- 
ning from  the  heart  of  Cleveland  to  Glenville.  To  encourage  the 
enterprise  the  owners  and  citizens  along  the  route  donated  the  use  of 
the  line  without  rent,  and  he  managed  it  very  successfully  for  ten 
years.  His  property'  in  Glenville  increased  very  much  in  value  and 
gave  him  a  handsome  competency. 

In  1874  he  moved  his  family  to  Tecumseh  and  took  up  his  abode  on 
forty  acres  of  land  just  north  of  the  village  which  has  made  a  model 
home  for  him  during  his  declining  years.  His  house  was  an  historical 
landmark,  being  in  an  early  day  the  homestead  of  Gen.  J.  W.  Brown,  one 
of  the  founders  of  Tecumseh.  Within  its  hospitable  walls  he  celebrated 
his  golden  wedding  on  the  20th  of  March,  1880,  and' here  he  passed 
the  remainder  of  his  earthly  pilgrimage.  'For  nearly  twenty  years  he 
was  a  resident  of  this  village.  He  served  as  township  supervisor,  as 
village  councilman,  and  as  janitor  of  the  cemetery,  in  all  of  which 
positions  he  displayed  the  same  business  tact  and  ability  which  made 
his  early  life  such  a  marked  success. 

Four  children  blessed  his  married  life:  Wm.  R.  Bresie,  of  Decatur, 
Illinois;  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Crowell,  of  Cleveland,  Ohio;  Mrs.  Sarah  Betts, 
of  Edmore;  and  Amanda,  who  died  at  the  age  of  three  years. 

MRS.  SAMUEL  HOLDEN. — Mrs.  Samuel  Holden,  who  departed  this  life 
on  the  9th  day  of  January,  1893,  was  one  of  our  oldest  residents.  Had 
she  lived  until  May  23  next,  she  would  have  been  84  years  of  age. 
She  was  born  in  Groton,  N.  Y.,  in  1809,  and  was  there  united  in 
marriage  to  Mr.  Harlo  C.  Smith  in  October,  1832.  In  the  spring  of 
1834  they  drifted  westward  into  the  territory  of  Michigan,  and  settled 
on  a  farm  in  the  township  of  Cambridge,  which  was  then  almost  an 
unbroken  wilderness.  Here  they  carved  out  for  themselves  a  substan- 
tial home  and  here  were  born  to  them  five  sons,  to  make  that  home 
happy.  In  February,  1858,  they  moved  upon  a  farm  in  Raisin  where 
they  lived  until  1869,  when  they  purchased  the  old  Jas.  C.  Eddy  place 
just  west  of  Tectmseh.  Mr.  Smith  died  in  October,  1875.  In  May 

134  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

1877,  she  was  married  to  Mr.  Samuel  Holden,  who  now  survives  her; 
also  two  sons  by  her  first  husband,  Albert  E.  Smith  of  Onsted,  and 
Sylvester  H.  Smith  of  Adrian.  The  deceased  was  a  woman  of  modest 
manners  who  loved  her  home  and  kindred,  and  fulfilled  all  the  duties 
of  wife  and  mother  in  the  humble  station  to  which  God  had  assigned 
her.  She  was  for  many  years  a  member  of  the  Tecumseh  M.  E. 
church  and  died  in  the  hope  of  a  blessed  immortality. 

JOHN  RICHARD.— Another  of  Lenawee  county's  sturdy  pioneers  and 
most  worthy  citizens  died  at  his  home  June  12,  1892. 

John  Richard  filled  a  large  niche  in  the  local  history  of  Lenawee 
county  for  more  than  half  a  century.  He  was  descended  from  sturdy 
Irish  ancestry,  having  been  born  in  County  Antrim,  Ireland,  in 
November,  1806.  His  father,  Archibald  Richard,  was  an  Irish  farmer, 
and  the  father  of  eleven  children,  John  being  the  second  child.  He 
passed  his  boyhood  beneath  the  parental  roof,  gathering  such  rudiment& 
of  an  education  as  the  Irish  schools  of  those  days  afforded.  At  the 
age  of  eighteen  years  he  bade  adieu  to  the  old  home  and  set  sail  for 
the  new  world,  landing  in  Baltimore  about  the  first  of  June.  1825. 
Here  he  worked  for  a  few  months  at  the  brick  and  stone  mason's 
trade  and  then  went  to  New -Jersey,  where  he  engaged  in  work  in  the 
iron  furnaces  until  the  fall  of  1827,  when  he  returned  to  his  native 
land.  In  the  spring  of  1828  his  father  emigrated  with  his  family  to 
America,  John  having  persuaded  him  to  try  his  fortunes  in  the  western 
world.  They  landed  in  New  York  in  June,  1828,  and  proceeded  to 
Geneseo,  Livingston  county,  N.  Y.,  where  they  purchased  a  farm  and 
resided  until  1833.  In  September  of  that  year  they  came  to  Michigan 
and  settled  in  the  woods  on  section  fourteen  in  Raisin.  In  1831  the 
subject  of  this  sketch  again  returned  to  Ireland.  In  January,  1882,  he 
was  united  in  marriage  to  Miss  Elizabeth  Sherrard,  of  Antrim  county, 
with  whom  he  returned  to  America,  and  the  next  year,  1833,  he  came 
to  Michigan  with  his  father's  family  and  located  a  farm  on  section 
twenty-three  in  Raisin,  where  he  began  the  work  of  carving  a  home  out 
of  the  wilderness.  At  his  death  he  owned  one  hundred  acres  of  land, 
with  fine  buildings  and  improvements,  which  is  considered  one  of  the 
best  homes  in  this  section.  He  began  life  in  Raisin  in  a  log  cabin,  twelve 
feet  square,  without  a  chimney,  and  in  the  midst  of  an  unbroken 
forest.  During  the  next  forty  years  he  endured  the  privations  and 
performed  the  toil  incident  to  pioneer  life  in  the  Wolverine  State, 
during  which  time  he  made  the  forest  to  bloom  like  a  garden  and 
transformed  the  wild  woods  into  a  beautiful  home.  He  had  but  one 


child,  Alexander,  who  now  resides  on  the  old  Archibald  Richard  farm 
in  Raisin. 

The  deceased  was  possessed  of  good  physical  health  and  a  rugged 
'constitution,  and  took  a  deep  interest  in  all  matters  of  local  concern. 
He  was  a  great  reader  and  kept  himself  en  rapport  with  the  times  in 
current  history  and  politics.  Although  unobtrusive  and  far  removed 
from  intolerance  and  mere  partisanship,  he  entertained  positive  convic- 
tions upon  religious  and  political  subjects  and  could  always  give  a 
reason  for  the  faith  that  was  in  him.  In  politics  he  was  an  old  line 
democrat.  In  religion  he*  was  an  ardent  Presbyterian.  He  was  an 
active  member  of  ancf  regular  attendant  upon  the  Raisin  Presbyterian 
church,  and  gave  a  liberal  donation  to  erect  the  fine  .church  edifice 
which  stands  on  his  farm.  He  also  contributed  liberally  towards  the 
building  of  the  two  Presbyterian  churches  in  Tecumseh.  He  was 
frequently  honored  with  the  suffrages  of  his  fellow  citizens  for  offices 
of  trust,  having  been  twice  chosen  to  the  office  of  township  treasurer 
and  twice  elected  supervisor. 

"Uncle  John  Richards,"  as  he  was  familiarly  known  by  all,  was  a 
prominent  character  in  this  vicinity  for  nearly  sixty  years.  As  a 
husband  and  father  he  met  his  obligations  and  duties  with  religious 
fidelity ;  as  a  citizen  .  and  neighbor  he  -was  honored  and  trusted ;  as  a 
pioneer  he  stood  in  the  van  of  that  valiant  army  of  faithful  workers 
who  have  made  our  commonwealth  what  it  is  today.  He  has  fought 
the  good  fight,  he  has  kept  the  faith,  he  has  finished  his  course,  he 
has  entered  into  his  eternal  inheritance  on  high. 

JOHN  SAGE. — Another  of  the  pioneers  of  Lenawee  county  has  passed 
away.  Mr.  John  Sage,  of  Macon,  died  August  26,  1892,  on  the  same 
farm  upon  which  he  had  resided  since  1831,  in  the  88th  year  of  his  age. 

Mr.  Sage  came  to  Michigan  from  Livingston  county,  N.  Y.,  in 
the  spring  of  1831.  He  took  up  land  on  section  nine  in  Macon, 
Lenawee  county,  where  he  soon  after  erected  a  log  house.  October  24, 
1833,  he  was  married  to  Miss  Hannah  Marshall,  of  New  York  state, 
and  brought  her  to  his  new  home  in  Michigan.  .He  was  then  28  years 
old.  Together  they  commenced  the  battle  of  life  in  a  new  country, 
sharing  the  hardships  that  are  consequent  in  a  new  country.  Their 
nearest  neighbor  was  Dr.  Howell,  the  father  of  Dr.  George  Howell  of 
Tecumseh,  and  Edwin  Howell  of  Macon,  who  now  resides  at  his 
father's  early  home. 

Mr.  Sage  was  compelled  to  cut  his  way  from  Mr.  Pennington's 
through  to  his  land,  in  order  to  get  a  team  and  wagon  on  his  new 

136  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

farm,  all  being  a  dense  forest.  By  true  courage,  a  strong  will,  and  a 
healthy  and  robust  frame  and  constitution,  he  felled  the  primeval 
forest,  broke  the  land  and  made  for  himself  and  family  a  beautiful 
home.  Upon  this  farm  he  lived  until  his  death.  His  wife  was  called 
away  thirteen  years  previous  and  since  that  time  to  the  hour  of  his 
death  he  was  constantly  attended  by  his  youngest  daughter,  Mary  E. 
Sage.  Her  true  devotion  to  her  father,  her  untiring  care,  her  sleepless 
vigilance,  her  strong  love  for  him  during  all  those  years  merits  and 
receives  from  all  deep  and  abiding  friendship  and  esteem. 

Mr.  Sage  was  the  father  of  seven  children,  four  of  whom  survive 
him.  Two  sons  died  in  defending  their  country  during  the  war  of  the 
rebellion,  one  after  four  years  of  service  on  the  battlefield  in  the  3d 
Michigan  Cavalry,  and  the  other  in  the  llth  Michigan  Infantry.  Two 
sons  and  two  daughters  survive  him  and  were  present  with  him  to 
comfort  his  last  years  on  earth  and  mourn  his  departure. 

Mr.  Sage  was  a  true  patriot,  a  true  man.  Honesty,  integrity  and 
truth  marked  all  his  acts  and  he  died  at  a  good  old  age,  honored  and 
beloved  by  all,  amid  peace  and  prosperity,  surrounded  ,by  children  and 
many  friends. 

REV.  PETEK  SHARP. — Rev.  Peter  Sharp  died  in  San  Jose,  California, 
September  13,  1892.  Peter  Sharp  was  born  May  14,  1810,  at  Wills- 
burg,  Essex  county,  New  Jersey.  He  was  the  fourth  son  of  Cornelius 
Sharp,  who  had  eight  sons  and  daughters,  and  moved  with  his  family 
to  Ohio,  when  his  older  children  were  quite  small. 

Peter  was  converted  at  the  age  of  eighteen  and  giving  up  the  study 
of  law,  began  at  once  to  prepare  himself  for  the  ministry  which  he 
entered  four  years  later.  He  continued  in  active  service  as  an  itinerant 
in  the  M.  E.  church  until  1853  when  the  failing  health  of  his  wife 
made  it  necessary  to  locate.  While  the  Ohio  conference  still  included 
southern  Michigan,  he  was  stationed  at  Ann  Arbor,  and  was  married 
at  that  place  to  Miss  Eunice  M.  Doty,  March  19,  1837,  in  the  presence 
of  the  Sabbath  morning  congregation  of  the  quarterly  conference  and 
by  the  presiding  elder,  Rev.  Henry  Colclayer. 

His  next  station  was  Tecumseh,  then  a  four  weeks  circuit,  including 
Clinton,  Franklin,  Macon,  and  Eidgeway. 

From  there  he  returned  to  Ohio  and  filled  various  appointments 
until  1849,  when  he  was  transferred  to  Michigan  conference  and 
stationed  at  Coldwater,  at  Constantine,  at  Ridgeway,  and  at  Dundee, 
which  was  his  last  regular  appointment. 

December  24,    1853,    he    began    business   in    general    merchandise   at 


Ridgeway,  Michigan.  He  received  the  appointment  of  postmaster  soon 
after  and  continued  to  hold  the  office  for  nearly  thirty-five  years. 

He  was  a  member  of  the  Michigan  legislature  1859-1860,  and 
continued  to  preach  the  gospel  as  a  local  elder  in  the  M.  E.  church. 
March  -14,  1888,  his  beloved  wife  was  called  home  after  years  of  inval- 
idism  and  six  months'  helplessness.  His  untiring  patience  in  caring 
for  her,  but  proved  his  devotion.  A  few  months  after  he  yielded  to 
the  necessity  and  closed  out  his  business  at  Ridgeway  and  moved  to 
Tecumseh  to  live  with  his  daughter.  August,  1889,  he  went  to  Cali- 
fornia, where  his  oldest  son  lived  on  a  mountain  ranch.  Here  he 
found  work  for  his  Master  in  conducting  a  Sunday  school  at  the 
nearest  school  house.  In  the  spring  of  1891  he  moved  with  his  son's 
family  to  San  Jose.  It  was  his  intention  to  return  to  Michigan  in  the 
spring  of  1892,  but  the  Lord  ordered  otherwise. 

Peter  Sharp  was  a  man  of  true  nobility,  held  in  esteem  and  venera- 
tion by  all  who  had  the  capacity  to  appreciate  the  excellence  of  his 
character  and  his  ability  as  a  theologian. 

Truly  beloved  by  his  family  and  intimate  friends;  devoted  and 
untiring  in  the  discharge  of  religious  duty,  seeming  always  to  possess 
his  soul  in  peace. 

ELLERY  SISSON. — Ellery  Sisson  died  January  7,  1893,  in  his  80th 
yea|^  at  the  home  of  his  daughter,  Mrs.  Geo.  Shuart,  in  Jackson.  Mr. 
Sisson  resided  in  Tecumseh  and  Raisin  for  more  than  70  years,  until 
a  few  weeks  before  when  he  went  to  live  with  his  daughter  in 
Jackson . 

Mr.  Sisson  was  one  of  the  earliest  settlers  of  this  township.  His 
father  located  the  old  Aaron  Comfort  farm,  across  the  road  from  N.  M. 
Sutton's,  the  present  home  of  A.  J.  Van  Winkle  and  of  Dr.  C.  A. 
Waldron.  He  had  voted  in  Tecumseh  at  every  presidential  election 
since  attaining  his  majority,  and  was  a  staunch  democrat. 

Miss  FANNY  STOCKING. — Miss  Fanny  Stocking  died  at  Tecumseh, 
Michigan,  on  April  28,  1893,  aged  59  years. 

Miss  Stocking  was  the.  daughter  of  Amos  and  Theodosia  Stocking, 
who  were  among  the  earliest  and  most  respected  settlers  of  the  town 
of  Tecumseh.  The  house  in  which  she  was  born,  being  the  first  one 
north  of  Theodore  Crane's,  was  one  of  the  first  frame  houses  built  in 
the  place.  Miss  Stocking  was  born  in  November,  1833.  Her  life  has 
been  one  of  the  most  quiet  and  yet  one  of  the  most  useful  of  lives, 
having  been  spent,  nearly  all  of  it,  in  or  near  her  native  place,  and  in 

138  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

occupations  which  are  more  honorable  and  self-denying  than  conspicu- 
ous or  remunerative.  She  early  developed  a  taste  for  books  and  was 
a  pupil  of  the  Tecumseh  school,  of  that  of  Prof.  Estabrook  and  of  the 
State  Normal.  She  began  teaching  in  Franklin  at  the  early  age  of 
sixteen.  She  taught  many  years  in  Clinton  also,  where  she  is  lovingly 
remembered  for  her  labors.  But  it  is  in  this  her  native  town  that  she 
was  best  known  and  most  widely  and  fully  appreciated.  Here  she 
united  at  an  early  age  with  the  Presbyterian  church,  to  which  she  was 
warmly  attached,  and  of  which  she  was  a  consistent,  and,  until  the  loss 
of  her  health,  an  active  and  useful  member,  being  for  a  long  term  of 
years  the  teacher  of  a  large  class  in  the  Sabbath  school.  Here  in 
Tecumseh  also  she  conducted  a  private  school,  of  whose  advantages 
many  parents  were  glad  to  avail  themselves.  Here  for  some  years  she 
discharged  with  loving  faithfulness  the  duty  of  caring  for  her  invalid 
father.  All  the  work  she  undertook  was  performed  in  such  a  quiet, 
cheerful  way  as  to  convey  the  impression  that  it  was  easily  done. 


MRS.  ESTHER  WAKEFIELD. — Mrs.  Esther  Wakefield,  wife  of  Stephen 
B.  Wakefield,  died  at  her  home  at  Shawnee  Springs  in  Monroetown, 
May  17,  1893,  from  creeping  paralysis.  The  deceased  was  born  in 
New  York  state  November  20,  1823.  At  the  age  of  ten  years  she  came 
to  Monroe  with  her  parents,  arriving  here  in  June,  1833.  She  was 
one  of  the  oldest  residents  of  Monroetown  and  was  well  known.  She 
leaves  a  husband,  three  sons  and  two  grandsons. 

BY   HENRY    H.    HOLT. 

Miss  LIZZIE  BULLOCK. — Miss  Lizzie  Bullock,  the  eldest  child  of  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  A.  A.  Bullock,  died  April  9,  1893,  at  the  home  of  her  sister, 
Mrs.  R.  T.  Stanton,  in  Chicago,  where  she  went  on  a  visit  early  in 

Miss  Bullock  was  born  in  August,  1851,  at  Wells  River,  Vermont, 
and  in  1857  came  to  Muskegon  with  her  parents.  All  who  knew  her 
in  private  life  loved  her;  her  services  to  the  public  are  best  summed 


up  in  the  following  tribute  paid  by  F.  A.  Nims,  for  so  long  a  member 
of  the  board  of  education: 

"Miss  Bullock  received  her  school  training  in  the  public  schools  of 
this  city.  She  commenced  her  work  as  teacher  in  1869,  in  the  old 
'ward  school  No.  1,'  on  Newaygo  Hill.  She  was  soon  assigned  to  one 
of  the  schools  in  the  old  'central,'  where  she  taught  until  the  spring 
of  1890,  when  failing  health  compelled  her  to  suspend  her  school  work. 
A  protracted  residence  in  Colorado  seemed  to  restore  her  to  vigorous 
health,  and  she  never  appeared  better  than  since  her  return.  She  was 
eager  to  enter  again  upon  her  chosen  vocation,  and  was  an  applicant 
for  her  old  place  for  the  coming  school  year. 

"  She  was  regarded  by  the  members  of  the  board,  as  well  as  by  the 
various  superintendents  under  whom  she  served,  as  the  best  'first 
primary'  teacher  we  ever  had;  and  her  work  as  such  was  well  known 
and  appreciated  by  school  workers  throughout  the  State. 

"  With  her,  as  with  all  truly  successful  teachers,  the  elements  of 
success  were  in  her  character,  which  for  purity,  modesty,  gentleness, 
patience,  and  devotion  was  unexcelled.  She  was  both  womanly  and 
motherly.  Little  children  gave  her  their  confidence  without  hesitation. 
Although  a  close  student  of  educational  theories  and  methods,  her 
intuition  was  her  best  guide.  She  entered  with  her  whole  heart  into 
the  training  and  development  of  each  child-nature  that  came  into  her 
charge;  and  with  infinite  patience  and  inimitable  tact,  brought  out  the 
best  results." 

ISAAC  CROSSETTE. — Isaac  Crossette,  a  pioneer  of  this  State  and  of 
St.  Joseph  county,  died  at  Three  Rivers,  May  19,  1893,  of  pneumonia. 
For  a  short  period  he  has  made  Muskegon  a  temporary  home,  where 
the  wholesale  lumber  business  has  been  carried  on  successfully  for 
several  years  by  himself  and  his  son,  Heed,  in  the  firm  name  of 
Crossette  &  Son. 

He  had  been  seriously  ill  during  the  past  winter  at  Muskegon,  but 
having  materially  improved  in  health  and  strength  he,  together  with 
his  wife,  went  back  to  the  old  home,  Three  Rivers,  now  occupied  by 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  L.  Keyport,  his  son-fn-law  and  daughter.  With  a 
prospect  of  better  health  for  years  to  come  Mr.  Crossette  had  planned 
to  build  a  new  dwelling  on  the  old  home  plat  for  himself,  wife,  and 
unmarried  daughter. 

Isaac  Crossette  was  born  at  Fort  Ann,  N.  Y.,  August  14,  1824; 
removed  with  his  father,  mother,  and  the  other  children  to  Michigan 
in  1831.  His  boyhood  days  were  spent  in  St.  Joseph  county. 

140  .  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893, 

,  By  his  own  efforts  he  obtained  a  good  common  school  education 
which  he  first  made  useful  as  a  teacher  in  Three  Rivers  and  other 
places  in  the  vicinity. 

Isaac  Crossette  and  Clara  A.  Reed  were  married  in  1848  and  went 
to  Three  Rivers  in  1849.  At  Centreviile  Mr.  Crossette  learned  the 
blacksmith  trade,  but  teaching  was  more  agreeable  to  his  taste. 
During  the  year  1849  he  commenced  the  mercantile  business  at  Three 
Rivers,  which  was  pursued  for  about  twenty  years,  during  which  time 
he  was  postmaster  eight  years,  superintendent  of  the  county  poor  for 
several  terms  and  he  also  filled  many  other  positions  of  responsibility, 
and  to  the  general  satisfaction  of  the  people. 

Mr.  Crossette  and  Captain  Spencer  together  built  the  first  brick 
block  in  Three  Rivers,  now  occupied  by  Hummel  and  Klocke. 

As  a  business  man  Mr.  Crossette  was  enterprising  and  gave  the  best 
years  of  his  life  to  the  growth  and  prosperity  of  this  beautiful  town. 

As  a  citizen  Mr.  Crossette  ranked  among  the  best.  He  was  energetic 
in  the  temperance  cause  on  all  occasions,  and  his  influence  contributed 
to  the  moral  growth  of  this  community. 

Mr.  Crossette  is  survived  by  his  wife,  one  son  and  three  daughters, 
Mrs.  W.  L.  Antes  of  Baltimore,  Maryland;  I.  R.  Crossette  of  Muske- 
gon;  Mrs.  J.  L.  Keyport  of  Three  Rivers,  and  Alie  L.  Crossette  of 

GEORGE  F.  OuTHWAiTE.— George  F.  Outhwaite  died  "February  3,  1893, 
at  Muskegon.  For  sketch  see  Vol.  21,  page  208. 

MRS.  MARIA  S.  PIPER.— Mrs.  Maria  S.  Piper,  who  died  on  the  7th 
day  of  March,  1893,  at  the  residence  of  her  daughter,  Mrs.  D.  C. 
Tillotson,  on  Lake  street,  was  born  in  Mooers,  Clinton  county,  N.  Y., 
April  26,  1824.  She  was  of  a  family  of  thirteen  children,  only  one  of 
whom,  a  brother,  survives  her. 

On  the  27th  of  February,  1845,  she  was  married  to  Benjamin  S. 
Piper,  of  Irving,  Massachusetts,  who  died  in  Muskegon  in  1871.  After 
marriage  she  made  her  home  for  a  time  in  Northfield,  Mass.,  then  for 
some  eight  years  in  her  old  home  in  Mooers,  N.  Y.  She  then  came 
west  with  her  husband  and  family  to  Grand  ^  Rapids,  Mich.,  there  to 
reside  two  years.  Removing  from  there,  they  resided  in  Lament, 
Ottawa  county,  until  June,  1862,  when  they  came  to  Muskegon  to 
make  of  this  city  a  permanent  home. 

Mrs.  Piper  at  once  actively  identified  herself  on  her  arrival  in 
Muskegon  with  church  work.  At  that  time  there  were  but  thirteen 
members  in  the  Central  Methodist  church,  instead  of  in  the  neighbor- 


hood  of  nine  hundred  as  at  present.  She  committed  herself  fully  to 
the  work  in  hand,  and  the  prosperity  of  the  church  since  that  time 
has  been  due  in  no  small  measure  to  her  fidelity. 

She  was  actively  interested  and  identified  with  nearly  every  depart- 
ment of  benevolent  as  well  as  church  work. 

She  was  one  of  the  original  cemetery  association  organized  in  1870 
by  a  few  ladies,  which  did  so  much  in  the  way  of  beautifying 
Evergreen  cemetery,  supplying  it  with  a  fountain  and  other  attractive 
features.  In  every  kind  of  social  and  other  needed  reforms  she  was 
interested  and  cheerfully  active.  Her  entire  life  in  point  of  purity  was 
well  symbolized  by  the  whiteness  of  the  lilies  that  lay  upon  her  coffin 
and  in  point  of  completeness  of  maturity  by  the  ripened  heads  of 
golden  grain  that  lay  beside  them. 

FERDINAND  WELLETR. — Ferdinand  Weller  died  at  Muskegon  on  the 
9th  day  of  April,  1893.  He  was  one  of  the  most  widely  known  of 
Muskegon's  citizens  and  has  seen  it  grow  from  almost  a  hamlet  to  its 
present  proportions.  He  was  born  in  Asch,  Austria,  December  24,  1838, 
and  spent  the  earlier  years  of  his  life  in  acquiring  a  good  German 
education.  When  he  was  18  years  old  he  came  to  this  country  on  a 
sailing  vessel  to  attempt  his  fortunes  among  a  strange  people  of  whose 
tongue  he  was  entirely  ignorant.  He  made  his  way  directly  to  Michi- 
gan and  secured  a  place  for  a  while  on  a  farm  near  Detroit,  where  in 
the  intervals  of  his  chore  duties  he  managed  to  acquire  a  smattering 
of  English.  He  made  up  his  mind  that  he  wanted  to  be  a  printer 
and  ultimately  engage  in  the  newspaper  business,  and  with  this  definite 
purpose  in  mind  went  to  Howell,  this  State,  where  he  obtained  a 
position  in  a  printing  office.  Here  he  remained  a  short  time  when  he 
went  to  Grand  Rapids  where  he  remained  two  years,  working  at  his 
trade,  and  then  came  to  Muskegon,  arriving  here  in  -the  spring  of  1865. 
He  acquired  and  consolidated  two  papers,  issuing  them  as  the  News 
and  Eeporter.  His  press  was  of  the  original  hand  form,  and  putting 
the  paper  through  the  press  in  those  days  was  not  a  joke.  Gradually 
he  built  up  one  of  the  largest  and  best  newspaper  properties  in 
western  Michigan,  which  he  disposed  of  in  1869.  That  year  he  married 
Miss  Anna. Ellis  of  Earlville,  Iowa,  and  the  following  year  he  made  a 
trip  to  his  birthplace  and  brought  back  his  aged  mother  to  this  city, 
where  she  made  he£  home  for  fourteen  years. 

In  1870  he  entered  the  newspaper  business  again,  issuing  his  paper 
under  the  old  name  of  News  and  Eeporter  and  in  1872  he  came  out  as 
a  Greeley  democrat.  Ten  years  later  he  began  the  publication  of  the 

142  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

News  as  a  daily.  In  1889  he  disposed  of  his  entire  newspaper  property 
to  Wanty  &  Manning,  the  present  owners,  and  gave  his  attention  to 
his  other  interests,  real  estate  and  lumber. 

His  first  wife  died  in  November,  1884,  and  on  April  12,  1887,  he 
married,  at  the  home  of  her  parents  in  Charles  City,  Iowa,  -the  wife 
who  survives  him.  She  formerly  taught  the  high  school  in  Holland, 
Mich.,  and  met  Mr.  Weller  while  in  Chicago. 

In  the  death  of  Ferdinand  Weller,  the  local  press  of  this  city  and 
county  has  lost  a  pioneer  well  known  to  a  great  mass  of  the  people, 
and  so  thoroughly  has  he  been  connected  with  its  history  that  it  is 
impossible  to  give  a  sketch  of  his  life  without  saying  more  or  less  of 
the  history  of  our  press. 

The  first  newspaper  of  Muskegon  which  became  permanent  was  the 
Muskegon  Reporter,  the  first  number  of  which  was  issued  in  April, 
1859,  by  Fred  B.  Lee  &  Co.  This  was  continued  until  October,  1864, 
when  Fred  B.  Lee,  who  was  the  editor,  having  enlisted  in  the  army, 
the  paper  was  discontinued,  although  the  type  and  furniture  remained 
intact  in  the  office. 

John  Bole  started  a  republican  paper  known  as  the  Muskegon  News 
on  the  20th  of  August,  1864.  Mr.  Bole  published  this  paper  for  a  few 
months,  when  he  sold  it  to  Wm.  K.  Gardner,  who  continued  it  to 
March,  1865,  when  he  sold  his  interest  to  Ferdinand  Weller.  The 
latter  soon  after  bought  the  press  and  type  of  the  Reporter,  continuing 
the  publication  of  the  two  papers  for  a  short  time  when  they  were 
united  as  a  republican  paper  known  as  the  News  and  Reporter. 
This  was  continued  by  Mr.  Weller  until  December,  1869,  when  he  sold 
the  paper  to  Geo.  C.  Rice,  who  continued  the  publication,  changing 
the  name  to  the  Muskegon  Chronicle. 

In  August,  1870,  Mr.  Weller  revived  the  News  and  Reporter  as  a 
democratic  newspaper,  and  which  he  continued  until  his  sale  to  Messrs. 
Wanty  &  Manning.  He  started  The  News  in  1882.  Mr.  Weller  was 
always  known  as  a  good  citizen,  thoroughly  alive  to  the  best  interests 
of  the  city. 




BY    E.    T.    MUGFORD. 



Date  of  death. 


Ira  Mattison 


Oct.  26,  1892 


Wm.  ffl.  Payne 


Jan.  11,  1893 


Ethan  Hulbert 


Feb.  10,  1893 


Daniel  H.  Rankin 


Mar.   8  1893 


Wm.  Erdley 


"       8,  1893 


Loretta  H.  Randall 


11     12,  1893 


Oliver  Bray  . 


"     15,  1898 


Asa  Bray 


"     24,  1893 


Wm.  Satterlee  


April  8,1893  


Warren  Coolidge  


May  28,  1893..  


Pinny  P.  Roberta.... 


June  5,  1893... 



BY    A.    S.    KEDZIE. 

BERNARDUS  GROOTENHUIS. — Bernardus  Grootenhuis  died  unexpectedly 
March  3,  1893,  at  the  age  of  79  years.  He  was  one  of  the  earliest 
pioneers  in  this  Dutch  colony  and  closely  connected  with  its  history. 
He  was  born  at  Ommen,  province  of  Overisel,  Netherlands,  September 
12,  1814,  and  twenty-seven  years  later  he  married  Johanna  Hoogewind. 
In  1846  they  accompanied  Rev.  Yan  Raalte  to  America,  arriving  here 
in  the  spring  of  1847.  Mr.  Grootenhuis  mastered  the  study  of  survey- 
ing and  his  help  was  of  great  assistance  to  the  settlers  in  laying  out 
their  domains.  His  real  occupation,  however,  was  that  of  painter  and 
after  remaining  here  five  years  they  left  for  Detroit,  staying  there 
three  years  when  they  returned  to  Holland  for  one  year.  His  profi- 
ciency in  the  art  of  painting  attracted  considerable  attention  and  he 
went  to  Grand  Rapids  where  he  formed  a  partnership  with  L.  Dooge. 
After  spending  several  years  there,  either  in  company  or  alone  in  his 
business,  Mr.  Grootenhuis  and  his  wife  returned  here  in  1872.  While 
in  Grand  Rapids  he  took  a  leading  part  in  the  formation  of  the  First 
English  congregation  there  and  of  which  he  was  elder.  In  Holland 
he  was  also  one  of  the  leaders  in  organizing  the  Hope  church  congre- 
gation of  which  he  was  also  elder  for  several  years.  From  1867  to 

144  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

1879  he  was  supervisor  of  the  township.  Two  sons,  James  and  John, 
entered  the  union  army,  the  former  being  killed  in  the  battle  of  the 
wilderness.  He  leaves  an  aged  widow  and  three  married  children, 
John,  one  of  our  leading  painters,  Mrs.  J.  Kerkhof,  and  Mrs.  Janna 
Ter  Beek. 


PIETER  FREDERICK  PFANSTIEHL. — Pieter  F.  Pfanstiehl  was  born  June 
12,  1806,  in  the  city  of  Breda,  Netherlands.  He  received  a  more  than 
ordinary  education,  and  spent  a  part  of  his  youth  and  early  manhood 
in  other  countries  of  the  continent.  June  5,  1833,  he  was  married  to 
Helena  Meulenbroek,  with  whom  he  lived  52  years,  having  celebrated 
his  golden  wedding  two  years  before  the  latter's  death.  Of  seventeen 
children  born  to  them  five  survive,  two  sons,  Peter,  of  Holland,  and 
Rev.  Albert  A.,  of  Denver,  Col.;  and  three  daughters,  Mrs.  H.  Boone 
and  Mrs.  Dr.  F.  J.  Schouten,  of  Holland,  and  Frederika,  who  is  being 
cared  for  in  the  Michigan  asylum  at  Kalamazoo.  Three  days  before 
his  death  Mr.  Pfanstiehl  was  still  considered  to  be  in  his  usual  health* 
The  immediate  cause  of  his  death  was  congestion  of  the  lungs.  He 
entered  into  his  final  rest  on  Friday  evening,  July  8,  1892,  at  the  ripe 
old  age  of  86  years. 

With  the  death  of  Pieter  F.  Pfanstiehl,  Holland  loses  another  of  the 
few  remaining  links  that  connects  its  past  with  the  present. 

The  deceased  was  a  well-to-do  shoemaker,  in  the  city  of  Arnhem, 
Netherlands,  at  the  time  when  the  first  murmurings  of  dissatisfaction 
were  heard  on  the  part  of  his  countrymen  with  reference  to  their 
material  condition,  actual  and  prospective.  His  sympathies  were  with 
them.  In  all  the  movements  and  deliberations  leading  up  to  the 
"emigration  of  1847,"  he  was  an  active  coworker  among  those  that 
had  that  exodus  in  charge.  As  such  we  have  a  right  to  especially 
designate  him  a  connecting  link  between  the  present  and  the  past. 

With  his  family  he  left  the  fatherland  for  the  New  World  in  the 
summer  of  1847;  arrived  "in  New  York  and  remained  there  about  eight 
months  following  his  trade.  While  there  he  made  the  acquaintance  of 
the  late  Dr.  B.  Ledeboer,  an  incident  which  also  in  later  years  led  to  the 
doctor's  removal  to  Holland.  In  the  spring  of  1848  he  left  for  the 
west,  and  was  joined  at  Buffalo  by  Mr.  I.  Cappon,  then  a  young  man 
anxious  to  join  the  "  Zeelanders." 

Mr.  Pfanstiehl's  .objective  point  was  the  colony  of  Dr.  Van  Raalte,. 
in  Michigan,  with  whom  he  had  held  intimate  relations  in  the  old 
country.  Upon  reaching  Milwaukee  he  left  his  family  there  for  a  few 
weeks,  and  came  on  to  Holland.  Here  he  again  started  at  his  trade,. 


at  which  he  was  an  expert,  having  followed  it  in  such  cities  as  Brussels 
and  Paris.  It  did  not  take  him  long,  however,  to  realize  that  his  new 
environments  called  for  a  different  kind  of  foot  wear  than  had  been 
his  wont  to  make,  and  he  conceived  the  idea  of  starting  a  tannery. 
The  material  of  some  of  the  buildings  in  the  "  Indian  Village,"  was 
utilized  in  constructing  a  tannery  on  the  shore  of  Black  Lake.  The 
sills  can  still  be  traced  at  a  point  a  little  east  of  where  Cappon  & 
Bertsch  in  1859  built  their  first  tannery.  Here  also  is  where  Mr.  I. 
Cappon  was  initiated  into  the  tanner's  trade.  Want  of  sufficient  exper- 
ience soon  caused  this  enterprise  to  be  abandoned.  Some  leather  had 
been  made  and  was  sold  in  Kalamazoo,  where  it  fell  into  the  hands  of 
the  late  Simon  Schmid.  Mr.  Pfanstiehl  soon  thereafter,  in  1851, 
removed  to  Kalamazoo,  remained  there  a  year  or  so,  when  he  again 
returned  to  "the  colony,"  embarking  in  general  merchandise,  in  which 
line  he  was  more  successful. 

It  is  not  for  us  to  follow  his  subsequent  career  in  detail.  Suffice  it 
to  state  that  for  a  while  he  also  operated  the  stage  line  between  Kal- 
amazoo, Allegan,  Holland,  and  Grand  Haven;  was  a  dealer  in  staves, 
bark,  etc.,  became  a  vessel  owner,  and  manufacturer  of  cut  staves  and 

Having  briefly  stated  his  connection  with  the  early  settlement  of 
Holland,  as  the  pioneer  tanner,  there  is  one  other  incident  in  his 
career  as  a  business  man  which  is  desirable  to  bring  out,  it  being  espec- 
ially worthy  of  remembrance.  It  was  during  the  period  known  as  the 
panic  of  1857,  which  financial  distress  was  very  severe  upon  the  then 
weak  and  struggling  colony.  The  leading  business  man  of  that  day  and 
the  commercial  stay  of  the  settlement,  Mr.  A.  Plugger,  was  heavily 
involved,  and  at  the  complete  mercy  of  his  creditors.  The  times  were 
exceedingly  hard  and  trying.  Just  then  also,  as  a  matter  of  absolute 
self-preservation,  the  colonists  had  undertaken  to  construct  their  own 
harbor.  Through  the  self-denying  efforts  of  the  late  Mr.  John  Roost, 
they  had  obtained  from  the  State  a  grant  of  swamp  lands,  lying  princi- 
pally in  the  township  of  Olive.  Not  as  a  matter  of  investment,  for 
those  lands  at  that  period  had  little  or  no  value,  but  with  a  view  of 
furthering  the  development  of  the  harbor,  Mr.  Pfanstiehl  at  this  critical 
period  volunteered  to  take  a  certain  amount  of  those  lands,  to  enable  the 
harbor  board  to  secure  sufficient  dredging  in  what  is  at  present  the  main 
channel  of  the  harbor,  but  which  was  then  only  a  recently  cut  out  channel. 
(It  should  be  remembered  that  this  was  in  the  days  when  government 
appropriations  for  the  improvement  of  harbors  were  still  held  as 

146  ANNUAL,  MEETING,   1893. 

"  unconstitutional").  The  relief  obtained  through  this  public  spirited 
act  of  Mr.  Pfanstiehl  was  timely  and  duly  appreciated,  for  the  panic 
had  affected  the  market  for  all  kinds  of  forest  products  to  such  an 
extent,  that  it  left  not  enough  margin  for  their  shipment  by  means  of 
scows  to  vessels  lying  outside  the  harbor. 

The  deceased  as  a  citizen  never  sought,  but  rather  evaded  promi- 
nence and  leadership.  The  only  position  he  ever  held  was  that  of 
member  of  the  harbor  board,  of  which  body  he  was  for  years  the 
efficient  secretary. 

In  common  with  many  others  he  was  a  heavy  loser  by  the  great  fire 
of  1871.  He  managed,  however,  to  gather  up  sufficient  fragments  to 
secure  him  an  ample  competency  during  his  remaining  years. 

BY   C.    W.   GRANT. 

JOHN  BARB. — John  Barr  of  Tittabawassee,  so  well  known  in  Saginaw 
and  in  every  part  of  the  county  for  the  last  30  years,  died  March  17, 
1893,  aged  73  years. 

Mr.  Barr  was  born  in  Scotland,  June  1,  1819,  and  came  to  this 
country  'in  1842.  He  located  in  Canada  where  he  assisted  in  the 
construction  of  the  first  iron  -boat  ever  built  in  that  country.  From 
Canada  he  traveled  over  different  parts  of  New  York  state,  and  in 
Buffalo,  New  York,  assisted  in  building  the  first  looms  to  knit  or 
weave  a  shirt,  it  formerly  having  been  done  by  hand.  He  located  for 
eight  years  at  Waterford,  Saratoga  county,  New  York,  where  he 
constructed  fire  engines.  In  1865  he  first  came  to  Saginaw,  where  he 
has  since  lived.  Although  a  skilled  mechanic,  of  late  years  he  had 
been  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  brick  and  had  turned  out  from 
twelve  to  fourteen  hundred  thousand  annually.  Mr.  Barr  was  married 
October  12,  1846,  to  Agnes  Brice.  One  child  was  given  them,  Agnes, 
who  was  born  in  1847  and  died  in  1849.  Mrs.  Barr  died  July  23, 
1848,  and  in  1864  Mr.  Barr  married  Mary  Haslip,  who  survives  him. 

Mr.  Barr  first  became  interested  in  Saginaw  in  1848,  when  he 
furnished  some  money  to  William  King  of  Bridgeport  to  buy  land  on 
the  Tittabawassee.  Subsequently  the  gentlemen  divided  their  interests 


and  Mr.  King  sold  his  part  to  a  Mr.  Albright,  who  soon  after  sold  it 
to  Solomon  Malt. 

Mr.  Barr  was  the  owner  of  the  farm,  where  he  died,  since  1848. 

Mr.  Barr  was  noted  as  an  upright,  honorable  man.  No  good  cause 
appealed  to  him  in  vain.  He  always  had  a  pleasant  word '  for  his 
friends,  and  he  generally  made  friends  of  those  with  whom  he  was 
brought  in  contact.  Aside  from  the  farm  where  he  lived  Mr.  Barr 
owned  considerable  city  property.  His  home  was  one  of  the  best  in 
the  neighborhood,  and  for  years  he  has  lived  surrounded  by  the 
comforts  to  which  frugality  and  industry  are  entitled. 

MRS.  ELIZA  D.  BELL. — Mrs.  Eliza  D.  Bell  died  at  the  residence  of 
her  son  Lewis,  705  Chestnut  street,  Saginaw,  March  13,  1893,  aged  69 
years.  She  was  born  at  Amsterdam,  Montgomery  county,  New  York, 
in  1824,  and  came  to  Michigan  in  1836,  settling  at  Oxford,  where  she 
married  Oliver  H.  Bell,  now  deceased.  She  came  to  Saginaw  in  1857, 
and  since  resided  here  except  a  short  residence  at  Freeland. 

She  leaves  two  children,  Delia  A.  and  Lewis  H. 

She  had  been  a  member  of  the  Michigan  avenue  Baptist  church  for 
the  past  twenty  years,  and  had  the  love  and  respect  of  a  large  circle 
of  friends  among  whom  she  had  lived  for  so  many  years. 

ROBERT  L.  BENJAMIN. — Robert  L.  Benjamin  died  at  the  Good 
Samaritan  hospital  July  20,  1892.  Mr.  Benjamin  was  born  in  Madalin, 
N.  Y.;  Jane  14,  1808,  and  was  therefore  a  little  more  than  84  years  of 
age.  He  had  been  a  resident  of  Michigan  upwards  of  45  years,  and 
came  to  Saginaw  35  years  ago  from  Clarkson,  Oakland  county,  where 
he  had  lived  about  10  years.  In  December,  1862,  he  enlisted  in 
Company  H  of  the  27th  Michigan  Infantry  volunteers  and  served 
during  the  war.  The  hardships  of  the  camp  impaired  his  health 
somewhat,  yet  after  the  war  he  pursued  the  avocation  of  farming  for 
many  years,  living  in  the  township  of  Saginaw.  The  past  three  years 
he  has  lived  in  the  city  of  Saginaw. 

In  1835  Mr.  Benjamin  married  Belinda  Wilcox,  who  survives  him. 
They  had  three  children,  who  grew  to  manhood  and  womanhood.  They 
were  the  late  Henry  Benjamin,  who  died  32  years  ago,  Delos  Benjamin, 
who  died  in  1873,  and  Mrs.  Henry  A.  Newton,  who  died  in  1872.  He 
was  a  brother  of  the  late  D.  E.  Benjamin.  A  brother,  Sidney  Benja- 
min, who  is  in  the  upper  peninsula,  a  sister,  Mrs.  Thurston  of 
Clarkson,  two  grandchildren,  Miss  Stella  Newton  and  Ralph  Newton, 
of  Saginaw,  and  a  granddaughter  who  lives  in  Marshall,  survive  him. 

148  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

Miss  SUE  BENJAMIN. — Miss  Sue  Benjamin  died  at  the  home  of  Mr. 
Thomas  Merrill,  Saginaw,  May  14,  1893. 

Miss  Benjamin  was  born  in  Newport,  Me.,  April  19,  1845.  She  was 
the  daughter  of  the  late  Jatnes  and  Euth  Benjamin.  Her  mother,  who 
makes  her  home  with  her  son,  John  H.  Benjamin,  two  sisters,  Mrs. 
Gurney  of  Lewiston,  Me.,  and  Mrs.  Marsh  of  Portland,  Ore.,  and 
three  brothers,  Frank  W.  Benjamin  of  Dausen,  North  Dakota,  and 
John  H.  and  Fred  G.  Benjamin  of  Saginaw,  are  left  to  mourn  the 
loss  of  one  who  in  the  relations  of  daughter  and  sister  was  all  that  a 
true  Christian  woman  could  be. 

JOSEPH  BESCH. — Joseph  Besch  died  February  9,  1893,  aged  73  years. 
A  resident  of  Saginaw  nearly  40  years. 

CAPTAIN  ALONZO  L.  BINGHAM. — Captain  Alonzo  L.  Bingham  died 
January  25,  1893,  at  his  home  in  Saginaw,  aged  76  years. 

Deceased  was  born  in  Perry,  Genesee  county,  N.  Y.,  in  1816.  When 
about  twenty-three  years  old  he  removed  to  Buffalo,  where  he  taught 
eleven  years  and  then  came  to  Michigan,  locating  at  Mt.  Clemens,  where 
he  was  engaged  in  teaching  until  his  removal  to  Saginaw  in  1854.  The 
following  year  he  was  chosen  principal  of  the  union  school  on  the  east  side, 
filling  that  position  until  late  in  1859.  In  October,  1862,  he  was  commis- 
sioned captain  of  Company  H,  27th  Michigan  Infantry,  which  company 
he  was  instrumental  in  raising,  and  served  faithfully  and  gallantly 
three  years,  being  mustered  out  July  26,  1865.  He  was  wounded  four 
times  in  action,  at  Jackson,  Miss.,  July  11,  1863;  in  the  Wilderness, 
May  6,  1864;  Spottsylvania,  May  12,  1864;  and  at  Petersburg,  Va., 
June  28,  1864. 

He  was  elected  register  of  deeds  of  Saginaw  county  in  1867  and 
served  two  terms. 

He  was  principal  of  the  Freeland  union  school  in  1889-90. 

He  was  married  June  29,  1845,  at  Buffalo,  to  Louisa  M.  Folsom, 
who  with  two  children,  Mrs.  Laura  C.  Healey  of  Lansing,  and  W.  H. 
Bingham  of  St.  Cloud,  Minn.,  survive  him. 

Captain  Bingham  was  an  honored  member  of  Gordon  Granger  Post, 
G.  A.  E. 

MKS.  IS.  BOND  BLISS. — Frances  E.,  relect  of  the  late  S.  Bond  Bliss 
died  at  her  home  in  Saginaw,  July  27,  1892. 

The  deceased  had  been  a  resident  of  Saginaw  since  1856,  coming 
here  from  Elyria,  Ohio,  with  her  husband,  and  for  years  took  a 
prominent  part  in  the  social  life  of  the  city.  Mr.  Bliss  died  in  1884 


and  an  only    daughter   who  was   universally    beloved   died    some   years 
ago.     Walter  B.  Bliss  is  the  sole  surviving  child. 

CASPEK  BRADEN. — Casper  Braden,  for  forty  years  a  resident  of 
Saginaw,  died  February  24,  1893,  aged  78  years.  Mr.  Braden  was  well 
known  among  the  older  portion  of  the  community  and  was  held  in 
high  esteem  by  all.  For  16  years  he  was  employed  in  the  F.  &  P.  M. 
car  shops.  He  is  survived  by  his  wife,  a  daughter,  Mrs.  Engelbert 
Fischer,  of  Bay  City,  and  a  son,  Lieutenant  Charles  Braden,  of  West 
Point,  N.  Y.- 

MICHAE"L  BBENNAN. — Michael  Brennan,  aged  84  years,  died  April  8, 
1893,  at  his  residence  in  Saginaw.  Mr.  Brennan  had  resided  in 
Saginaw  for  the  last  30  years  and  was  well  known  and  much  respected. 
He  leaves  five  children,  James  Brennan  of  Kansas;  Thomas  Brennan 
of  Chicago;  Michael  Brennan  of  Saginaw;  Mrs.  Joseph  Martin  of 
Detroit;  and  Mrs.  Michael  McHugh  of  Saginaw. 

RUDOLPH  BEUSKE. — Rudolph  Bruske  died  April  26,  1893,  at  his  home 
in  Saginaw.  Mr.  Bruske  was  born  in  the  province  of  Schlesia,  Prussia, 
in  1851,  and  came  to  America  when  but  three  years  old  with  his 
parents,  who  located  in  Saginaw.  He  was  reared  and  educated  here, 
and  in  1865  began  clerking  in  different  stores;  in  1868  entered  the 
drug  business  with  L.  Simoneau,  and  was  with  him  seven  years,  after 
which  he  took  a  four  months'  tour  to  Europe.  He  returned  to  Saginaw, 
opened  business  for  himself,  and  has  been  successfully  engaged  in  it 
for  the  past  twenty  years.  He  was  thorough  and  energetic  in  his  methods, 
and  by  this  means  had  built  up  a  .fine  business. 

Mr.  Bruske  leaves  to  mourn  his  untimely  death  a  wife  and  two 
children,  three  brothers  and  five  sisters,  O.  E.  Bruske  of  Saginaw;  F. 
O.  Bruske  and  E.  H.  Bruske  of  Chicago;  Mrs.  Richard  Murphy  of 
Chicago;  Mrs.  Cora  Berger,  Mrs.  Jacob  Cross,  Mrs.  Bertha  Riegge, 
and  Mrs.  Henry  Endert  of  Saginaw. 

MARGUERITE  COMPTON. — Marguerite  Compton  -died  March  27,  1893, 
at  the  home  of  her  daughter,  Rachel  Compton,  1103  North  Granger 
street,  aged  83  years.  The  deceased  was  born  in  Albany,  N.  Y.,  and 
at  the  age  of  sixteen  was  married  to  James  Compton,  now  deceased.  Three 
years  afterward  she  moved  to  Ohio  and  in  1871  came  to  Saginaw. 
She  leaves  three  sons,  George  and  James,  of  Kingsville,  O.,  and 
Samuel  C.  Compton  of  San  Bernardino,  Cal.,  and  five  daughters,  Mrs. 
J.  Brown,  of  Meredith,  Mrs.  A.  Morse  of  Alexander,  Minn.,  Mrs.  D. 

150  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

W.  Swart  of    Sheldon,  N.  Y.,  Mrs.  J.  W.  Isaac,  of   Kingsville,  O.,  and 
Mrs.  Rachel  Compton,  of  Saginaw. 

MBS.  PRUDENCE  COOK. — Prudence,  widow  of  the  late  L.  Cook,  died 
July  29,  1892,  at  the  residence  of  Eobert  -Latterman,  at  Cass  Bridge, 
of  old  age.  Her  husband  who  was  widely  known,  died  three  years 
ago.  Mrs.  Cook  was  a  pioneer  of  the  county.  She  was  83  years  old 
and  had  passed  fifty-three  years  of  her  life  in  the  neighborhood  where  her 
death  occurred.  She  leaves  four  children. 

GEORGE  F.  CKOSS. — George  F.  Cross  died  March  19,  1893,  in  New 
York  city. 

George  F.  Cross  was  born  in  New  Hampshire  in  May.  1832,  and 
was  therefore  nearly  61  years  old.  In  early  life  he  removed  to  Minne- 
apolis where  he  engaged  in  business.  In  1862  he  came  to  Saginaw 
and  engaged  in  the  lumber  business,  purchasing  a  tract  of  timber  in 
Ogemaw  county.  A  mill  was  built  at  Standish,  the  firm  being  styled 
Cross,  Wright  &  Walker.  Subsequently  Mr.  Wright  retired  and  the 
firm  became  Cross  &  Walker,  and  still  later  Mr.  Walker  retired  and 
A.  Dyer  of  Boston  became  interested  in  the  concern.  In  January, 
1889,  the  entire  interest  of  the  firm  in  Ogemaw  county,  including  saw 
and  planing  mill,  timber  lands  and  a  large  stock  farm,  was  sold  to  C. 
L.  Judd  of  Saginaw.  Mr.  Cross  then  organized  what  is  known  as  the 
Asher  lumber  company,  purchasing  a  saw  mill  and  300,000,000  feet  of 
timber  in  Kentucky,  the  mill  plant  being  located  at  Ford  in  that 
state.  Another  saw  mill  and  a  large  planing  mill  was  built,  Mr. 
Cross  being  president  of  the  company.  Mr.  Cross  was  the  principal 
stockholder  and  president  of  the  George  F.  Cross  lumber  company, 
operating  a  planing  mill  in  Saginaw.  He  was  also  a  large  stockholder 
and  president  of  the  Allington-Curtis  manufacturing  company  of  Sagi- 
naw, a  large  and  profitable  concern  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of 
dust  separators  for  planing  mill  plants.  He  also  owned  a  half  interest 
in  200,000,000  feet  of  redwood  timber  in  California.  It  is  understood 
that  he  also  carried  a  life  insurance  of  $60,000. 

A  little  over  a  year  ago  Mr.  Cross  rented  his  residence  on  Genesee 
avenue  and  removed  to  Ford,  Kentucky,  to  take  the  active  management 
of  his  business  there. 

Mr.  Cross  lost  a  daughter  and  first  wife  by  death  nearly  fifteen  years 
ago.  Several  years  ago  he  married  Elizabeth  M.,  daughter  of  Mr. 
George  Weaver  of  Albany,  N.  Y.,  who,  with  one  child,  survives  him. 

CHARLES    S.  DRAPER.— Charles  Stuart   Draper    died    August  5,  1892, 


on  board  the  steamship  Columbia  as  he  was  returning  home  from 
Carlsbad,  where  he  had  been  in  search  of  health. 

Mr.  Draper  was  a  native  of  Michigan,  having  been  born  in  Oakland 
county  August  27,  1841,  and  was  therefore  almost x  51  years  of  age. 
Gifted  by  nature  and  possessing  faculties  of  intellect  seldom  found  in 
young  men  of  his  age  and  day,  Mr.  Draper  employed  the  years  in 
constant  study  and  in  sitting  at  the  fount  of  knowledge,  so  that  his 
majority  attained,  he  was  widely  known  as  a  scholar  and  student  of 
high  attainments. 

On  the  breaking  out  of  the  war  he  enlisted  in  the  Third  Michigan 
Infantry,  and  October  28,  1861  he  was  commissioned  second  lieutenant 
in  that  regiment.  He  was  detached  April  1,  1862  as  aid  on  the  staff 
of  General  Richardson,  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  captain  and 
assistant  aid-de-camp,  served  on  the  staff  of  General  Phil  Kearney, 
and  was  with  that  chivalric  and  brilliant  officer  when  he  was  killed  at 
Chantilly.  Captain  Draper  was  wounded  at  the  battle  of  Antietam, 
September  17,  1862,  and  resigned  March  19,  1863,  honorably  retiring 
from  the  service. 

Returning  to  Pontiac  he  was  united  in  marriage  to  Miss  Sarah 
Thurber,  daughter  of  the  late  Horace  Thurber,  who  survives  him  and 
who  has  been  his  devoted  companion  through  the  illness  which  ended 
with  his  death.  They  have  no  children. 

Mr.  Draper  came  to  Sagina^v  in  1870,  and  engaged  in  the  practice 
of  law  with  H.  H.  Hoyt.  Two  years  later  he  formed  a  partnership 
with  O.  F.  Wisner,  the  firm  of  Wisner  &  Draper  since  becoming  one 
of  the  most  prominent  in  legal  circles  of  the  city  and  State.  As 
attorney,  counselor,  citizen,  and  public  spirited  gentleman  there  is  no 
need  of  endorsement  in  the  record  of  Stuart  Draper.  His  name  and 
deeds  will  long  remain  as  a  monument  to  his  sterling  worth. 

Although  many  times  sought  after,  Mr.  Draper  declined  public  life, 
not  because  of  fear  of  its  responsibilities,  but  from  a  sense  of  innate 
modesty.  He  was  a  staunch  republican  and  served  the  party  as 
controller  of  the  city  of  East  Saginaw  from  1871  to  1873,  and  at  a 
subsequent  period  filled  the  office  of  city  attorney  one  term.  He  was 
elected  one  of  the  regents  of  the  University  of  Michigan  April  .1,  1885, 
and  was  re-elected  in  1889.  His  term  would  have  expired  December 
31,  1897.  Mr.  Draper  was  an  honofed  member  of  the  Saginaw  county 
bar  and  a  member  of  St.  Paul's  Episcopal  church. 

MRS.  MARY  J.  DRAPER. — Mrs.  Mary  J.  Draper,  wife  of  Calvin  D. 
Draper,  died  at  the  residence  of  her  son-in-law,  James  P.  Walsh,  1110 

152  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

Genesee  avenue,  Saginaw,  June  19,  1892,  aged  69  years.  Deceased 
was  born  in  New  York,  and  had  resided  in  this  city  thirty-five  years. 
Besides  her  husband  she  leaves  four  sons,  Eugene,  Alexander,  Jesse,  and 
W.  A.  Draper,  all  of  Saginaw,  and  one  daughter,  Mrs.  Loma  Greenleaf, 
residing  in  Tuscola  county. 

MRS.  CATHERINE  DEINDORFER. — Catherine,  the  widow  of  John  George 
Deindorf er,  died  August  22,  ]  892,  at  the  homestead,  two  miles  north 
of  Court  street,  on  Hermansau  street,  Saginaw,  at  the  age  of  64  years. 
Mrs.  Deindorfer  came  to  Saginaw  in  1852,  when  it  was  only  a  small 
village.  She  leaves  a  daughter,  Mrs.  J.  M.  Helmreich,  of  Bay  City, 
and  two  sons,  Richard  J.  and  John  G.,  both  of  Saginaw. 

MRS.  ANTHONY  DOERR.  SR. — Julia,  the  wife  of  Anthony  Doerr,  Sr., 
died  at  their  residence  in  Jamestown  on  August  23,  1892,  aged  73 
years.  Mrs.  Doerr  came  to  Saginaw  in  1850  and  the  following  year 
was  united  in  marriage  to  Mr.  Doerr,  who  survives  her.  She  had 
spent  all  of  her  married  life  upon  the  farm  in  Jamestown,  where  she 
died,  and  where  she  had  gathered  about  her  many  friends.  She  leaves 
besides  her  husband,  two  sons,  George  and  Anthony,  both  of  James- 
town, and  a  daughter,  Mrs.  Clemens,  of  Meinburg. 

REV.  CHRISTOPHER  L.  EBERHARDT. — Rev.  Christopher  Ludwig  Eber- 
hardt,  pastor  of  St.  Paul's  Evangelical i  Lutheran  church  and  president 
of  the  Evangelical  Lutheran  seminary,  died  at  his  home  April  27,  1893. 

He  was  born  January  3,  1831,  at  Lauffen,  Wurtemburg,  on  the 
Neckar,  a  branch  of  the  Rhine.  His  father,  who  bore  the  same  name, 
gave  to  his  son  first  a  common  education  and  afterwards  a  four  years' 
course  in  the  industrial  school.  He  then  worked  at  home  until  he  was 
of  age  and  entered  the  Mission  seminary,  at  Basel,  Switzerland, 
graduating  therefrom  in  June,  1860,  being  ordained  August  5,  of  the 
same  year  by  Decan  Hamm  in  company  with  Stephen  Klingmann, 
who  was  the  late  pastor  of  a  leading  church  near  Ann  Arbor. 

He  came  to  Michigan  in  1860,  when  the  conference  consisted  of  only 
six  members  who,  together  with  Mr.  Eberhardt  and  Mr.  Klingmann, 
organized  the  Evangelical  Lutheran  Synod  of  Michigan  at  Detroit, 
December  9  and  10,  1860,  and  of  that  number  the  deceased  was  the 
last  to  pass  away.  * 

The  mission  work  of  the  deceased  commenced  at  Hopkins,  Allegan 
county,  and  he  organized  churches  at  sixteen  places  throughout  Michi- 
gan, embracing  points  covering  360  miles  of  territory  in  circumference 
and  preached  at  each  place  once  in  three  weeks,  traveling  mostly  on 


foot.  In  June,  1861,  he  visited  the  Lake  Superior  regions  and  caused 
a  missionary  to  be  sent  there.  He  was  soon  after  called  to  the 
pastorate  at  Saginaw  which  had  been  in  existence  about  ten  years  but 
had  a  membership  of  only  about  thirty.  He  entered  upon  his  new 
duties  with  a  vigor  and  enthusiasm  that  instilled  life  into  the  people 
and  made  the  church  enter  upon  a  period  of  growth  and  prosperity. 
He  had  a  fair  knowledge  of  music  and  at  once  organized  a  male  choir 
of  which  he  acted  as  instructor,  training  them  to  a  true  appreciation 
of  the  worship  of  God  in  melody.  He  organized  a  little  school  of 
eleven  pupils  and  taught  it  for  over  fourteen  years,  until  it  had  grown 
to  such  proportions  as  to  require  at  one  time  three  instructors  and  it 
now  has  an  attendance  of  nearly  two  hundred. 

A  review  of  Kev.  Mr.  Eberhart's  pastoral  work  includes  much  history 
closely  interwoven  with  the  interests  of  Saginaw  and  Michigan.  The 
church  he  has  left  without  a  head  now  has  nearly  one  thousand  com- 
municants and  he  has  for  the  past  few  years  been  the  spiritual  guide  of 
over  two  hundred  families.  Several  branch  churches  have  now  become 
strong  and  independent,  such  as  Matthew's  church  at  Tittabawassee,  the 
St.  Peter's  at  Carrollton,  and  the  St.  John's  in  Saginaw. 

Outside  responsibilities  have  weighed  heavily  upon  the  deceased, 
who  was  always  an  untiring  and  enthusiastic  worker.  For  nearly  ten 
years  he  was  the  presiding  officer  of  the  synod  of  Michigan.  At  an 
early  date  he  realized  the  needs  of  the  church  for  a  numerous  and 
able  ministry,  and  it  was  through  his  efforts  that  the  now  prosperous 
theological  seminary  on  Court  street  was  established  in  1887.  He  was 
made  president  of  the  same,  and  it  has  constantly  grown  and  flourished 
under  his  supervision.  He  continued  to  fill,  until  his  death,  the  chair 
of  theology  and  ethics,  beside  devoting  much  time  and  thought  to  the 
general  conduct  of  the  institution.  He  was  a  great  success  as  an 
instructor,  and  was  a  great  student  of  Bible  history  in  the  original 
Greek  and  Hebrew,  and  such  profound  theologians  as  Luther  were  his 
daily  companions. 

Not  only  the  church  but  the  State  of  Michigan  owe  much  to  Mr. 
Eberhardt  in  the  establishment  of  the  noble  institution  of  learning  on 
Court  street  which  is  proving  so  beneficent  in  its  results. 

In  the  pulpit  and  upon  the  rostrum  pastor  Eberhardt  was  a  forcible, 
pleasant  and  interesting  speaker.  His  sermons  were  always  well  prepared 
and  showed  a  depth  of  thought  and  independent  research.  His  people 
were  deeply  attached  to  him  and  no  man  commanded  their  love  and 
esteem  in  so  high  a  degree  as  he.  His  greatest  monument  will  be  the 

154  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

loving  remembrance  of  thousands  who    have  known  him  and  have  been 
benefited  by  his  guidance. 

He  was  married  April  16,  1863,  to  Mary  Eemiold  of  Lodi,  Washte- 
naw  county,  who  departed  this  life  but  a  few  brief  days  before  her 
life  long  companion  went  to  join  her  in  that  great  beyond  where  it  is 
hoped  their  souls  may  repose  in  peace,  the  result  of  lives  well  spent  in 
the  service  of  the  Master. 

MRS.  JOHN  FOSTER. — Mrs.  Sarah  Foster,  wife  of  John  Foster,  died 
April  9,  1893,  aged  86  years. 

Mrs.  Foster  was  born  in  1807,  and  had  been  a  resident  for  many 
years.  Her  husband,  to  whom  she  was  married  over  65  years  before, 
and  five  children  survive  her.  The  children  are  Mrs.  Louisa  Mearns, 
M»s.  Jeannette  Steele  and  Mrs.  Lizzie  Home,  of  Saginaw;  Mrs.  M.  E. 
Cranston  of  Boston,  and  John  A.  Foster  of  Oakland,  California. 

MARTIN  HEUBISCH. — Martin  Heubisch  died  March  26,  1893,  at  his 
residence,  227  South  Third  street,  Saginaw.  The  deceased,  who  was 
61  years  of  age,  had  been  a  resident  of  the  county  for  the  past  thirty- 
six  years.  He  held  the  offices  of  deputy  sheriff  and  supervisor  for  a 
number  of  years  and  was  well  known  throughout  the  county.  He 
leaves  a  wife,  and  a  father  who  is  ninety  years  of  age. 

KOBERT  C.  HOWELL. — Robert  C.  Howell  of  Thomastown,  died  at  his 
home  March  20,  1893.  He  was  75  years  of  age  and  had  resided  in 
Thomastown  for  thirty  years.  He  leaves  a  wife. 

MRS.  FREDERICK  HUBERT. — Mrs.  Frederick  Hubert  died  at  her  home 
in  Saginaw,  March  6,  1893.  Deceased  was  born  59  years  ago  in  the 
province  of  Quebec,  and  came  to  Saginaw  from  Port  Huron  with  her 
husband  in  1862,  engaging  in  the  cattle  and  meat  business  for  many 
years,  which  attained  success  largely  through  the  business  knowledge 
and  untiring  efforts  of  Mrs.  Hubert.  Her  husband  died  about  five 
years  ago.  Only  one  son  and  a  daughter,  Mrs.  Julia  Button,  survive. 
Mrs.  Hubert  was  a  woman  of  much  force  of  character,  an  efficient  wife 
and  mother  and  a  good  neighbor. 

GOTTLEIB  LA'NGE. — Gottleib  Lange  died  July  16,  1892,  at  his  residence, 
1508  Germania  avenue,  Saginaw,  at  the  age  of  81  years.  Mr.  Lange 
was  one  of  the  pioneer  residents  of  the  city  and  for  forty  years  had 
made  Saginaw  his  home.  He  was  for  a  time  proprietor  of  the  Forest 
City  house  on  Water  street  and  later  of  the  National  house  on  Jeffer- 
son avenue.  He  leaves  four  children,  Mrs.  John  Reib  of  Detroit, 


Theodore    Lange   of    Chicago,    Rudolph    Lange    of   San  Francisco,  and 
Albert  Lange  of  Saginaw. 

MBS.  CAROLINE  C.  MASON.- — Caroline  Clark  Mason,  widow  of  the  late 
Dr.  Orville  L.  Mason,  died  August  13,  1892.  The  deceased  was  born 
April  1,  1804,  in  Chester,  Mass.,  and  was  a  direct  descendent  in  the 
fifth  generation  of  Lieutenant  William  Clark  of  colonial  fame,  and  a 
graduate  of  the  Westfield  academy,  Mass.  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Mason  moved 
to  Saginaw  in  1863.  The  last  few  years  Mrs.  Mason  has  made  her 
home  wiij^  her  son,  Lucius  P.  Mason.  She  also  leaves  a  daughter, 
Mrs.  Charles  W.  Mowry;  Mrs.  S.  Bond  Bliss,  the  other  daughter, 
having  died  less  than  two  weeks  before,-  a  sketch  of  whom  is  found  in 
this  report. 

PETER  McGREGOR.— Peter  McGregor,  a  pioneer  of  Saginaw  county, 
died  at  his  home  in  Tittabawassee  township,  September  13,  1892,  at 
the  advanced  age  of  83  years.  Mr.  McGregor  was  born  in  Scotland. 
He  came  to  the  county  in  1843  and  settled  on  the  farm  he  has  since 
occupied.  He  was  a  highly  respected  citizen  and  had  filled  various 
county  offices,  including  justice  of  the  peace  and  county  treasurer.  His 
wife  died  twenty-two  years  ago. 

MRS.  KESYIAH  OLIVER— Mrs.  Kesyiah  Oliver  died  March  11,  1893,  aged 
83  years.  Deceased  came  to  Saginaw  in  1849  with  her  husband.  Soon 
after  they  arranged  with  C.  W.  Grant,  then  of  the  firm  of  Hoyt  & 
Grant,  to  take  charge  of  the  lumber  shanty  and  cook  for  the  men  at 
work  erecting  what  for  years  was  known  as  "the  blue  mill,"  at  the  foot 
of  German  street.  The  cooking  shanty  was  located  on  the  present  site 
of  the  Buena  Vista  block,  corner  of  Tilden  street  and  Genesee  avenue, 
and  here  Mrs.  George  Oliver  cooked  the  first  meal  for  a  white  man  in 
what  was  afterwards  known  as  Hoyt's  plat  to  East  Saginaw. 

CHARLES  H.  PLUMMER. — Charles  H.  Plummer  died  at  his  home  in 
Saginaw,  November  2,  1892.  For  sketch  see  page  110,  Jackson  county. 

MRS.  ELIZA  M.  PALMER. — Mrs.  Eliza  M.  Palmer,  relict  of  the  late 
John  W.  Palmer,  died  at  the  home  of  her  daughter,  Mrs.  E.  St.  John> 
919  Court  street,  October  19,  1892,  of  heart  trouble. 

Mrs.  Palmer  was  a  daughter  of  the  late  Judge  Perry  Gardner.  She 
was  born  in  Ashtabula  county,  Ohio,  September  6,  1817,  and  was 
therefore  75  years  of  age  last  September.  She  passed  her  last  birth- 
day at  the  home  of  her  daughter,  Mrs.  William  Smith  of  Saginaw 
town.  In  1824  Judge  Gardner  removed  with  his  family  from 

156  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893 

Ashtabula  county  to  York,  N.  Y.  Here  Mrs.  Palmer  passed  her  girl- 
hood and  attended  the  Canandaigua  seminary,  where  subsequently  two 
of  her  daughters  attended  'school.  Judge  Gardner  came  to  Saginaw  in 
1832  and  settled  on  what  is  now  known  as  the  D.  E.  Benjamin  farm. 
Mrs.  Palmer  did  not  come  till  1836.  On  May  22,  1839,  she  was 
married  to  the  late  John  W.  Palmer,  who  died  March  24,  1884.  Soon 
after  their  marriage  they  went  to  New  York  state,  where  they  lived 
until  1843,  when  they  returned  to  Saginaw  and  lived  at  the  homestead, 
Judge  Gardner  having  died  during  their  residence  in  New  York.  In 
1846  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Palmer  removed  to  Flint,  then  a  smafl  hamlet, 
where  they  lived  until  1875,  since  which  time  Mrs.  Palmer's  home  has 
been  in  Saginaw.  For  the  last  eight  years  she  had  lived  with  her 
daughter,  Mrs.  E.  St.  John.  She  was  the  last  of  Judge  Gardner's  five 
children,  and  in  her  death  one  more  of  the  pioneer  families  of 
Saginaw  is  gone,  and  the  circle  of  those  who  have  known  Saginaw  for 
a  half  century  is  one  smaller.  Mrs.  Palmer's  real  worth  was  known 
only  to  those  who  touched  her  home  circle,  for  it  was  within  this 
circle  that  she  lived.  She  was  naturally  of  a  retiring  disposition,  and 
for  the  past  twenty-five  years  feeble  health  had  prevented  her  from 
widening  the  circle  of  her  active  influence.  Yet  who  shall  say  that  the 
pure,  noble  life  that  she  lived,  and  her  devotion  to  home  and  family  has 
not  been  far-reaching  in  its  influence  for  good. 

Mrs.  Palmer  was  the  mother  of  eleven  children,  six  of  whom  survive 
her.  A  daughter,  Miss  Alice  Palmer,  died  in  Saginaw  March  18,  1886, 
and  four  died  in  Flint.  Those  who  survive  are  Mrs.  William  Smith, 
Mrs.  E.  St.  John,  Mrs.  James  H.  Wellington,  and  Walter  F.  Palmer,  of 
Saginaw,  and  Miss  S.  C.  Palmer  and  Mrs.  H.  L.  Ketcham,  of  Chicago. 

MBS.  HARRIET  PASSAGE. — Mrs.  Harriet  Passage,  widow  of  the  late  A. 
B.  Passage,  died  December  19,  1892,  at  the  family  residence,  938  South 
Washington  avenue.  The  deceased,  who  was  66  years  of  age,  for  the 
past  26  years  had  been  a  resident  of  Saginaw  and  was  much  esteemed 
by  a  large  circle  of  friends.  Three  children  mourn  her  loss,  Mrs. 
Allen  McLean,  Mrs.  William  Lewis,  and  Miss  Hattie  Passage. 

DANIEL  D.  EICHARDSON. — Another  of  Saginaw's  old  residents,  Daniel 
D.  Eichardson,  heeded  the  final  summons  to  the  great  beyond 
February  6,  1893,  at  the  residence  of  his  son,  John  W.  Eichardson, 
924  North  Porter  street.  The  deceased  was  born  near  Napanee,  Ont., 
September  13,  1823,  was  married  at  the  age  of  22  to  Miss  Elmira 
Costlow,  who  died  about  eleven  years  ago.  He  came  to  Michigan  in 
1859  and  had  lived  in  Saginaw  for  the  past  thirty  years.  Mr.  Richardson 


served  nearly  three  years  during  the  war  of  the  rebellion  as  a  private 
in  Co.  G,  first  regiment  of  the  Michigan  volunteer  engineers  and 
mechanics.  He  leaves  three  daughters,  Mrs.  D.  A.  King  of  Saginaw, 
Mrs.  Hester  Ann  Benner  of  Spokane  Falls,  Wash.,  and  Mrs.  Philinda 
Meyers  of  St.  Paul,  Minn.;  and  three  sons,  John,  Charles,  and  Amos, 
all  of  Saginaw. 

MRS.  WILLIAM  KOESER,  SB. — Mrs.  William  Koeser,  Sr.,  died  at  her 
home  March  18,  1893.  Mrs.  Roeser,  whose  maiden  name  was  Therese 
Von  Yasold,  was  born  near  Rudolphsbath,  Germany,  July  16,  1829. 
In  1850  she  came  with  her  parents  to  this  county  and  settled  in 
Tittabawassee  township. 

For  years  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Koeser  made  their  home  in  Tittabawassee, 
and  subsequently  came  to  Saginaw.  Of  their  home  and  its  influence, 
of  Mrs.  Eoeser  as  a  friend  and  neighbor,  hundreds  of  friends  today 
speak  with  the  sad  thought  that  relations  so  well  filled  on  her  part 
are  ended. 

Mrs.  Koeser  leaves  a  husband  and  eight  children  to  mourn  the  irre- 
parable loss  of  a  wife  and  mother,  who  in  these  relations  was  what 
only  a  noble-minded,  large-hearted,  unselfish  woman  can  be.  The 
children  are:  Oscar,  Franz  and  Albert  Koeser,  of  Grand  Island,  Neb.; 
Herman,  Charles  L.,  and  Fred  Roeser,  Mrs.  Enoch  Solms,  and  William 
Roeser,  Jr.,  of  Saginaw. 

'  AMASA  RUST. — Amasa  Rust,  prominent  in  business  affairs  in  the 
Saginaw  valley  and  of  a  family  conspicuous  in  the  lumbering  interests 
of  the  northwest,  died  at  his  residence  207  Harrison  street,  Saginaw, 
January  26,  1893. 

Amasa  Rust  was  born  in  Wells,  Rutland  county,  Vt.,  May  27,.  1823, 
and  was  of  a  family  of  eight,  of  whom  John  F.  Rust  of  Cleveland, 
Ezra  Rust  of  Saginaw,  and  Mrs.  T.  G.  Butlin  of  Chicago,  are  now 
living.  The  father  of  Amasa  Rust  was  a  farmer  in  moderate  circum- 
stances and  gave  his  family  the  educational  advantages  that  the  common 
schools  of  that  date  afforded..  In  1837  he  removed  with  his  family  to 
Newport  (now  Marine  City),  where  the  subject  of  this  sketch  began 
the  battle  for  life  in  1841  in  shipbuilding  and  sailing  on  the  lakes 
until  1850,  when  he  turned  his  attention  to  lumbering,  which  he 
followed  until  his  death.  He  came  to  Saginaw  in  1855,  and  at  first 
was  associated  with  his  brothers  under  the  firm  name  of  D.  W.  Rust 
&  Co.,  and  subsequently  he  became  a  member  of  the  lumber  firm  of 
Rust  Brothers  &  Co.,  Butman  &  Rust,  Burrows  &  Rust,  and  Rust, 
Eaton  &  Co..  operating  large  saw  mills  and  salt  works  on  the  Saginaw 

158  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

river,  and  owning  extensive  tracts  of  pine  timber.  At  the  time  of  his 
death  he  was  a  director  in  the  Commercial  and  First  National  banks 
of  Saginaw.  and  the  Saginaw  county  Savings  bank. 

The  hospitable  and  rugged  personality  of  Amasa  Rust  were  distinguish- 
ing traits  in  his  character,  and  socially  he  was  a  most  warm  hearted 
and  companionable  gentleman.  Through  his  untiring  industry,  business 
sagacity  and  energy  he  amassed  a  large  fortune,  which  was  used  with 
lavish  generosity  to  help  those  less  fortunate  in  the  struggle  of  human 
existence.  He  was  also  a  public  spirited  man,  had  an  abiding  faith  in 
Saginaw,  and  contributed  liberally  to  every  project  calculated  to  benefit 
and  build  up  the  city.  He  was  a  true  friend  and  good  neighbor,  and 
few  citizens  of  Saginaw  leave  a  larger  circle  of  enduring  friends,  among 
them  many  who  personally  realize  and  appreciate  the  value  of  his 
worth  and  friendship. 

For  many  years  Mr.  Rust  was  a  member  of  the  vestry  of  St.  John's 
church  and  one  of  the  chief  supporters  of  the  church  for  the  erection 
of  which  he  was  one  of  the  most  generous  subscribers.  He  also  gave 
liberally  toward  the  erection  of  the  guild  house  and  rectory  of  St. 
John's  parish,  and  in  fact  nis  hand  was  ever  in  his  pocket  to  respond 
to  the  appeal  of  any  worthy  charitable  or  religious  project. 

In  August,  1849,  he  was  united  in  marriage  to  Mrs.  Marietta  A. 
Grout,  who  survives  him.  The  fruits  of  this  union  were  five  children, 
of  whom  Charles  A.  and  Ezra  G.  Rust  of  Saginaw  and  Mrs.  Ida  G. 
Macpherson  of  Duluth  are  living.  He  was  also  uncle  of  Hon.  W.  A. 
Rust  of  Eau  Claire,  Wisconsin,  one  of  the  prominent  lumbermen  of 
that  state. 

RUDOLPH  SCHACKER. — Rudolph  Schacker,  one  of  the  pioneers  of  Sag- 
inaw, died  November  28,  1892,  at  his  residence,  223  Park  street  north, 
from  the  effects  of  a  paralytic  stroke,  aged  78  years  and  8  months. 
Deceased  had  lived  in  Saginaw  since  1847,  and  is  said  to  have  been 
the  first  cabinet  maker  to  make  Saginaw  his  home.  He  was  well  known 
and  esteemed  and  will  be  greatly  missed  by  the  friends  among  whom 
he  had  resided  for  so  many  years.  His  family  consists  of  his  wife,  to 
whom  he  had  been  married  for  fifty-two  years,  three  married  daughters 
who  live  in  Toledo,  one  son  in  California  and  another,  son  whose  where- 
abouts are  unknown. 

PAUL  SCHMIDT. — Paul  Schmidt,  one  of  Saginaw's  best  known  German 
citizens,  died  December  15,  1892. 

Mi*.  Schmidt  was  73  years  of  age,  and  was  born  in  Vienna,  Austria, 
where  he  learned  the  apothecary's  trade.  For  about  thirty  years  Saginaw 


has  been  his  home,  the  greater  part  of  which  he  has  been  in  business 
at  the  corner  of  Germania  and  Genesee  avenues.  Upon  first  coming  to 
the  city  he  was  for  a  few  years  in  the  employ  of  Henry  Melchers  as 
prescription  clerk.  His  friends  were  many,  for  though  somewhat 
eccentric,  his  kindly  disposition  and  upright  character  gained  for  him 
the  esteem  of  all  with  whom  he  was  brought  in  contact. 

MRS.  FRANCES  STAFFORD. — Mrs.  Frances  Stafford,  wife  of  Philo  Staf- 
ford, foreman  of  the  Bust,  Eaton  &  Co.'s  saw  mill  for  twenty-six  years 
past,  died  February  20,  1893,  at  her  home  in  Zilwaukee.  Deceased  was 
54  years  old  and  had  resided  in  Zilwaukee  twenty-six  years.  She  was 
prominently  connected  with  the  Woman's  Equal  Suffrage  association  of 
the  State,  and  in  all  the  walks  of  life  she  was  an  exemplary  wife  and 
mother  and  a  most  useful  and  highly  esteemed  member  of  the  social 
sphere  in  which  she  moved.  She  leaves  one  daughter,  Mrs.  E.  Clark  of 
Cleveland,  and  four  sons. 

MRS.  AUGUST  STRASBURG. — Mrs.  August  Strasburg  died  at  her  home 
in  Saginaw  September  24,  1892,  aged  nearly  56  years. 

Mrs.  Strasburg  was  born  in  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  and  her  maiden  name 
was  Elizabeth  Bangester.  She  married  August  Strasburg  in  Detroit  in 
1853.  They  had  resided  in  Saginaw  since  1861.  Mrs.  Strasburg  leaves 
a  husband  and  four  children,  three  sons  and  one  daughter,  the  latter 
Mrs.  George  W.  Hill.  The  sons  are  August,  a  resident  of  Saginaw; 
Herman,  at  Fort  Sherman,  I.  T.,  and  Edward,  a  resident  of  Los 
Angeles,  Cal.  Mrs.  Strasburg  was  a  good  woman,  an  affectionate 
wife  and  mother,  and  a  kind  neighbor  with  a  large  circle  of  friends. 

WM.  THAYER. — Wm.  Thayer,  one  of  Chesaning's  old  residents,  died 
at  his  home  February  7,  1893. 

ENOS  THROOP. — linos  Throop  died  at  his  home  in  Saginaw  February 
20,  1893,  aged  64  years. 

Mr.  Throop  was  born  in  Bennington,  Wyoming  county,  N.  Y.,  August 
12,  1828,  and  removed  with  his  parents  when  fourteen  years  old,  to  Kich- 
field,  Genesee  county,  Mich.,  where  he  was  twice  married.  He  had  resided 
in  Saginaw  for  nearly  thirty  years,  and  was  well  known  arid  highly 
respected.  He  was  the  father  of  eleven  children,  four  of  whom  are 
living,  Mrs.  Lillie  Desaw  of  Standish;  Maud  Throop  of  Adrian,  and 
William  and  Ira  Throop,  of  Saginaw. 

CHARLES  TOWNSEND. — Charles  Townsend  died  March  8,  1893,  aged 
78  years. 

160  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

He  had  been  a  resident  of  Saginaw  for  the  past  thirty  years,  and 
leaves  five  sons,  William  of  Saginaw,  Charles  of  Kansas  City,  Mo., 
Alonzo  of  Topeka,  Kas.,  M.  W.  of  Denver,  and  John  A.  of  Saginaw; 
and  three  daughters,  Mrs.  Kanson  Curtis  of  Waterford,  Ont.,  Mrs.  O. 
P.  Barber  and  Mrs.  E.  D.  Peck,  of  Saginaw. 

EGBERT  TURNER.— Eobert  Turner  died  May  20,  1893,  the  aged  victim 
of  the  terrible  conflagration. 

Mr.  Turner  was  a  native  of  Glostenbury,  Conn.,  where  he  was  born 
in  1804.  For  a  long  period  he  was  an  extensive  woolen  manufacturer  in 
New  York,  but  settled  in  Michigan  some  thirty-five  years  ago  and 
engaged  in  the  same  business.  Seven  years  ago  he  came  to  Saginaw 
and  made  his  home  with  his  daughter,  Mrs.  Luther  Holland.  Mrs. 
Turner,  who  survives  him,  is  85  years  of  age,  it  being  sixty-five  years 
since  their  wedding  day.  He  leaves  four  children,  Mrs.  W.  W.  Whedon 
and  Mrs.  E.  A.  Spence,  of  Ann  Arbor,  Mrs.  Luther  Holland  of  Saginaw, 
and  Henry  E.  Turner  of  Lowville,  N.  Y. 

ADAM  WEGST. — Adam  Wegst,  one  of  Saginaw's  best  *  known  citizens, 
died  at  his  home  on  Germania  avenue,  October  3,  1892.  He  was  a 
man  held  in  universal  esteem,  enjoying  the  friendship  and  respect  of 
all  who  knew  him.  In  his  demise  Saginaw  loses  one  who  was  in 
every  sense  of  the  term,  a  true  citizen. 

Mr.  Wegst  was  born  in  Wurtemberg,  Germany,  November  2,  1833. 
His  father,  who  was  in  government  employ,  died  when  he  was  in  his 
third  year.  He  remained  at  home  attending  school  until  nearly  four- 
teen, after  which  he  learned  the  cooper's  trade,  serving  a  three  years' 
apprenticeship,  and  at  the  age  of  seventeen  came  to  America,  in  1851. 
The  sailing  vessel  in  which  he  came  was  wrecked  on  Coney  Island  and 
all  his  baggage  was  lost.  He  came  west  as  far  as  Cleveland  and  after 
six  months  went  to  Painesville,  where  he  spent  two  years  in  a  furnace, 
and  then  returned  to  Cleveland  where  he  took  up  the  business  of  a 
cooper,  working  for  one  employer  eight  years,  and  for  one  winter 
during  the  cholera  scourge  was  at  Washington  Harbor,  Wis.  In  April, 
1861,  Mr.  Wegst  came  to  Saginaw,  where  he  became  partner  with  Fred 
Eump  in  the  cooperage  business,  and  then  became  foreman  for  Ten 
Eyck  &  Co.  in  that  branch  of  their  business.  Afterwards  he  occupied 
the  same  position  in  the  Orange  county  works  at  Carrollton  until  1866, 
when  he  became  a  partner  in  the  firm  of  Wegst  &  Mark,  continuing 
this  until  1873,  when  he  bought  out  his  partner  and  carried  on  a  large 
trade.  In  1886  Mr.  Wegst  formed  a  partnership  with  his  son-in-law, 


J.  P.  Beck,  and  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  carriages,  etc.,  the 
partnership  existing  at  the  time  of  his  death. 

Mr.  Wegst  was  married  at  Cleveland.  March  23,  1856,  to  Jacobina 
Celler,  who  also  was  a  native  of  Wurtemberg.  She  died  February  16, 
1891,  leaving  one  adopted  son,  John,  and  two  daughters,  Mrs.  J.  P. 
Beck  and  Miss  Minnie  Wegst.  For  some  years  the  adopted  son  has 
resided  in  the  west. 

In  his  church  connection  Mr.  Wegst  was  associated  with  the 
Lutheran  church.  He  took  an  active  interest  in  the  social  as  well  as 
the  business  interests  of  the  city  that  so  long  was  his  home,  and  was 
among  the  original  members  of  both  the  Germania  and  Arbeiter 
societies  and  also  a  member  of  the  pioneer  society  of  the  county.  For 
eight  years  he  served  the  city  in  the  capacity  of  alderman  and  was  a 
capable  and  valued  member  of  the  city's  legislative  body;  for  six  years 
he  was  on  the  board  of  supervisors,  for  one  year  a  member  of  the 
board  of  education  and  at  the  time  of  his  death  was  on  the  board  of 
review  of  the  city. 

JOHN  C.  ZIEGLER.-^- John  C.  Ziegler,  a  resident  of  Saginaw  since 
1859,  died  at  his  home,  corner  of  Monroe  and  Bond  streets,  March  30, 

Mr.  Zeigler  was  born  in  Wurtemberg,  Germany,  November  15,  1880. 
At  the  age  of  fourteen  he  was  apprenticed  to  a  jeweler,  and  followed  that 
trade  in  Germany  until  1852,  when  he  came  to  America  and  located  at 
Detroit.  In  1859  he  came  to  Saginaw  and  entered  the  employ  of 
Thomas  Doughty,  where  he  remained  until  1861,  when  he  enlisted  in 
Company  H,  Second  Michigan  Infantry.  He  served  during  the  war  and 
then  returned  to  Saginaw  and  established  in  the  jewelry  business  on  the 
west  side,  where  he  was  for  years  the  leading  jeweler.  Some  ten  years 
ago  he  met  with  business  reverses,  and  poor  health  compelled  him 
soon  after  to  seek  a -more  healthful  business,  and  though  he  has  done 
something  at  his  trade  most  of  the  time  since  then,  he  has  been  quite 
extensively  engaged  in  growing  grapes,  which  he  made  into  wine.  He 
was  an  honored  member  of  J.  M.  Penoyer  post  No.  90,  G.  A.  R.,  and 
of  the  Teutonia  society.  He  has  always  been'  esteemed  as  a  good 
citizen  and  upright  man.  In  1861  he  married  Christina  Hink.  They 
have  seven  children,  three  sons,  Louis  Ziegler  of  Chicago,  Charles  and 
Albert,  of  Saginaw;  and  four  daughters,  Mrs.  Emma  Roth  of  Blum- 
field,  and  the  Misses  Augusta,  Clara,  and  Helen,  of  Saginaw. 

162  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 



JAMES  CUMMIN. — James  Cummin  died  at  his  home  in  the  village  of 
Morrice,  December  15,  1892,  aged  77  years. 

The  death  of  Mr.  Cummin  removes  from  our  midst  one  of  the  most 
prominent  and  best  known  pioneers  of  Shiawassee  county.  Mr.  Cummin 
was  of  Scotch  ancestry,  tracing  his  lineage  to  the  Cummin  clan  who 
fought  with  the  renowned  Sir  William  Wallace.  His  father,  Alexander 
Cummin,  was  born  in  County  Down,  Ireland,  and  died  at  Corunna 
at  the  age  of  82  years.  In  religion  the  Cummin  clan  were  strict 

Mr.  James  Cummin,  the  subject  of  this  sketch  was  born  in  County 
Down,  Ireland,  and  came  to  this  country  a  young  man,  and  worked  at 
the  carpenter's  trade  in  Detroit  for  a  time  in  the  30's,  and  acquired 
some  property  which  he  sold  and  then  moved  to  Shiawassee  county, 
and  was  one  of  the  first  pioneers  of  the  township  of  Perry.  He 
followed  farming  and  real  estate  business,  and  at  one  time  was  the 
owner  of  over  3,000  acres  of  land  which  he  accumulated  by  hard  labor 
and  careful  management.  Being  a  liberal  and  public  spirited  man,  he 
invested  nearly  $10,000  in  the  bonds  of  the  Detroit  &  Milwaukee  and 
Chicago  &  Northwestern  railroads,  the  most  of  which  was  a  free  gift 
to  aid  in  their  construction.  At  Corunna,  when  the  Corunna  car 
company  was  organized  for  the  purpose  of  manufacturing  freight  cars, 
he  gave  a  portion  of  the  necessary  land  for  its  location,  and  indorsed 
notes  to  aid  it  to  the  amount  of  several  thousand  dollars,  and  lost  the 
whole  amount.  He  also  advanced  the  money  to  build  the  Presbyterian 
church  at  Corunna,  which  was  returned  to  him  after  several  years'  use. 
Mr.  Cummin  became  interested  with  Lansing  parties  in  the  State 
Insurance  Company  and  invested  $5,000  which  he  lost.  He  was  also  a 
large  stockholder  in  the  First  National  bank  at  Corunna  for  several 
years  and  was  one  of  the  principal  founders  of  the  first  bank  of  this 
county,  known  as  the  Exchange  Bank  of  J.  B.  Wheeler  &  Co.  He 
was  also  very  active  in  securing  the  location  of  the  county  seat  at 

In  politics  Mr.  Cummin  was  a  sturdy  democrat,  and  during  the  dark 
days  of  the  Rebellion,  at  the  solicitation  of  committees  from  various 
towns  of  the  county,  he  held  war  meetings  to  secure  recruits  and  free 
the  towns  from  the  draft,  in  which  he  was  very  successful  always 
freely  contributing  his  services. 


Mr.  Cummin  served  the  county  as  county  treasurer  for  fourteen  or 
.sixteen  years,  being  elected  to  that  office  on  the  democratic  ticket  in 
1864,  when  the  republicans  had  about  one  thousand  five  hundred 
majority  in  the  county,  the  only  democrat  elected  on  the  county  ticket. 

Mr.  Cummin,  while  living  in  Detroit  was  married  to  Miss  Julia  A. 
Beale,  who  was  born  in  Kochester,  New  York.  She  died  at  Corunna 
in  1880.  Ten  children  were  born  to  them,  four  of  whom  died  when 
small  and  one  in  later  years,  Captain  William  E.  Cummin,  now  resid- 
ing in  Corunna,  being  the  eldest  surviving  child.  The  other  children 
are  George  E.  and  James  F.  Cummin,  now  successfully  engaged  in 
business  at  Cheney,  Washington,  and  Mrs.  Lizzie  Cummin  Phelps  and 
Miss  Julia  Cummin  of  San  Jose.  California.  These  absent  ones  were 
unable  to  be  present  at  the  funeral  of  their  father.  Beside  these 
children  Mr.  Cummin  leaves  a  widow,  to  whom  he  was  married  several 
years  ago. 

DR.  W.  B.  Fox.— Dr.  Wells  B.  Fox,  late  surgeon  of  the  Eighth  Mich- 
igan Infantry  and  surgeon-in-chief  of  the  field  hospital  of  the  first 
division,  ninth  army  corps,  died  of  apoplexy  May  30,  1893,  at  Bancroft 
after  an  illness  of  but  a  few  days.  He  was  to  have  delivered  the 
memorial  address,  it  having  been  customary  for  him  to  take  part  in  the 
exercises  for  a  number  of  years.  He  was  a  very  eloquent  speaker. 

Wells  B.  Fox  was  born  in  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  September  1,  1823.  When 
a  child  of  eight  years  he  was  injured,  and  was  placed  for  surgical 
treatment  in  the  care  of  one  of  the  most  eminent  surgeons  of  the 
Empire  state.  The  old  doctor  had  no  children  and  finally  adopted 
young  Fox.  He  early  imbibed  the  idea  of  studying  medicine  and, 
from  the  time  he  was  fourteen  years  old,  compounded  all  the  doctor's 
medicine  and  traveled  with  him  all  over  that  part  of  the  country.  Fox 
studied  medicine  in  Buffalo,  and  graduated  at  the  Union  college  at 
Schenectady,  N.  Y.  For  two  years  he  was  medical  attendant  of  the 
county  hospital  of  Erie  county. 

In  1849  he  came  to  Michigan  and  located  in  Livingston  county, 
beginning  a  general  practice.  He  continued  there  until  1862  when  he 
entered  the  army  as  surgeon.  He  was  appointed  assistant  surgeon  of 
the  Twenty-second  Michigan  Infantry  by  Governor  Wisner.  In  this 
capacity  he  served  until  June,  1863,  when  he  was  made  surgeon  of  the 
Eighth  Michigan  Infantry  until  the  close  of  the  war.  While  in  the 
Twenty-second  regiment,  after  Morgan's  raid  in  Kentucky,  he  organized 
the  hospitals  at  Lexington,  Ky.  In  September,  1864,  he  was  made  sur- 
geon-in-chief of  the  field  in  front  of  Petersburg,  and  continued  in  that 
position  until  he  was  discharged  July  20,  1865. 

164  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

He  was  at  Appomattox  with  his  hospital  corps,  and  was  by  invita- 
tion of  Gen.  Sheridan,  a  witness  of  the  making  of  the  terms  of  peace 
between  Grant  and  Lee.  It  is  said  that  during  the  war  he  amputated 
9,000  limbs,  and  conducted  14,000  other  operations.  At  the  close  of 
the  civil  war  he  returned  to  Michigan.  In  1877  he  came  to-  Bancroft 
and  took  an  interest  in  its  improvement,  erecting  a  number  of  buildings 
of  great  benefit  to  the  village. 

The  marriage  of  Dr.  Fox  and  Miss  Triphena  Skinner  took  place 
January  8,  1853.  She  died  August,  1888.  By  this  marriage  the  doctor 
had  two  daughters  who  survive  him.  Both  are  married  and  reside  at 
Bancroft.  He  was  a  prominent  Odd  Fellow  and  belonged  to  the  Byron 
encampment.  He  stood  high  not  only  in  the  councils  of  the  G.  A.  R. 
but  also  in  his  profession,  and  his  reputation  as  a  surgeon  was  national 
in  its  character. 

ISAAC  GALE. — Isaac  Gale  was  born  at  Bern,  Albany  county,  N.  Y.,  on 
the  4th  day  of  December,  1808.  His  parents  were  of  German  extract- 
ion; the  Sherburn  family,  to  which  his  mother  belonged,  emigrated 
from  Germany  to  England  in  the  sixteenth  century,  and  from  England 
to  America  in  the  seventeenth  century.  Isaac,  like  the  majority  of 
farmer's  boys  of  that  day,  remained  at  home  working  on  his  father's 
farm  until  he  was  twenty-one  years  old.  This  early  discipline  of  busi- 
ness and  economy  laid  the  foundation  of  his  future  success.  His  school 
privileges  were  confined  to  the  district  schools  of  his  neighborhood,  but 
with  an  active  and  logical  intellect,  with  an  ambition  to  acquire  knowl- 
edge, he  made  life  a  long  term  of  school,  and  accumulated  a  fund  of 
practical  information  that  is  seldom  covered  with  a  college  diploma. 

He  wisely  concluded  to  attempt  success  in  the  calling  to  which  he 
was  born  and  reared.  He  came  to  the  territory  of  Michigan  in  the 
spring  of  1830  and  located  one  hundred  and  sixty  acres  of  timbered 
land  in  Washtenaw  county.  About  this  time  he  was  married  to  Miss 
M.  A.  Wilbur  of  Duchess  county,  N.  Y.,  who  still  survives  him. 

In  1840  he  exchanged  his  farm  in  Washtenaw  county  for  a  tract  of 
unimproved  land  in  the  township  of  Bennington,  Shiawassee  county; 
this  farm  he  improved  and  enlarged  until  it  embraced  three  hundred 
and  eighty  acres— one  of  the  finest  farms  in  the  county.  Mr.  Gale's 
maxim  was  to  live  within  your  income,  and  he  •  demonstrated  that  suc- 
cess was  sure  along  that  line.  Daring  his  long  and  active  life  he 
accumulated  a  fortune  of  over  one  hundred  thousand  dollars.  His 
judicial  mind  and  his  extensive  reading  made  him  a  leader  among  the 
pioneers  of  Shiawassee.  He  was  supervisor  of  his  township  for  fifteen. 


years.  He  was  justice  of  the  peace  for  thirty-six  years,  and  served* 
four  years  as  record  judge  of  the  county  court  before  the  present  cir- 
cuit court  system  was  adopted. 

In  his  official  capacity  he  labored  to  keep  his  township  out  of  debt 
and  to  have  the  county  governed  in  a  conservative  and  economical 

Later  in  life  he  was  interested  in  banking  and  in  the  construction 
of  a  portion  of  the  Chicago  and  Grand  Trunk  railway.  He  was  social  in 
his  nature  and  was  never  too  busy  to  talk  with  a  neighbor  or  friend. 
In  politics  he  was  a  democrat  and  was  strong  in  the  belief  that  the 
"  rascals  should  be  turned  out "  of  office.  About  five  years  before  his 
death  he  moved  to  the  village  of  Morrice  where  he  died  July  2,  1892. 
Among  the  many  men  of  ability  who  became  identified  with  the  early 
history  of  Shiawassee  county,  probably  none  contributed  more  to  its 
material  and  social  prosperity  than  Isaac  Gale. 

MRS.  DANIEL  JEFFEES. — Mrs.  Daniel  Jeffers  died  at  her  home  in 
Burton  June  2,  1893,  aged  84  years  and  10  months.  Her  aged 
husband  and  five  children  survive  her.  The  names  of  the  surviving 
children  are  Mrs.  Mary  Phipps  of  Stanton,  Mich.;  Aaron  Jeffers  of 
Groomsville,  Ind.;  George  Jeffers  of  Flushing;  Mrs.  Jennie  Packer  of 
Caro,  Tuscola  county;  and  Mrs.  Louisa  Adams  of  Burton. 

The  deceased  was  born  in  England  and  came  to  Michigan  in  1833. 
At  the  time  of  her  death  she  had  resided  in  Burton  fifty-four  years. 
The  deceased  was  a  woman  of  exemplary  life  and  enjoyed  the  friendship 
of  a  large  circle  of  friends.  Her  children  sincerely  mourn  the  loss  of 
one  of  the  best  of  mothers. 

SAFFORD  PITTS. — Safford  Pitts  died  at  twelve  o'clock,  December  31, 
1892,  or  at  the  ushering  in  of  the  new  year  of  1893.  He  was  born  in 
Richmond,  Ghittenden  county,  Vermont,  in  1825.  He  came  to  Mich- 
igan in  1830  with  his  parents,  Moses  and  Sally  Pitts,  first  settling  in 
Bloomfield,  Oakland  county.  In  1836  his  father  took  one  hundred  and 
twenty  acres  of  land  from  government  in  Bennington,  Shiawassee 
county,  Michigan,  and  in  1838  moved  his  family,  thereon,  with  a  place 
cleared  only  large  enough  to  set  a  house.  All  commenced  life  in  earnest. 
In  1850  the  father  died  leaving  a  family  of  eight  children  of  whom 
Safford  was  the  eldest.  With  the  persistent  push  and  energy  which 
characterized  the  people  in  those  days,  all  moved  on,  Safford  teaching 
school  winters  and  working  on  the  farm  summers,  and  in  time  he  owned 
one  hundred  and  sixty  acres  of  land  on  the  Grand  River  road  where  it 
is  intersected  by  the  Owosso  &  Perry  road,  one  mile  from  the  old 

166  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

homestead  farm.  He  was  married  in  1858  to  Miss  Cornelia  Grenell  of 
Rose,  Oakland  county,  Michigan,  and  this  farm  became  his  permanent 
home.  Buildings  were  erected  on  it,  a  nice  school  house  built  on  one 
of  the  opposite  corners,  and  a  church  a  little  east  of  another  corner 
which  was  dedicated  a  Baptist  church.  Other  buildings  arose,  some  for 
business  and  some  for  dwellings,  until  they  had  quite  a  settlement  and 
they  called  it  Pittsburgh,  and  a  postoffice  was  established,  Mr.  Pitts 
appointed  postmaster,  which  office  he  held  until  1885.  This  was  also 
called  Pittsburgh  postoffice.  Mi*.  Pitts  was  converted  in  early  life,  and 
united  with  the  Baptist  church  and  lived  and  died  a  Christian,  and 
was  also  a  thorough  temperance  worker. 

The  deceased  leaves  a  widow  and  three  children,  A.  G.  Pitts,  a 
lawyer  in  Detroit,  Mrs.  W.  O.  Carrier,  wife  of  a  Presbyterian  clergy- 
man in  Wausau,  Wisconsin,  and  Miss  Allie  Pitts. 


MRS.  ELIZABETH  ASHTON. — Mrs.  Elizabeth  Ashton  died  at  her 
residence  in  Port  Huron,  July  31,  1892.  She  had  nearly  reached  the 
age  of  64  years.  '  She  was  born  in  Yorkshire,  England,  and  came  to 
this  country  at  the  age  of  thirty  years.  Here  she  married  and  moved 
to  St.  Clair  a  number  of  years  since.  For  the  last  seven  years  of  her 
life  she  had  been  afflicted  with  total  blindness.  Two  children,  a 
daughter,  resident  in  Detroit,  and  Robert  Ashton  of  Port  Huron,  are 
left  to  mourn  her. 

MRS.  ANDREW  BLACKIE. — Mrs.  Andrew  Blackie,  aged  88  years,  living 
in  China  township,  died  July  15,  1892.  The  deceased  was  an  old 
resident  and  was  respected  by  all  who  knew  her. 

WM.  BURNS. — Wm.  Burns,  ex-county  treasurer,  died  at  his  home, 
1534  Poplar  street,  Port  Huron,  May  3,  1893,  aged  55  years.  Mr. 
Burns  was  born  in  Chapel  township,  County  Wexford,  Ireland,  and 
came  to  America  with  his  brother  Moses  forty  years  ago.  He  located 
in  Fremont,  Sanilac  county,  on  land  purchased  from  the  government. 
Three  years  later  he  moved  to  Worth,  in  the  same  county,  and  shortly 
afterwards  to  Jeddo,  in  Grant  township,  where  he  settled  on  a  farm.. 


His  first  wife  was  Mary  Ann  Carroll,  daughter  of  a  Grant  farmer. 
She  died  twenty  years  ago,  leaving  two  sons  and  two  daughters,  Wm. 
and  John,  now  of  Chicago,  Mrs.  John  Dawson  of  Dakota,  and  Miss 
Katie  Burns  of  Port  Huron.  Mr.  Burns  was  married  the  second  time 
to  Mrs.  Thome  of  Port  Huron  seventeen  years  ago,  and  from  this 
marriage  had  one  son,  John,  aged  16  years.  He  had  two  sisters  resid- 
ing in  Chicago,  and  a  brother,  Moses,  in  Sanilac  county.  In  1886  Mr. 
Burns  was  elected  county  treasurer  on  the  democratic  ticket  and  came 
to  Port  Huron  to  reside.  He  was  [elected  a  second  time.  For  two 
years  he  was  under  sheriff.  As  an  officer  he  was  a  courteous  and 
obliging  gentleman  and  made  many  friends.  He  was  an  enthusiastic 
member  of  the  Ancient  Order  of  Hibernians,  a  member  of  the  Knights 
of  Labor  and  of  Huron  tent,  K.  O.  T.  M.  In  the  death  of  Mr.  Burns 
Port  Huron  has  lost  a  good  citizen. 

JAMES  W.  CAMPBELL. — James  W.  Campbell  died  at  his  farm  on 
Lapeer  avenue,  Port  Huron,  August  9,  1892,  aged  74  years.  He  had 
resided  on  the  same  farm  for  forty-four  years.  He  leaves  a  wife,  five 
sons,  and  one  daughter. 

THOMAS  CURRIE. — Thos.  Currie,  an  old  resident  of  Algonac,  and 
father  of  Capt.  Thomas  Currie  of  Port  Huron,  died  at  the  home  of 
his  daughter,  Mrs.  Frank  Hart,  of  Marine  City,  on  Sunday,  February 
5,  1893,  aged  79  years.  Mr.  Currie  was  born  in  Belfast,  Ireland,  in 
1818,  and  moved  to  Nova  Scotia  when  seven  years  of  age.  In  1839  he 
moved  to  Algonac  and  has  since  resided  there.  Five  sons  and  three 
daughters  survive  him. 

MRS.  JOSEPH  EBERT. — Mrs.  Joseph  Ebert  died  February  8,  1893. 
She  was  born  in  Bavaria,  Germany,  1832,  and  came  to  this  country  at 
an  early  age.  She  was  married  in  1852,  at  St.  Clair,  which  place  has 
always  been  her  home  since  her  arrival  in  this  country.  Five  children 
survive  her,  three  of  whom  are  married.  Two,  Mrs.  M.  Gearing  and 
Edw.  Cashine  reside  in  Detroit,  and  Mrs.  G.  S.  Anderson  in  Allegheny, 
Pa.  The  other  two  have  always  lived  here  at  her  sister's  home,  the 
St.  Clair  House.  She  also  leaves  two  sisters  and  one  brother  to  mourn 
her  loss. 

ANDREW  FOSTER. — Andrew  Foster  died  suddenly  of  heart  disease 
October  7,  1892.  Andrew  Foster  was  born  in  Ireland  on  February  2, 
1828.  He  came  to  Canada  with  his  parents  when  18  years  of  age.  He 
grew  to  manhood  in  Canada  and  was  at  one  time  engaged  in  the  boot 
and  shoe  business  in  Guelph.  At  the  breaking  out  of  the  war  he 

168  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

moved  to  Detroit  and  in  1862  came  to  Port  Huron  and  entered  the 
employ  of  H.  J.  Bockius.  Two  years  later  he  engaged  in  the  boot  and 
shoe  business  on  his  own  account  and  has  since  continued  in  it,  and , 
at  the  time  of  his  death  was  the  oldest  boot  and  shoe  dealer  in  this 
section  of  the  county.  Two  sons  and  two  daughters  survive  him,  Fred 
Foster,  Wm.  Foster,  Mrs.  Fred  Wright,  and  Miss  Edith  Foster,  all  of 
Port  Huron. 

JOHN  H.  HOYT. — John  H.  Hoyt  died  at  his  home  in  Port  Huron 
June  3,  1892,  aged  56  years. 

Mr.  Hoyt  came  to  Port  Huron  over  thirty  years  ago.  At  one  time  he 
was  engaged  in  the  drug  business,  was  for  years  a  member  of  the 
customs  force,  and  was  connected  with  Howard's  lumber  office  for 
some  time.  A  wife, 'one  son,  and  one  daughter  survive  him. 

MRS.  FRANKLIN  W.  HUNTINGTON. — Mrs.  S.  M.  Huntington,  nee  Kings- 
bury,  died  October  20,  1892.  She  was  born  in  Ogsdensburg,  N.  Y.,  in 
1820.  Her  father  subsequently  established  the  family  home  in  Canton, 
N.  Y.,  at  which  place  the  marriage  of  his  daughter,  Susan  M.,  to 
Franklin  W.  Huntington  was  solemnized.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Huntington 
moved  to  Kentucky  where  they  both  engaged  in  teaching.  A  few  years 
after  they  were  again  at  the  old  home  in  Canton,  from  which  place 
they  came  to  Port  Huron  in  1850.  Eight  children  were  born  to  them, 
four  of  them  still  living,  viz.,  Mrs.  Geo.  W.  Jones,  Mrs.  E.  O.  Avery, 
of  Alpena;  Mrs.  Fred  A.  Fish  of  Port  Huron,  and  Geo.  P.  Hunting- 
ton  of  Detroit.  Mrs.  Huntington's  character  was  moulded  in  child- 
hood through  the  religious  influences  of  a  pious  mother,  which,  early 
in  life,  led  her  to  seek  connection  with  the  Presbyterian  church  in 
Canton.  During  the  whole  period  of  her  residence  in  Port  Huron  she 
was  a  consistent  member  of  the  Congregational  church  of  that  city. 
Five  members  only  are  living  of  older  membership  than  herself.  Her 
literary  taste  made  her  a  very  desirable  co-worker  in  the  Ladies' 
Library  Association,  of  which  she  was  a  charter  member,  and  for  which 
she  had  rilled  the  offices  of  librarian,  recording  secretary,  correspond- 
ing secretary,  etc.,  with  ability  and  care.  On  the  occasion  of  a  visit 
from  the  L.  L.  A.,  of  Flint,  Mrs.  Huntington's  poem  to  mark,  the 
occasion  elicited  much  applause,  and  in  this  connection  we  will  say 
that  her  talent  for  composing  in  "  measure " — a  poetic  faculty — was 
often  exercised,  and,  on  fitting  occasions,  a  poem  from  her  facile  pen 
was  frequently  solicited. .  Her  tenacious  memory  was  a  marvel  to  her 
friends  until  advancing  years  weakened  its  power.  A  quiet  dignity 


seemed    her    personal    accompaniment,    and    her    friends   will    recall  its 
gentle  power  on  many  occasions  in  the  past. 

GAGE  INSLEE. — Gage  Inslee  died  at  his  home  in  Port  Huron,  Janu- 
ary 27,  1893.  Mr.  Inslee  was  born  in  New  York  state  August  8,  1818. 
He  came  west  with  his  parents  in  1835.  In  1856  he  engaged  in  the 
milling  business  in  Port  Huron.  In  1860  he  was  appointed  deputy 
United  States  marshal  and  also  served  as  provost  marshal.  In  1862  he 
was  appointed  to  a  position  on  the  customs  force  and  held  the  place 
until  1885.  He  was  an  uncompromising  republican.  In  1841  Mr.  Inslee 
married  Miss  Elsie  Ann  Montague  of  Orange  county,  N.  Y.  She  died 
about  five  years  ago.  The  deceased  leaves  one  son,  Chas.  Inslee,  of 
Grand  Rapids,  and  one  daughter,  Mrs.  A.  B.  McCollom. 

MRS.  M.  McELROY. — Mrs.  M.  McElroy,  whose  death  occurred  July  21, 
1892,  was  born  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  56  years  ago. 

In  1854  she  was  married  to  Jacob  McElroy,  a  brother  of  Hon.  C. 
McElroy  of  St.  Glair,  and  soon  after  moved  to  the  state  of  Alabama 
where  they  lived  until  her  health  failed,  when  she  with  her  husband 
and  five  children  came  north  again,  settling  at  New  Baltimore.  In  the 
year  1871  they  moved  to  Marine  City  where  in  March,  1879  they  cele- 
brated their  silver  wedding.  Mr.  McElroy  died  soon  after.  In  August 
of  the  same  year  the  widow  moved  to  St.  Glair  where  she  had  resided 
ever  since.  Frail  in  body  yet  of  a  persevering  and  energetic  nature 
her  life  was  prolonged  much  beyond  the  expectations  of  her  friends. 

During  her  residence  in  St.  Glair,  until  the  past  year  and  a  half,  she 
successfully  carried  on  the  furniture  and  undertaking  business.  During 
these  years  of  business  she  served  with  delicacy  and  appropriateness  at 
a  large  number  of  funerals.  Her  manner  was  of  that  quiet  and  retir- 
ing kind  that  wins  friends  at  every  point.  She  was  a  member  of  the 
Congregational  church. 

The  example  of  perseverence  and  industry  as  illustrated  in  the  life 
and  character  of  Mrs.  McElroy  is  one  which  could  be  followed  by  all 
with  profit. 

MRS.  EGBERT  MILLS. — Phoebe  Gumpton  Mills,  wife  of  Robert  Mills, 
was  born  near  Wardsville,  Canada,  fifty-nine  years  ago  and  died  at  her 
home  in  Port  Huron,  June  4,  1892.  For  many  years  she  lived  at 
Belle  River,  in  what  is  known  as  the  Hart  settlement,  She  became  a 
member  of  the  Methodist  church  when  quite  young  and  always  lived 
an  upright,  Christian  life. 

170  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

OSCAR  F.  MORSE. — Oscar  F.  Morse  was  born  in  New  Hampshire, 
February  13,  1842.  He  came  to  St.  Clair  with  his  parents  in  1846.  At 
the  age  of  20  years  he  joined  the  8th  Michigan  Cavalry  and  entered 
the  service  in  defense  of  his  country.  In  the  fall  of  1863  he  was 
taken  prisoner  near  Athens,  Tennessee,  and  for  the  next  fourteen 
months  languished,  starved,  and  suffered  in  five  different  southern 
prisons,  among  the  number  being  Libby,  Richmond,  and  Andersonville 
prisons.  At  the  end  of  this  time  he  was  exchanged  and  came  home 
badly  broken  down  in  health  and  the  sufferings  thus  endured  made 
him  more  or  less  an  invalid  for  the  balance  of  his  life.  After  the 
close  of  the  war  he  served  in  various  public  positions,  among  them  as 
clerk  of  the  house  of  representatives  for  one  year,  and  engrossing  clerk 
of  the  senate  for  two  years.  The  duties  of  these  offices  he  performed 
very  acceptably. 

In  the  year  1869  he  was  married  to  Miss  Sarah  Saph,  who  died  May 
23,  1892.  Five  children  were  born  to  them,  four  of  whom  are  left  to 
mourn  his  death. 

Three  years  ago  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Morse  joined  the  Congregational 
church  of  St.  Clair,  and  at  the  time  of  his  death,  which  occurred  July 
23,  1892,  Mr.  Morse  was  a  trustee  of  the  society  and  clerk  of  the 

The  deceased  directed  the  building  of  the  hotel  at  Grande  Pointe 
and  was  manager  of  the  same  for  some  time.  Later  on  he  occupied 
positions  of  steward  and  manager  of  the  Oakland  .and  Somerville 
Springs  hotels  respectively  and  made  many  friends  by  his  attentions 
to  the  welfare  and  comfort  of  thousands  of  guests. 

He  was  a  member  of  Miles  post  G.  A.  E.  and  of  Palmer  lodge  No. 
20,  Knights  of  Pythias,  of  St.  Clair,  and  was  buried  by  the  latter 
organization.  A  detachment  from  Sanborn  post  G.  A.  R,  of  Port 
Huron,  accompanied  by  a  portion  of  Miles  post,  of  St.  Clair,  attended 
the  funeral  services. 

CALIXTE  PAILLE.— Calixte  Paille,  an  old  resident  of  Port  Huron,  died 
at  his  home,  409  Ontario  street,  August  14,  1892.  Heart  difficulty 
was  the  cause  of  his  death.  The  deceased  was  formerly  a  well  known 
boot  and  shoe  dealer  but  of  late  has  lived  a  retired  life.  He  had 
resided  in  Port  Huron  fifty  years  and  had  resided  in  the  same  house 
for  thirty-nine  years.  He  leaves  a  wife  and  one  daughter,  Mrs.  Geo. 
Tebo  of  Chicago. 

MRS.  MALINDA  PARIS.— Mrs.  Malinda  Paris  died  in  St.  Clair,  October 
22,  1892,  aged  68  years.  She  was  born  at  Paris,  Ky.,  December  24, 


1824.  Her  maiden  name  was  Robinson.  Her  father  was  a  slave,  but 
her  mother  was  born  free.  From  this  marriage  there  were  nine 
children,  of  whom  Malinda  was  the  sixth. 

On  account  of  the  father  being  a  slave  a  very  determined  effort  was 
made  to  enslave  the  children.  This  the  mother  steadfastly  resisted 
through  the  courts  for  fourteen  years,  when  they  were  finally  declared 
free.  Malinda,  the  subject  of  this  sketch,  distinctly  remembered  the 
time,  she  being  then  five  years  of  age.  The  mother  then  tried  to  buy 
the  freedom  of  her  husband,  but  the  sum  asked  ($15,000)  being  beyond 
her  power  to  secure,  he  urged  her  to  take  the  children  and  go  north^ 
choosing  to  die  there  alone  in  slavery  rather  than  run  the  risk  of 
having  them  stolen  from  her.  She  finally  did  so,  taking  her  departure 
in  the  night,  her  husband,  unknown  to  his  master,  accompanying  them 
nine  miles  of  the  way.  They  then  knelt  together  and  prayed  and 
sang  a  parting  hymn,  and  the  slave  father  turned  back  alone  to  end 
his  life  a  slave,  while  the  faithful  mother  hurriedly  bore  her  children 
onward  to  a  place  of  safety. 

They  never  met  again  on  earth.  She  found  a  home  for  herself  at 
Terre  Haute,  Ind.,  where  they  earned  their  living,  the  mother  at  her 
trade  as  a  tailoress,  and  the  children  working  out.  There  Malinda 
became  acquainted  with  William  Paris,  whom  she  married  at  the  age  of 
eighteen.  He  was  born  free,  but  had  been  kidnapped  at  three  different 
times  and  taken  into  slavery.  Twice  he  was  held  thus  for  six  months 
at  a  time  before  he  found  opportunity  to  escape,  and  the  last  time  he 
was  held  a  year.  This  was  before  their  marriage. 

After  their  marriage  they  went  to  Vincennes,  Ind.,  where  they  found 
employment  in  a  hotel  as  cooks.  But  they  had  not  been  long  there 
when  his  would-be  master  found  him  out,  and  came  with  his  blood- 
hounds to  force  him  back  into  slavery;  but  by  means  of  the 
"underground  railroad"  a  safe  landing  on  Canadian  soil  was  secured 
to  him.  He  went  to  Chatham,  where  he  was  soon  joined  by  his  wife, 
Malinda,  and  there  their  first  child,  Jane,  was  born.  He  enlisted  as  a 
soldier,  but  in  a  short  time  the  regiment  was  disbanded.  After  this 
they  went  to  Detroit,  and  meeting  there  with  Gen.  S.  B.  Brown  they 
were  hired  by  him  to  come  to  St.  Glair  and  cook  in  his  hotel,  and 
here  they  spent  the  remainder  of  their  lives,  she  being  left  a  widow  in 
the  year  1860. 

There  were  seven  children  born,  to  them,  three  of  whom  are  still 
living.  Her  oldest  son,  Henry,  enlisted  in  the  war  of  the  rebellion, 
where  he  ^remained  until  its  close,  a  period  of  over  three  years  and 
three  months.  He  contracted  disease  in  the  army,  consumption,  and 

172  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

after  a  lingering  illness,  died  in  his  mother's  home.  She  finally  applied 
for  and  received  a  pension  on  his  account,  but  only  lived  to  enjoy  it 
for  about  three  years.  She  was  always  a  very  hard  worker,  and  for  the 
last  few  years  of  her  life  she  suffered  a  good  deal  from  difficulty  of 
breathing.  Fourteen  months  ago  she  had  a  very  sudden  and  serious 
attack  of  sickness  which  the  physicians  pronounced  heart  trouble. 
From  this  she  never  recovered.  During  the  most  of  this  period  her 
sufferings  were  intense.  She  knew,  that  her  life  hung  upon  a  very  slender 
thread,  but  her  trust  in  God  was  unfaltering  to  the  end.  Her  desire 
for  continued  life  was  only  for  the  sake  of  others,  that  she  might  still 
help  to  bear  their  burdens.  The.  immense  concourse  of  people  present 
on  the  occasion  was  sufficient  testimony  that  "  Aunt  Malinda "  will 
long  be  held  in  loving  remembrance  by  the  people  of  St.  Clair. 

KEV.  A.  HASTINGS  Boss. — Rev.  A.  Hastings  Boss  died  at  his  home 
in  Port  Huron,  May  13,  1893.  He  was  a  native  of  Worcester  county, 
Massachusetts,  and  was  born  in  the  town  of  Winchendon  on  April  28, 
1831.  His  early  life  was  spent  on  a  farm.  He  attended  the  common 
school  there  and  entered  the  academy.  He  afterwards  went  to  Oberlin, 
Ohio,  where  he  entered  Oberlin  college,  and  graduated  in  1857,  After 
graduating  he  entered  the  theological  seminary  at  Andover,  Massachu- 
setts, where  he  pursued  his  theological  studies  for  three  years.  His 
first  pastorate  was  at  Boylston,  Mass.,  where  he  remained  five  years. 
He  then  accepted  a  call  and  was  pastor  of  the  Congregational  church 
of  Springfield,  Ohio,  for  seven  years,  and  was  afterwards  pastor  of  a 
church  in  Columbus,  Ohio,  for  two  years.  He  then  accepted  a  call 
from  the  first  Congregational  church  in  Port  Huron,  and  came  here 
on  June  1,  1876.  During  his  lifetime  Mr.  Ross  was  a  lecturer  on 
church  polity  in  the  Oberlin  Theological  Seminary,  and  was  elected 
"Southworth  lecturer  on  Congregationalism"  at  Andover  Theological 
Seminary.  During  his  seventeen  years  residence  in  Port  Huron  he 
built  up  a  large  congregation,  with  several  branch  chapels.  He  was 
one  of  the  founders  of  the  Hospital  and  Home  and  was  its  president 
at  the  time  of  his  death.  He  will  be  missed  in  this  institution.  Mr. 
Ross  was  also  prominently  identified  with  other  charitable  institutions 
of  the  city.  He  was  respected  by  all  classes  in  all  churches,  and  was 
acknowledged  a  man  of  much  ability. 

Mr.  Ross  was  united  in  marriage  October  15,  1861,  to  Miss  Mary  M. 
Oilman,  of  Churchville,  New  York,  who  survives  him.  He  leaves  no 

.  • 

DEWITT  C.  SMITH.— Dewitt  Clinton  Smith,  of  Brockway,  died  Novem- 


her  10,  1892,  in  Port  Huron,  at  the  home  of  his  daughter,  Mrs.  George 
Plaisted,  aged  65  years.  Mr.  Smith  was  born  in  Amherst,  Mass.,  Sep- 
tember 3,  1827,  was  one  of  the  earliest  settlers  of  the  county,  coming 
to  St.  Clair  with  his  father  in  1836.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Presby- 
terian church  in  which  for  many  years  he  has  been  an  earnest  and 
faithful  worker. 

MRS.  C.  M.  STOCKWELL. — Mrs.  C.  M.  Stockwell  died  at  her  home  in 
Port  Huron,  August  22,  1892.  She  had  resided  in  Port  Huron  with  her 
husband  for  forty-one  years  and  her  many  friends  will  be  pained  to 
learn  of  her  death.  A  husband,  two  sons  and  two  daughters  survive 
her,  Dr.  G.  A.  Stockwel]  of  Detroit;  Dr.  C.  B.  Stockwell  of  Port 
Huron;  Mrs.  Walter  McMillan  of  Detroit,  and  Mrs.  Harry  Hyde  of 

MR.  JOSIAH  WEST. — Mr.  Josiah  West,  one  of  St.  Glair's  oldest  citi- 
zens, died  at  the  residence  of  his  son,  Mr.  Fred  West,  in  St.  Clair 
township,  July  30,  1892.  Born  in  Middlesex,* Vermont,  December  15, 
1804,  he  had  nearly  rounded  out  eighty-eight  years  of  life.  As  a  boy 
of  ten  he  accompanied  his  parents,  in  1814,  to  Broome  county,  N.  Y. 
From  there  he  moved  to  St.  Clair  in  1855.  His  residence  has  since 
been  in  this  vicinity.  For  a  number  of  years  disease  attendant  upon 
old  age  had  kept  him  confined  to  his  room. 

Over  fifty  years  ago  he  became  a  member  of  the  Baptist  church. 

He  was  three  times  married,  and  the  father  of  fourteen  children,  but 
four  of  whom  are  now  living. 

At  one  time  during  the  late  war  he  had  four  sons  in  the  army  cf 
the  Union  forces. 

MRS.  CHARLES  H.  WATERLOO. — Mrs.  Charles  H.  Waterloo  died  at  her 
home  in  Port  Huron,  July  27,  18.92. 

Shie  who  was  Mary  Jane  Beebe  was  born  in  Genesee  county,  New 
York,  June  21,  1818.  Both  her  father  and  mother  came  from  old  New 
England  stock.  Her  ancestors  were  of  those  who  sought,  found,  and 
helped  maintain  a  home  for  the  oppressed.  W^h  her  brothers  and 
sisters,  of  whom  there  was  a  goodly  lot  in  that  sturdy  family,  she  was 
educated  in  an  humble  way  in  the  public  schools  of  Genesee  and 
Cataraugus  counties.  In  1836,  when  this  portion  of  Michigan  was  prac- 
tically a  wilderness,  the  family  came  to  this  State,  the  journey  occupy- 
ing several  weeks,  and  located  at  what  is  now  Richmond,  in  Macomb 
county.  The  settlement  there  established  was  long  known  as,  and  is 
still  occasionally  called,  "  Beebe's  Corners  " — a  mark  of  distinction  in  a 

174  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

way  for  the  dominating  family  among  Macomb's  pioneers.  They  were 
not  rich,  these  people  who  came  here  in  the  early  days,  but  they  were 
progressive.  The  men  felled  the  forest,  and  with  the  first  logs,  after 
homes  had  been  built,  school  houses  were  erected.  In  one  of  these 
homely  places  of  learning  Mary  Beebe  taught  boys  and  girls  who  have 
since  carried  on  the  task  inaugurated  by  the  pioneers.  The  school 
house  stood  on  the  river  bank  near  the  site  of  Marysville.  Ked  men  in 
canoes  filled  the  great  water  path  in  front  that  is  now  traversed  by  the 
craft  of  a  mighty  commerce, 

In  November,  1844,  the  young  school  teacher  was  married  at  Richmond 
to  Charles  H.  Waterloo,  who,  with  his  parents,  brothers,  and  sisters,  had 
left  England  some  •  seventeen  years  before.  The  Waterloos  had  first 
established  themselves  on  a  farm  near  Detroit,  but  were  now  in 
Columbus  township,  St.  Clair  county.  Here  Charles  and  his  wife  began 
a  married  life  that  lasted  nearly  half  a  century.  Their  first  home,  like 
those  all  about  them,  was  of  logs,  for  they  were  in  the  heart  of  the 
woods.  Turkeys  so  wild  that  they  were  not  afraid  of  man,  camte  to 
the  very  doorway  to  be  shot.  Deer  and  other  game  offered  themselves 
as  easy  sacrifices  to  the  growing  family.  In  time  the  log  house  and 
barns  gave  place  to  prouder  structures  of  frame.  The  children  and  the 
grainfields  demanded  it.  Mr.  Waterloo  had  been  a  successful  farmer 
in  a  small  way  and  had  become  well  known  in  the  community.  In 
1862  he  was  elected  register  of  deeds  of  St.  Clair  county,  and  shortly 
thereafter  abandoned  farm  life  for  a  home  in  Port  Huron.  Here  the 
homestead  has  remained.  The  house  in  which  Mrs.  Waterloo  died,  she 
had  lived  in  and  loved  for  twenty-eight  years.  Her  children  attended, 
and  some  of  them  taught  in,  the  public  schools  of  the  county.  Ten 
•children  were  born  to  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Waterloo.  Two  of  them  died  more 
than  two  score  years  ago.  Indeed  the  Almighty,  in  whom  she  had  an 
abiding  faith,  had  dealt  kindly  with  her,  in  that  she  had  seen  a  large 
family  of  children  reach  full  maturity.  These  children  are  Stanley, 
Althea  (Mrs.  Jerome  Campbell),  Belle  (Mrs.  Frank  Flower),  Hattie, 
Charlie,  Minnie  (Mrs.  Ed.  Conway),  Lucy,  and  Burke.  All  were  with 
their  mother  at  the  time  of  her  death  with  the  exception  of  Stanley, 
and  he  arrived  in  time  to  attend  the  funeral.  The  pall  bearers  were 
the  dead  woman's  own  sons  and  Mr.  Campbell,  her  son-in-law. 

Mrs.  Waterloo  was  a  member  of  the  Congregational  church  and  had 
been  for  nearly  thirty  years.  During  long  months  of  sickness  and 
suffering  she  bore  up  bravely,  and  to  the  very  last  she  taught  to  those 
around  her  a  lesson  of  unselfishness,  humanity,  and  immortality.  The 
world  is  better  because  of  such  women  as  she. 


MRS.  CATHERINE  YOUNG. — Mrs.  Catherine  Young,  widow  of  the  late 
James  Young  died  at  her  home  in  Port  Huron,  April  29,  1893.  She 
was  born  in  Aberfeldy,  Scotland,  December  13,  1817,  and  was  76  years 
and  4  months  old  at  the  time  of  her  death.  She  came  to  this 
country  with  her  sister  and  settled  in  Detroit  in  1830  and  was  married 
to  James  Young  in  1832.  They  moved  to  Port  Huron  in  1837,  being 
among  the  first  settlers  here.  Mrs.  Young  watched  Port  Huron  grow 
from  a  small  settlement  to  a  thriving  city.  Naturally  of  a  retiring 
disposition  and  thoroughly  devoted  to  her  home  and  family,  she  was 
but  little  known  except  by  the  older  settlers.  By  her  death  her  children 
lose  a  loving  mother,  and  they  sincerely  mourn  their  loss.  Four 
daughters  and  two  sons  survive  her,  viz.:  Mrs.  Ann  Greenfield  of 
Detroit;  Mrs.  Jacob  P.  Haynes,  Mrs.  W.  V.  Elliott,  Mrs.  M.  N.  Petit, 
John  M.  and  Wm.  M.  Young,  of  Port  Huron. 


MRS.  WATSON  PERKINS. — Mrs.  Martha  Perkins,  relict  of  Watson  Per- 
kins, died  at  the  home  of  her  adopted  daughter,  Mrs.  Anna  Sturgis  in 
township  of  Sturgis,  May  28,  1892,  aged  83  years.  She  was  buried  at 
White  Pigeon. 

MRS.  ABRAHAM  BUYS. — Mrs.  Elizabeth  Buys,  relict  of  Abraham  Buys, 
died  June  9,  1892,  in  the  100th  year  of  her  age.  She  was  an,  early 
settler  in  Colon  township  in  1834  or  '35. 

MRS.  MARY  SKIRVIN. — Mrs.  Mary  Skirvin  died  in  Sturgis,  May  20, 

MRS.  ELIZABETH  EAMES. — Mrs.  Elizabeth  Eames  died  at  the  home  of 
her  daughter,  Mrs.  Frank  Koys  of  Florence,  May  27,  1892,  aged  77 

MRS.  WILLIAM  DICKINSON. — Mrs.  Ann  Dickinson,  relict  of  the  late 
William  Dickinson  of  Florence,  died  at  her  home  in  Florence,  June  4, 
1892,  aged  81  years.  Was  one  of  the  early  settlers  of,  the  township. 

LYMAN  RHOADES. — Lyman  Ehoades  died  at  his  home  in  White 
Pigeon,  June  1,  1892.  Was  born  in  Monroe,  then  called  Frenchtown, 

176  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

in  1809,  and  of  his  more  than  eighty-three  years  residence  in  Michigan, 
about  sixty  years  have  been  in  the  township  of   White  Pigeon. 

MRS.  POLLY  A.  EEED. — Mrs.  Polly  A.  Reed,  for  forty  years  a  resi- 
dent of  Three  Rivers,  died  in  that  place  May  27,  1892,  aged  77  years, 
10  months,  21  days. 

MRS.  C.  W.  COND.— Mrs.  C.  W.  Cond  died  June  6,  1892.  She  was 
born  in  Branch  county  in  1836;  married  to  Mr.  C.  W.  Cond  May  24, 
1865,  and  had  been  a  resident  of  Constantine  nearly  fifty-six  years. 
She  was  an  educated,  amiable  lady,  a  good  neighbor  and  friend,  a 
faithful  wife  who  has  well  borne  her  part  in  life. 

DR.  ALVA  M.  BUTLER. — Dr.  Alva  M.  Butler,  a  former  resident  of 
Constantine,  died  May  31,  1892,  at  Dowagiac,  aged  66  years.  He  was 
Born  in  Rome,  N.  Y.,  May  25,  1826;  was  married  at  Watertown,  N.  Y., 
in  1861,  and  came  to  Constantine  where  he  remained  until  1891.  His 
wife  and  two  sons  survive  him. 

JOSIAH  SIMMIS. — Josiah  Simmis  died  June  7,  1892,  at  White  Pigeon, 
aged  68  years. 

MRS.  MARY  HACHENBERG. — Mrs.  Mary  Hachenberg,  widow  of  the  late 
I.  P.  Hachenberg,  died  June  14,  1892,  at  the  residence  of  her  son  H. 
H.  Hachenberg,  aged  92  years. 

MRS.  HIRAM  WELLS. — Mrs.  Hannah  Gilbert  Wells,  wife  of  Hiram 
Wells,  died  at  her  home  in  Mottville,  June  12,  1892,  aged  65  years. 

MRS.  M.  V.  RORK. — Mrs.  M.  V.  Rork,  formerly  Miss  Anna  West, 
died  at  Salem,  Oregon,  June  11,  1892,  in  the  57th  year  of  her  age. 
Was  for  seven  years  preceptress  of  the  White  Pigeon  school.  Her 
honorable  and  womanly  life  was  an  incentive  to  many  who  now  look 
back  to  her  teaching  with  gratitude. 

MRS.  HENRY  P.  GILLETTE. — Mrs.  Henry  P.  Gillette  was  born  at 
Harpersfield,  Ohio,  October  7,  1848.  She  died  at  her  late  home, 
Auburn  Park,  Chicago,  June  22,  1892.  During  a  union  of  over  twenty- 
five  years  four  sons  were  born  to  them,  all  of  whom  are  living  and 
mourn  her  loss,  together  with  a  large  number  of  friends  and  neighbors 
who  knew  her  so  well. 

JOHN  H.  McOkiiRE. — John  H.  McGuire,  who  was  some  years  ago  a 
well  known  man  and  active  merchant  tailor  in  Constantine,  died  at 
Toledo,  Ohio,  June  8,  1892,  aged  nearly  73  years. 


JABEZ  WHITMOEE. — Jabez  Whitmore  died  in  Colon,  July  3,  1892, 
aged  78  years.  He  had  resided  in  Colon  and  vicinity  thirty-seven 

WM.  W.  BATES.— Wm.  W.  Bates  died  in  Burr  Oak,  July  2,  1892,  at 
the  home  of  his  son,  E.  P.  Bates,  publisher  of  the  Acorn,  aged  55 

MRS.  ELIZABETH  EVEKMAN  EGBERTS.  —  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Everman 
Roberts  died  July  8,  1892,  at  Constantine,  Mich.,  aged  nearly  72  years. 
She  was  born  near  Eaton,  Preble  county,  Ohio,  October  4,  1819.  At 
the  age  of  fourteen  years  she  came  with  her  father  to  Fort  Wayne, 
Indiana.  She  was  married  to  Absalom  Roberts,  September,  1836.  In 
1860,  with  her  husband,  she  removed  to  Constantine  and  settled  near 
the  village.  She  was  the  mother  of  nine  children,  six  of  whom  survive 

ANDREW  MC!JELAND. — Andrew  McLeland,  a  resident  of  St.  Joseph 
county  since  1837,  died  in  Mendon,  July  13,  1892,  nearly  76  years  old. 

FRANK  FRENCH.— Frank  French,  of  the  firm  of  French  Bros.,  Van- 
derbilt,  Mich.,  and  brother  of  C.  D.  French,  of  Constantine,  was  killed 
July  14,  1892,  by  being  struck  by  a  board  violently  thrown  back  from 
a  saw  in  the  firm's  mill.  He  was  born  in  Constantine  fifty-two  years 
ago.  Served  three  years  in  the  union  army  and  leaves  a  wife  and 
four  children.  /• 

MRS.  EVELINE  EMERY. — Mrs.  Eveline  Emery  died  in  Centreville, 
August  9,  1892,  aged  58  years.  She  had  resided  in  Centreville  for 
fifty  years. 

MRS.  ELIZA  B.  HAGADORN. — Mrs.  Eliza  B.  Hagadorn  died  in  Burr 
Oak,  August  3,  1892,  aged  74  years,  3  months. 

MR.  AARON  HAGENBUCK. — Mr.  Aaron  Hagenbuck  died  at  his  home 
in  Constantine,  August  21,  1892.  He  was  born  in  Berks  county,  Pa., 
April  8,  1810,  and  was  married  to  Rachel  Hill  at  Berwick,  Columbia 
county,  Pa.,  January  26,  1835.  Three  years  later  they  came  to 
Constantine  where  they  resided  together  until  the  death  of  Mrs. 
Hagenbuck  April  19,  1889,  a  period  of  fifty-four  years. 

Since  the  death  of  his  wife  the  infirmities  of  advanced  years  have 
shown  a  marked  hold  upon  him  and  to  them  he  has  at  last  succumbed. 
He  leaves  a  family  of  three  sons  and  two  daughters,  all  arrived  at 

178  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

mature  years  and  for  all  of  whom  he  made  ample  provision.  He  came 
here  early  when  the  country  was  new,  and  has  been  a  witness  and 
participator  in  the  growth  and  improvement  of  the  country  for  over 
fifty-seven  years.  He  was  a  man  who  gave  blunt  expression  to  decided 
opinions.  Helpful  and  considerate  to  those  he  liked;  those  whom  he 
did  not  like  did  not  require  the  services  of  a  secret  detective  to  find 
it  out. 

A.  W.  HUFF. — A.  W.  Huff,  an  old  resident,  died  at  his  home  six 
miles  southeast  of  White  Pigeon,  Thursday,  August  25,  1892,  aged  76 
years,  6  months  and  1  day.  He  formerly  resided  on  the  prairie  in 
the  township  of  Mottville,  on  the  farm  where  Mrs.  Jas.  G.  Shurtz 
resides.  He  came  from  New  York  state  to  St.,  Joseph  county  in  1836. 

MRS.  WILLIAM  DAVEY. — Mrs.  Elizabeth  Ann  Lowry  Davey  died  at  her 
home  in  Constantine,  August  25,  1892.  She  was  born  at  Truro,  in 
Cornwall,  England,  September  7,  1831,  and  was  married  May  4, 
1852,  to  William  Davey.  In  1856  they  went  to  Wellington,  Ohio, 
and  in  1858  they  removed  to  Constantine,  Mich.,  where  they  continued 
to  reside  until  her  death.  A  husband,  four  sons,  and  four  daughters 
survive  her. 

MRS.  E.  E.  HILL.— Mrs.  E.  K.  Hill  died  in  Colon,  August  26,  1892. 
She  had  been  a  resident  of  Colon  nearly  fifty  years. 

ERNEST  C.  KLOSSERT. — Ernest  C.  Klossert,  who  settled  on  a  timbered 
tract  in  the  township  of  Sherman  in  1861,  died  at  the  residence  of 
his  son  C.  F.  Klossert  in  Burr  Oak  township,  September  2,  1892,  aged 
83  years. 

SAMUEL  TEESDALE. — Samuel  Teesdale  died  at  his  home  in  Constan- 
tine, September  24,  1892.  He  was  born  near  the  city  of  Boston, 
Lincolnshire,  England,  March  9,  1855  and  had  reached  the  ripe  age  of 
77  years,  6  months  and  15  days.  From  the  year  1835  to  the  year 
1892,  a  period  of  fifty-seven  years,  he  was  a  business  man  in  the 
village  of  Constantine.  He  was  an  exemplar  in  conduct  and  conversa- 
tion of  an  earnest  and  consistent  Christian.  He  was  a  good  citizen  in 
all  regards  and  will  be  remembered  by  all  who  knew  him  as  one  whose 
influence  was  always  on  the  right  side. 

JAMES  JONES. — James  Jones  died  in  Burr  Oak,  September  2,  1892, 
aged  70  years. 

MR.  LEWIS   CROSS. — Mr.  Lewis   Cross   died   October   4,    1892,  at   the 


home  of  his  adopted  daughter,  Mrs.  Moses  Avery,  in  Constantine. 
He  was  a  stone  mason  by  trade,  industrious,  honest,  a  kindly,  helpful 
neighbor  and  good  citizen.  He  was  about  74  years  old  and  was  quite 
actively  employed  until  a  few  days  preceding  his  death. 

MRS.  MARY  JANE  SIDLER.— Mrs.  Mary  Jane  Sidler  died  in  Parkville, 
September  25,  1892,  aged  69  years. 

MRS.  ELIZA  ANN  TRACY. — Mrs.  Eliza  Ann  Tracy  died  in  Constantine, 
October  8,  1892,  aged  85  years.  Mrs.  Tracy  came  from  New  York  to 
Michigan  in  1832,  and  had  lived  since  that  time  on  the  land  in  this 
township  that  was  procured  from  the  government  when  they  came  to 

WM.  BETTS. — Wm.  Betts,  who  built  the  first  store  in  Burr  Oak 
(Locke's  Station),  died  in  Chicago,  September  29,  1892,  aged  68  years. 
He  was  a  brother  of  Hon.  Charles  Betts  of  Burr  Oak. 

JOSEPH  SHACKMAN. — Joseph  Shackman  died  at  Elkhart,  Indiana, 
October  27,  1892,  aged  63  years.  He  carried  on  the  clothing  business 
in  this  village  some  twenty  years  ago. 

MRS.  LEMUEL  O.  HAMMOND. — Mrs.  Lydia  Hammond  died  in  Constan- 
tine, October  30,  1892,  in  the  82d  year  of  her  age.  Lydia  Kichmond 
was  born  in  Batavia,  Genesee  county,  New  York,  March  3,  1811;  was 
married  to  Lemuel  O.  Hammond,  May  2,  1830;  moved  to  Florence  in 
the  spring  of  1844,  and  in  1856  came  to  Constantine.  Mr.  Hammond 
died  in  1875. 

MRS.  ELEANOR  EDGARTON. — Mrs.  Eleanor  Edgarton  died  near  Three 
Rivers,  November  1 ,  1892,  aged  76  years.  She  was  a  native  of  Monroe 
county,  Penn.,  and  came  to  Michigan  in  1864. 

MRS.  LAURA  PARSONS. — Mrs.  Laura.  Parsons  died  in  Three  Rivers, 
November  10,  1892,  aged  85  years. 

HENRY  BEEM.— Henry  Beem  died  in  Three  Rivers,  November  9,  1892, 
aged  56  years,  5  months. 

HARRY  ROBERTS. — Mr.  Harry  Roberts,  for  thirty-one  years  a  resident 
of  Constantine,  died  November  22,  1892,  at  his  home,  aged  62  years. 

MRS.  JOSIAH  WOLF.— Mrs.  Josiah  Wolf,  a  resident  of  St.  Joseph 
county  since  early  youth,  died  at  her  home  in  Florence,  November  16, 
1892,  aged  72  years. 

180  ANNUAL,  MEETING,  1893. 

MRS.  HELEN  SEEKEL. — Mrs.  Helen  Seekel  died  at  the  home  of  her 
son  in  Three  Rivers,  November  29,  1892.  She  was  formerly  a  well 
known  and  highly  respected  resident  of  White  Pigeon. 

EGBERT  P.  CLARK. — Robert  P.  Clark  died  in  White  Pigeon,  Novem- 
ber 27,  1892,  aged  87  years.  He  had  resided  in  Lima,  Indiana,  for 
forty  years  previous  to  his  removal  to  White  Pigeon. 

ARNOLD  W.  PHILLIPS.— Arnold  W.  Phillips  died  November  20,  1892,. 
in  Sturgis,  where  he  had  resided  since  1860,  aged  76  years,  8  months. 

CHARLES  COOPER. — Charles  Cooper  died  at  his  home  in  White  Pigeon, 
December  3,  1892.  He  was  bom  in  Waterloo,  N.  Y.,  June  19,  1825; 
came  to  Michigan  in  1840,  and  in  1847  was  married  to  Mary  Ann 
Heitzman,  who  died  April  3,  1892.  He  leaves  two  daughters,  Mrs.  W. 
B.  Howard  of  Kalamazoo,  and  Mrs.  John  Fagarty  of  White  Pigeon. 

MRS.  CHARLES  SIMMONS. — Mrs.  Charles  Simmons  died  in  Constantine,. 
December  6,  1892,  aged  83  years.- 

DAVID  HOFFMAN.— David  Hoffman  died  at  his  home  on  the  Dr.  Rob- 
inson farm,  a  mile  and  a  half  southwest  of  Constantine,  on  December 
10,  1892,  aged  60  years. 

JACOB  K.  BERGER. — Jacob  K.  Berger  died  at  his  home  in  Constantine. 
December  8,  1892,  after  an  illness  of  three  days,  aged  72  years,  3  months 
and  16  days.  Was  born  in  Berks  county,  Pennsylvania,  August  22,. 
1820,  and  came  to  Constantine  sixteen  years  ago. 

MRS.  JOHN  HARRISON. — Mrs.  Ellen  Burnham  Harrison,  wife  of  John 
Harrison,  died  at  the  family  residence  in  Florence,  November  29,  1892. 
Robert  Burnham,  her  father,  was  the  second  person  buried  in  the 
White  Pigeon  cemetery.  He  died  sixty-one  years  ago  and  within  three 
weeks  after  his  arrival  in  this  country  from  England.  The  number  of 
persons  buried  between  the  time  of  the  two  interments  is  probably 
greater  than  the  number  of  persons  now  living  in  the  vicinity. 

DAVID  FRENCH. — David  French  died  in  Sturgis,  December  27,  1892,. 
aged  71  years.  He  had  lived  in  Sturgis  nearly  all  his  life. 

WARREN  D.  PETTIT.— Warren  D.  Pettit  died  at  his  home  in  Lock- 
port  township,  near  Three  Rivers,  December  23,  1892,  aged  80  years, 
He  came  to  Three  Rivers  in  1842  and  started  a  wagon  factory,  the 
first  in  the  village,  which  business  he  continued  until  1859  when  he> 
retired  to  the  farm  where  he  died. 


EMANUEL  KEAM. — Emanuel  Ream  died  in  Parkville,  January  4,  1893, 

MRS.  CILINDA  COOK. — Mrs.  Cilinda  Cook  died  in  Park  township,  Feb- 
ruary 1,  1893,  aged  77  years. 

MRS.  MARY  MATHERS. — Mrs.  Mary  Mathers  died  in  Sherman,  January 
23,  1893,  aged  83  years. 

MRS.  JERRY  STAGE. — The  wife  of  Jerry  Stage  died  at  her  home  on 
the  Wheeler  farm  in  Flowerfield,  January  5,  1893,  aged  53  years.  Mrs. 
Mina  Stage  was  the  daughter  of  the  late  David  Hassinger, 

A.  M.  TOWNSEND. — A.  M.  Xownsend,  of  Mendon,  died  January  1, 
1893.  He  had  been  a  Mendon  business  man  for  twenty-five  years. 

MRS.  MARY  F.  FERRY. — Mrs.  Mary  F.  Ferry  died  in  Lockport  town- 
ship, January  10,  1893,  aged  77  years. 

GEORGE  HAMILTON.— George  Hamilton,  an  old  and  respected  citizen 
of  Florence,  was  instantly  killed  by  the  cars  in  Constantine,  January 
14,  1893.  Deceased  was  about  60  years  old  and  unmarried.  Resided 
with  a  brother  and  sister  some  five  and  a  half  miles  east  of  Constan- 
tine on  the  Centreville  road. 

Miss  SARAH  ANN  WADDINGTON. — Miss  Sarah  Ann  Waddington  died 
at  her  home  on  the  William  Dickinson  farm,  northeast  of  White  Pigeon 
village,  in  Florence  township,  February  11,  1893.  She  was  born  August 
12,  1835.  Had  always  been  a  resident  in  the  vicinity  and  was  one  of 
the  oldest  persons  born  in  this  part  of  the  State.  Her  mother,  the  late 
Mrs.  William  Dickinson,  died  June  4,  1892,  since  which  time  Miss 
Waddington's  health  had  gradually  failed  until  her  death.  She  had 
long  been  a  consistent  member  of  the  Methodist  church. 

JACOB  DUNHAM.— Jacob  Dunham  died  of  lung  disease  in  Three 
Rivers,  February  10,  1893.  He  was  a  brother  of  the  late  sheriff  John 
Dunham,  a  well  known  and  highly  respected  business  man. 

MRS.  CLINTON  DOOLITTLE. — Mrs.  Sarah  H.  Doolittle  died  at  her 
home  in  Constantine,  February  12,  1893,  aged  72  years.  She  was  the 
widow  of  the  late  Clinton  Doolittle  and  had  been  a  resident  of  the 
village  more  than  fifty  years. 

JAMES  BERGER. — James  Berger  died  at  Irs  home  on  the  Millington 
farm,  one  and  one-half  miles  north  of  Constantine,  February  15,  1893, 
aged  68  years,  5  months  and  10  days.  Deceased  was  born  in  Berks 

182  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

county,    Pa.,    September   25,    1824.     Came   to   Michigan    in    December,- 

MRS.  F.  J.  HOUGH. — Mrs.  F.  J.  Hough  died  in  Adrian,  February 
13,  1893.  Deceased  will  be  remembered  as  a  resident  of  Constantine 
for  many  years  as  Mrs.  C.  P.  Hubbard. 

Miss  KATE  HAMILTON. — Miss  Kate  Hamilton  died  in  Colon,  February 
11,  1893,  aged  78  years. 

NORMAN  HENRY  HARVEY. — Norman  Henry  Harvey,  a  native  of  Con- 
stantine and  all  his  life  a  resident  of  the  township,  died  at  his  home 
February  17,  1893,  aged  55  years. 

THOMAS  SILLIMAN. — Thomas  Silliman  died  at  Three  Kivers,  February 
21,  1893,  aged  69  years. 

MYRON  B.  HOCK. — Myron  B.  Hock  died  at  Three  Rivers,  February 
26,  1893. 

MRS.  EUGENE  GODFROY. — Mrs.  Eugene  Godfroy  died  at  Sturgis,, 
February  21,  1893. 

WM.  SHARER. — Wm.  Sharer  died  in  Colon,  February  18,  1893,  aged 
81  years. 

JOHN  HENDERSHOTT.— John    Hendershott   died   at  the   home   of  his 
daughter,    Mrs.   Jesse    Murich,   in   Florence,  March   1,   1893,    aged   90- 
years,  11  months,  14  days. 

JOHN  STEPHENSON. — John  Stephenson,  a  well  known  resident  in  the 
vicinity  of  Constantine,  died  at  Inland,  Nebraska,  March  2,  1893,  aged 
75  years.  He  was  born  in  England  in  1818,  coming  to  Michigan  in- 
1851,  remaining  until  1886,  when  he  removed  to  Nebraska. 

WATSON  GRAY.— Watson  Gray  died  at  Three  Rivers,  March  5,  1893,, 
aged  62  years. 

JOHN  RUTHERFORD. — John  Rutherford  died  in  Nottawa  township, 
March  16,  1893,  aged  78  years,  8  months.  He  had  lived  in  St.  Joseph 
county  for  fifty-seven  years. 

MRS.  PRISCILLA  R.  BARKER. — Mrs.  Priscilla  R.  Barker  died  at  White 
Pigeon,  March  22,  1893,  aged  54  years. 

MRS.  ELIZABETH  BOUGHTON. — Mrs.  Elizabeth  Bough  ton  died  at 
Quincy,  April  2,  1893,  aged  89  years.  She  was  in  Constantine  Thanks- 


giving   day   visiting   her   granddaughter,    Mrs.    W.  H.    Parsons,    where 
representatives  of  four  generations  sat  at  the  supper  table. 

MR.  BENJAMIN  MERRILL. — Mr.  Benjamin  Merrill  died  at  his  home  in 
Chicago,  No.  479  Fullerton  avenue,  April  12,  1893,  aged  about  82  years. 
Was  formerly  for  many  years  a  resident  of  Constantine.  "Went  to 
Chicago  over  thirty-five  years  ago,  became  very  wealthy,  and  until  his 
last  few  hours  sickness  was  engaged  in  active  business. 

WM.  BOYEB. — Wm.  Boyer,  for  twenty-five  years  a  resident  of  White 
Pigeon,  died  at  his  home  April  13,  1893,  aged  51  years. 

MRS.  HENRIETTA  FONDA. — Mrs.  Henrietta  Fonda  died  in  Nottawa, 
April  9,  1893,  aged  73  years. 

MRS.  EODNEY  ANDRESS. — Mrs.  Kodney  Andress  died  in  Flowerfield, 
%April  5,  1893,  aged  62  years. 

THOMAS  WELBOKN. — Thomas  Welborn  died  at  his  home  in  Constan- 
tine, April  11,  1893,  in  his  83d  year.  He  was  ]porn  in  Yorkshire,  Eng- 
land, October  18,  1810,  and  came  to  Michigan  in  1834,  two  years  before 
his  father  and  brothers  came,  and  settled  on  White  Pigeon  prairie. 
For  many  years  he  owned  a  farm  on  the  western  edge  of  the  prairie 
in  this  township.  After  selling  which  he  removed  to  the  village  of 
Constantine.  For  more  than  forty  years  we  have  known  him  as  a 
most  exemplary  citizen;  a  kind  hearted  Christian  gentleman,  thoughtful 
of  the  poor  and  kind  to  all  in  misfortune;  as  squarely  and  thoroughly 
honest  a  man  as  ever  lived.  He  was  twice  married,  to  Sarah  May  in 
1843,  who  died  in  1868,  and  to  Mary  George  in  1869,  who  survives 

JOSEPH  EDWARDS.— Joseph  Edwards  died  at  his  home  in  Three 
Rivers,  April  18,  1893,  aged  about  62  years.  He  was  a  brother  of 
James  Edwards,  of  Constantine,  and  for  many  years  a  resident  of  that 

DWIGHT  STEBBINS. — Dwight  Stebbins  died  in  Lockport  township, 
April  17,  1893,  aged  78  years. 

MRS.  GEORGE  W.  LEE. — Mrs.  Lorinda  S.  Lee,  wife  of  George  W.  Lee, 
died  in  Burr  Oak,  April  14,  1893,  aged  71  years. 

HARVEY  MUNSELL. — Harvey  Munsell  died  in  Burr  Oak,  April  18, 
1893,  aged  74  years,  7  months. 

184  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893, 

DB.  ION  VERNON.—  Dr.  Ion  Yernon  died  in  Three  Rivers,  April  18, 
1893,  aged  65  years,  8  months,  25  days. 

MRS.  PAUL  JAMES  EATON. — Mrs.  Abigail  8.  Eaton,  wife  of  Paul 
James  Eaton,  died  in  Oentreville,  April  17,  1893,  aged  57  years. 

JAMES  FONDA.— James  Fonda  died  in  Nottawa,  April  7,  1893,  aged 
76  years. 

MRS.  ZERN  BENJAMIN. — Mrs.  Asenath  Benjamin,  widow  of  the  late 
Zern  Benjamin,  died  at  the  home  of  her  son,  W.  W.  Benjamin,  of  the 
town  of  Florence,  April  24,  1893,  aged  90  years. 

MRS.  WALTER  BRADSHAW. — Mrs.  Harriet  L.  Bradshaw,  widow  of  the 
late  Walter  Bradshaw,  died  at  the  home  of  her  daughter,  Mrs.  David 
E.  Wilson,  in  Constantine,  April  29,  1893,  aged  81  years,  8  months,  13 
days.  She  was  born  in  Gleuville,  Schenectady  county,  N.  Y.,  August, 
16,  1811;  married  to  Walter  Bradshaw,  March  9,  1832. 

MRS.  WILLIAM  MELVJN. — Elizabeth  Crouch  Melvin  died  in  Constan- 
tine, May  1,  1893,  aged  83  years.  She  was  born  in  Maryland,  January 
1,  1810,  and  moved  to  Constantine  in  1836,  was  married  to  William 
Melvin,  June  1,  1829.  William  Melvin  died  in  1849.  The  fifty-seven 
years  of  her  residence  here  have  witnessed  all  the  changes  and  improve- 
ments which  make  this  an  old  country. 

MRS.  PERRIN  M.  SMITH. — Mrs.  Harriet  T.  Smith,  widow  of  the  late 
Perrin  M.  Smith,  of  Centreville,  died  in  the  Kalamazoo  Asylum  for  the 
Insane,  April  30,  1893,  of  pneumonia,  aged  72  years.  She  had  been  an 
inmate  of  the  institution  thirteen  years. 

CLINTON  H.  FELT. — Clinton  H.  Felt  died  at  Meridian,  Texas,  April 
26,  1893.  He  was  a  business  man  of  Constantine  until  about  two  years 
ago,  when  he  went  to  Texas  for  his  health. 

L.  K.  EVANS. — L.  K.  Evans,  for  nearly  twelve  years  past  the  editor 
of  the  Three  Rivers  Tribune,  died  at  his  home  in  that  village,  May  11, 
1893.  He  was  61  years  old  the  21st  of  October,  1892.  He  was  a 
soldier  in  the  union  army  during  the  war.  He  was  an  industrious 
editor,  an  able  and  conscientious  writer,  who  earnestly  sought  to  do 
good  for  the  sake  of  the  good. 

MRS.  FREDRICA  J.  IRA. — Mrs.  Fredrica  J.  Ira  died  in  Sturgis,  May 
10,  1893,  aged  65  years. 


MRS.  L.  W.  EARL.— Adeline  Frances  Earl,  wife  of  Kev.  L.  W.  Earl, 
died  in  Burr  Oak,  May  4,  1893,  aged  54  years,  10  months. 

JACOB  RUMSEY. — Jacob  Rumsey  died  in  Newberg,  Cass  county,  May, 
1893,  aged  67  years,  1  month,  10  days.  He  was  the  last  member  of 
the  original  family  of  Rumseys  who  were  among  the  early  settlers  of 
this  section. 

MRS.  HENRY  E.  PURDY. — Mrs.  Henry  E.  Purdy,  a  former  resident  of 
Constantine,  died  at  Michigan  City,  May  10,  1893,  in  the  67th  year  of 
her  age. 

MRS.  LAURA  A.  GLEASON. — Mrs.  Laura  A.  Gleason  died  in  Lockport 
township.  May  12,  1893,  aged  75  years,  10  months  and  20  days. 

NATHAN  SNYDER. — Nathan  Snyder  died  at  Three  Rivers,  May  13, 
1893,  aged  84  years. 

STEPHEN  W.  CADE.— Stephen  W.  Cade  died  at  Sturgis,  May  22,  1893, 
aged  67  years.  In  the  death  of  Mr.  Cade  the  community  suffers  an 
irreparable  loss,  as  he  was  a  representative  man  in  his  neighborhood, 
having  held  many  offices  of  trust  and  honor,  all  of  which  he  filled 
with  credit  to  himself  and  to  the  satisfaction  of  his  constituents.  Mr. 
Cade  was  born  in  Yorkshire,  England,  in  1826.  When  but  four  years 
old  his  father,  the  late  Thomas  Cade,  removed  to  America  and  settled 
on  Sturgis  prairie.  Stephen  succeeded  to  the  old  homestead,  where  he 
had  since  lived  for  over  sixty  years.  He  was  a  noble,  generous  hearted 
man,  his  ear  ever  open  to  the  wants  of  the  poor  and  needy.  The 
worthy  were  never  turned  away  empty  handed  as  many  of  the  early 
settlers  can  testify.  At  the  time  of  his  death  Mr.  Cade  was  president 
of  the  St.  Joseph  county  pioneer  society. 

JOHN  WALTER. — John  Walter  died  in  Colon,  July  19,  1892.  He  was 
born  in  Northampton  county,  Pa.,  May  9,  1835.  He  removed  to 
Michigan,  April  14,  1871,  and  settled  in  St.  Joseph  county. 

MRS.  B.  COOLEY.— Mrs.  B.  Cooley  died  in  Sturgis,  May  20,  1893, 
aged  67  years  and  9  months. 

DR.  S.  P.  CHOATE.— Dr.  S.  P.  Choate  died  in  Three  Rivers,  May  20, 
]893,  aged  86  years  and  9  months.  A  resident  of  Three  Rivers  for 
fifty-four  years. 

MRS.  ALVAH  GLEASON. — Mrs.  Alvah  Gleason  died  in  Fabias,  May  22, 
1893,  aged  79  -years,  1  month,  21  days. 

186  ANNUAL,  MEETING,  1893. 

MRS.  DWIGHT  STEBBINS. — Mrs.  Elizabeth  A.  Stebbins,  widow  of  the 
late  Dwight  Stebbins,  died  in  Lockport  near  Centreville,  May  23,  1892, 
aged  72  years.  She  had  been  a  resident  of  St.  Joseph  county  sixty-two 



MBS.  ANNA  DENNIS. — Mrs.  Anna  Dennis,  mother  of  Mrs.  Nathaniel 
Dann,  died  at  Caro,  July  20,  1892,  aged  85  years. 

MRS.  JAMES  I.  CALKINS. — Mary  L.,  wife  of  James  I.  Calkins,  died  at 
Caro,  March  16,  1893,  aged  72  years.  She  was  born  at  Woodstock, 
Conn.,  May  6,  1820,  and  had  resided  in  Michigan  since  1836. 

MR.  AND  MRS.  LEWIS  ELDRIDGE. — Mrs.  Lewis  Eldridge  died  at  her 
home  in  the  town  of  Indian  Fields,  January  5,  1893.  Also  on  February 
7,  1893,  Lewis  Eldridge,  her  husband,  died,  aged  69  years.  They  had 
been  residents  thereof  or  sixteen  years,  removing  thither  from  the 
southwestern  part  of  Michigan. 

THEO.  L.  EVANS. — Theo.  L.  Evans  died  at  Vassar,  December  5,  1892, 
aged  66  years.  He  was  born  in  Boston,  Mass.,  1827. 

ANTOINE  DUPAUL. — Antoine  Dupaul  died  in  the  town  of  Aimer, 
November  6,  1892,  aged  72  years.  A  resident  since  1865. 

MARK  JOSHUA. — Mark  Joshua  died  at  Indian  Fields,  November  29, 
1892.  Probably  he  was  the  oldest  Indian  in  Michigan  at  the  time  of 
his  death.  He  was  a  chief  of  the  tribe  of  Chippewas  in  the  Cass 
River  section,  and  was  about  100  years  of  age. 

MATTHEW  D.  NORTH.— Matthew  D.  North  died  at  Vassar,  August  7, 
1892,  of  heart^failure.  He  was  born  in  Ulster  county,  N.  Y.,  in  March, 
1826.  He  had  been  a  resident  of  Vassar  since  1853,  and  was  a  brother 
of  the  late  Townseud  North. 

THOMAS  MCPHERSON.— Thomas  McPherson  died  at  Arbela,    August  7, 

1892,  aged  50  years.     He  had  been  a  resident  of  the  county  for  thirty- 
five  years. 


WM.  SLAFTER.— Wm.  Slafter  died  at  Tuscola,  August  8,  1892,  aged 
85  years.  He  had  been  a  resident  of  Tuscola  township  since  1849. 

SYLVESTER  SMITH. — Sylvester  Smith  died  at  Tuscola,  December  5, 
1892,  aged  85  years.  He  was  an  old  resident  of  the  county. 

JOHN  STROHAWER. — John  Strohawer  died  at  his  home  in  Aimer 
township,  March  1,  1893.  He  was  born  at  Darnstadt,  Germany,  April 
15,  1837,  and  had  been  a  resident  of  the  county  since  1852.  He 
enlisted  in  Company  C,  Eighth  Michigan  Infantry,  August,  1862. 


FELLOW  PIONEERS — Another  year  has  passed  and  we,  through  a  kind 
providence,  are  spared  to  once  again  present  the  record  of  those  of  our 
fellow  pioneers  who  have  gone  to  that  "  undiscovered  country  from 
whose  bourne  no  traveler  returns,"  and  many  of  whom  were  with  us 
at  out  last  meeting. 

The  following  deaths  have  occurred  during  the  year  ending  May  24r 
1893,  of  those  recognized  as  members  of  this  society,  either  actively  or 
by  affiliation,  viz.: 

HON.  EDWARD  V.  CICOTTE.— Hon.  Edward  V.  Cicotte  was  born  in 
1810,  died  May  31,  1892.  Mr.  Cicotte  was  a  native  of  Wayne  county 
as  were  also  his  father  and  grandfather.  He  held  many  positions  of 
public  trust  and  honor. 

MRS.  CHARLOTTE  BIEBER.—  Mrs.  Charlotte  Bieber,  formerly  Mrs. 
John  McGuire,  died  June  1,  1892.  She  was  the  mother  of  Mrs.  Andrew 
Cullen,  Mrs.  Wm.  Woodbridge,  Mrs.  McCabe,  Mrs.  Phil  Chapoton  and 
Miss  Annie  McGuire. 

MRS.  MANASSEH  HICKEY. — Mrs.  Sarah  Ann  Hickey,  wife  of  Eev. 
Manasseh  Hickey,  died  after  a  long  illness  at  Mt.  Clemens,  June  7, 

WALTER  NEWCOMB.— Walter  Newcomb  died  at  Ecorse,  June  15,  1892, 
aged  84  years. 

.  HENDERSON. — Wm.  Henderson  died  June  2,  1892,  aged  81  years. 

188  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

DAVID  EASTMAN. — David  Eastman  died  June  21,  1892,  aged  81  years. 

CHARLES  LABADIE. — Charles  Labadie  died  June  22,  1892,  aged  71 

W.  K.  MUIR.— W.  K.  Muir  died  June  23,  1892.  Mr.  Muir  was  born 
at  Kilmarnock,  March  20,  1829.  In  1852  was  superintendent  of  the 
Great  Western  railway,  then  in  the  course  of  construction,  subsequently 
he  became  superintendent  of  the  Detroit,  Grand  Haven  &  Milwaukee 
R.  It.,  assistant  general  superintendent  of  the  Michigan  Central.  In 
1867,  general  manager  of  the  Great  Western  R.  R.,  afterwards  super- 
intendent of  the  Canada  Southern  R.  R.,  on  his  voluntary  retirement 
from  the  latter  road,  he  became  president  of  the  Eureka  Iron  and 
Rolling  Mills,  also  of  the  Star  Line  of  steamers. 

Mr.  Muir  served  the  city  of  Detroit  for  a  number  of  years  as  presi- 
dent of  the  board  of  poor  commissioners,  and  was  actively  engaged  in 
various  public  and  private  enterprises  and  benevolent  institutions.  He 
was  a  man j  loved  and  respected  by  all  who  knew  him. 

JOSHUA  W.  WATERMAN. — Joshua  W.  Waterman  died  June  24,  1892, 
aged  68  years. 

For  many  years  Mr.  Waterman  was  engaged  in  the  practice  of  law  in 
the  city  of  Detroit.  He  was  somewhat  of  a  retiring  disposition  and 
mingled  but  little  in  general  society,  but  was  a  liberal  giver  to  all 
enterprises  of  a  moral  and  benevolent  character,  and  for  these  generous 

acts  will  be  long  remembered. 


MRS.  G.  MOTT  WILLIAMS. — Mrs.  Emily  Strong  Williams  died  July 
19,  1892,  aged  72  years.  She  was  the  widow  of  the  late  G.  Mott 

TIMOTHY  MAHONEY.— Timothy  Mahoney  died  July  12,  1892,  aged  69 
years.  He  was  the  husband  of  Mary  Mahoney  and  the  father  of  Mrs. 
J.  J.  Kearney  and  Mrs.  P.  J.  Kearney. 

WM.  LYNDON. — Wm.  Lyndon  died  July  12,  1892,  aged  70  years. 

PATRICK  Hennessey. — Patrick  Hennessey  died  July  12,  1892,  aged 
79  years. 

AMELIA  ABRAHAM. — Amelia  Abraham  died  July  14,  1892,  aged  71 

MRS.  MARY  PULCHER. — Mrs.  Mary  Pulcher  died  July  14,  1892,  aged 
86  years. 


HENRY  GLOVER. — Henry  Glover  died  July  7,  1892,  aged  80  years. 
Mr.  Glover  was  one  of  Detroit's  oldest  citizens.  Born  in  Madison 
county,  N.  Y.,  and  came  to  Detroit  in  1836. 

MRS.  BEEVES. — Mrs.  Reeves  died  at  Flat  Bock,  Wayne  county,  July 
1,  1892,  aged  96  years. 

MRS.  JAMES  STIRLING. — Mrs.  Mary  Stirling  died  July  21,  1892,  aged 
70  years.  She  was  the  widow  of  the  late  James  Stirling. 

JOSEPH  MILLER. — Joseph  Miller  died  July  20,  1892,  aged  73  years. 

EARLSEY  FERGUSON. — Earlsey  Ferguson  died  July  28,  1892,  aged  74 
years.  Mr.  Ferguson  was  born  in  Bedfield,  Oneida  county,  N.  Y.,  and 
came  with  his  parents  to  Michigan  in  1826,  and  after  spending-  a  year 
at  Monroe,  came  to  Detroit  where  he  lived  until  his  decease.  In  1844 
Mr.  Ferguson  entered  the  employ  of  the  Michigan  Central  railroad, 
reaching  the  position  of  station  agent  and  train  dispatcher,  resigning 
the  position  in  1875,  when  he  devoted  his  attention  to  the  truck  business. 
Mr.  Ferguson  was  commissioned  first  lieutenant  in  the  Michigan 
militia  by  Governor  Mason,  and  was  in  active  service  with  his  com- 
pany during  the  winter  and  spring  of  1837,  guarding  the  Canadian 

Louis  HOCHSTADT. — Louis  Hochstadt  died  August  30,  1892,  aged  82 

JAMES  GARRIGY. — James  Garrigy  died  September  1,  1892,  aged  85 

MRS.  H.  B.  JOHNSON. — Mrs.  Priscilla  Johnson  died  August  15,  1892. 
Mrs.  Johnson,  formerly  Mrs.  French,  was  the  wife  of  H.  B.  Johnson 
and  the  mother  of  Mrs.  G.  B.  Holloway. 

JOSEPH  COTTIN. — Joseph  Cottin  died  August  15,  1892,  aged  91  years. 

MRS.  PROCTOR  WEAVER. — Mrs.  Proctor  Weaver  died  August  15,  1892, 
aged  79  years. 

Louis  LA  FONTAINE. — Louis  La  Fontaine  died  August  26,  1892,  aged 
77  years.  His  name  is  familiar  in  the  history  of  Canada  and  Michigan 
since  the  year  1701.  His  ancestors  being  among  the  first  settlers  on 
this  continent. 

JOHN  MASON. — John  Mason  died  August  1,  1892,  aged  77  years. 

190  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

MRS.  WM.  B.  BEOK.—  Mrs.  Mary  N.  Beck  died  August  1,  1892,  aged 
75  years.  She  was  the  wife  of  the  late  Wm.  B.  Beck  and  mother  of 
Mrs.  Hugh  McDonald. 

MBS.  CLOTHILDE  ROBINSON. — Mrs.  Clothilde  Eobinson,  the  oldest 
woman  in  Detroit,  died  August  9,  1892,  aged  106  years.  She  was  born 
in  southern  Ohio  of  Quaker  ancestry  and  came  to  Detroit  at  the  age 
of  seventy.  Mrs.  Earsley  Ferguson  was  her  warm  friend  and  long 
contributed  to  her  necessities.  She  was  also  often  befriended  by  the 
late  Judge  Moran. 

HENRI  HOUK.— Henry  Houk  died  at  Northville,  in  this  county, 
August  29,  1892,  at  the  age  of  95  years.  Mr.  Houk  was  a  native  of 
Steuben  county,  N.  YM  and  came  to  Michigan  in  1833.  He  cast  his 
first  presidential  vote  for  Andrew  Jackson.  He  lived  and  died  a 
devoted  Christian. 

JAMES  STEWART. — James  Stewart  died  September  7,  1892,  aged  80 
years.  His  death  occurred  at  the  residence  of  his  son-in-law,  Thomas 
Brown,  Savannah,  Ohio.  He  was  formerly  a  prominent  vessel  owner 
of  Detroit. 

COLONEL  JAMES  I.  DAVID. — Colonel  James  I.  David  died  at  his 
residence  on  Gross  Isle,  October  13,  1892.  Col.  David  went  out  with 
the  7th  Michigan  Cavalry  and  served  during  the  recent  civil  war.  He 
was  subsequently,  in  1873,  State  senator.  As  a  public  and  private 
citizen  he  obtained  the  respect  of  all  who  made  his  acquaintance.  He 
was  born  in  1811  in  the  state  of  New  York. 

MRS.  EDWARD  L.  PORTER. — Mrs.  Mary  O.  Porter  died  at  the  residence 
of  Mrs.  John  H.  Hover,  September  13,  1892,  aged  84  years.  Mrs. 
Porter  was  the  wife  of  the  late  Edward  L.  Porter. 

CONSTANTINE  MINK. — Constantine  Mink  died  September  1,  1892,  aged 
71  years,  4  months. 

MRS.  CATHERINE  SCHWARZ. — Mrs.  Catherine  Schwarz  died  SeptembeT 
1,  1892,  aged  70  years. 

CASPAR  KREUGEL. — Caspar  Kreugel  died  October  29,  1892,  aged  81 

WM.  M.  CHAPIN. — Wm.  M.  Chapin  died  at  Eomulus,  in  this  county, 
September  4,  1892,  aged  74  years.  He  was  the  father  of  W.  W. 
Chapin  of  Detroit. 


GEORGE  WATSON. — George  Watson  died  September  29,  1892,  aged  75 

MBS.  MAGDALENE  C.  LAWSON. — Mrs.  Magdalene  C.  Lawson  died 
September  24,  1892,  aged  74  years. 

ME.  LUTHER  BEECHER. — Mr.  Luther  Beecher  died  September  16, 
1892,  aged  77  years  and  7  months.  Mr.  Beecher  was  widely  known 
both  in  this  and  other  states  as  a  man  of  great  business  energy,  and 
although  somewhat  eccentric  in  his  methods,  was  recognized  as  a  man 
of  superior  business  sagacity  combined  with  an  unostentatious  benevo- 
lence of  character,  which  those  who  knew  him  best  fully  appreciated. 
He  was  a  man  in  advance  of  the  age  in  the  conception  of  great 

CHARLES  COLLINS. — Charles  Collins  died  October  13, 1892,  at  the  age 
of  74  years,  7  months.  He  leaves  a  widow,  Mrs.  Charlotte  Collins,  and 
one  brother  to  mourn  his  loss,  besides  many  old  citizens  who  will  not 
forget  his  genial  courtesy  and  kind  manner. 

MRS.  MARY  ANN  EICHARDS. — Mrs.  Mary  Ann  Richards  departed  this 
life  at  the  residence  of  her  daughter,  Mrs.  Virginia  Defere,  October 
13,  1892,  aged  84  years. 

MRS.  MARY  HOMIE. — Mrs.  Mary  Homie  departed  October  15,  1892, 
at  the  age  of  83  years. 

EDGAR  HOWARD. — Edgar  Howard,  who  for  sixty  years  was  a  resident 
of  Dearborn,  went  to  his  long  home  October  30,  1892,  at  the  age  of 
70  years. 

WILLIAM  WALKER. — William  Walker,  who  for  many  years  walked 
the  streets  of  Detroit  an  upright,  honest  man,  and  whose  acquaintance 
extended  over  the  entire  State,  passed  over  the  dark  river  October  24, 
1892,  aged  80  years. 

MRS.  JENNISON  GLAZIER. — Mrs.  Electa  Glazier,  widow  of  the  late 
Jennison  Glazier  and  mother  of  Mrs.  John  Lindley  and  Alice  M. 
Glazier,  died  October  1,  1892,  aged  84  years. 

MRS.  MARY  SMITH.— Mrs.  Mary  Smith  died  October  10,  1892,  at  the 
age  of  102  years.  She  was  the  mother  of  Mrs.  John  Pollard  and  Mr. 
Phillip  Smith. 

MRS.  JOHN  EADEMACHER.— Theresa  Rademacher  died  October  10,  1892, 
aged  72  years.  She  was  the  widow  of  the  late  John  Rudemaclier. 

192  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

JOHN  F.  GUINA. — John  F.  Guina,  son  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  F. 
Guina  of  Detroit,  died  in  the  city  of  New  York.  His  remains  were 
buried  from  St.  Vincent's  church,  October  17,  1892. 

MRS.  CATHERINE  McSouLEY. — Mrs.  Catherine  McSouley,  mother  of 
John  and  Patrick  McSouley,  died  December  10,  1892,  aged  86  years. 

JOSEPH  CONN. — Joseph  Conn  died  December  30,  1892,  at  the  age  of 
86  years. 

J.  HUFF  JONES. — J.  Huff  Jones,  a  well  known  capitalist  and  genial 
man  of  business,  died  at  the  Eussell  House,  December  16,  1892,  at  the 
age  of  72  years.  He  had  occupied  the  room  in  which  he  died  for  over 
twenty  years. 

MRS.  ELIZABETH  BRODEL. — Mrs  Elizabeth  Brodel  died  December  23, 
1892,  at  the  age  of  83  years. 

MRS.  MARY  WRIGHT.— Mrs.  Mary  Wright,  late  of  New  Haven,  Mich., 
departed  this  life  at  1000  Trumbull  avenue,  Detroit,  December  14,  1892, 

aged  84  years. 

EX-GOVERNOR  HENRY  P.  BALDWIN. — Ex-Governor  Henry  P.  Baldwin 
passed  to  his  rest  December  31,  1892,  in  the  79th  year  of  his  age. 

Henry  P.  Baldwin  needs  no  lengthy  eulogy.  His  life  was  devoted  to 
the  interests  of  the  public,  and  the  numerous  evidences  of  his  handi- 
work as  a  Christian,  as  a  philanthropist,  and  a  promoter  of  all  that 
makes  men  better  fitted  for  this,  as  well  as  that  future  life,  are  all 
about  us,  and  are  engraven  in  the  hearts,  as  well  as  recorded  in  the 
books  of  the  State  and  city  of  his  adoption. 

MRS.  JANE  WALLACE. — Mrs.  Jane  Wallace,  mother  of  Mrs.  Eichard 
K.  Turn  bull,  went  to  her  rest  December  9,  1892,  aged  89  years. 

MRS.  NICHOLAS  WAGNER.— Mrs.  Annie  Wagner,  wife  of  Nicholas,  and 
mother  of  John  Nicholas,  Jr.  and  Michael  Wagner,  died  December  28, 
at  the  age  of  89  years  and  9  months. 

W.  H.  KNOWLES.— W.  H.  Knowles,  formerly  of  Detroit,  died  at 
Eoyal  Oak,  Mich.,  December  28,  1892,  aged  86  years. 

DAVID  M.  FREEMAN.— David  M.  Freeman  died  December  4,  1892,  in 
the  78th  year  of  his  life. 

DARIUS  COLE. — Darius  Cole,  who  for  nearly  half  a  century  has  been 
a  navigator  of  our  great  lakes,  passed  over  the  dark  river  of  death 


January  10,  L893.  Captain  Cole  was  born  in  Wales,  Erie  county,  N.  Y., 
in  1818  and  was  left  an  orphan  at  the  age  of  six  years.  When  sixteen 
years  of  age  he  came  to  Michigan,  and  for  a  time  worked  on  the  farm  of 
Judge  Wm.  A.  Burt  in  Macomb  county.  In  1839  he  settled  at  Lexing- 
ton and  in  1850  engaged  in  the  vessel  business  with  James  Walcot  at 
Bay  City,  and  from  there  came  to  Detroit. 

MKS.  EUGENE  WATSON. — Mrs.  Matilda  St.  Aubin  Watson,  relict  of 
Captain  Eugene  Watson,  departed  this  life  January  6,  1893,  at  the  age 
of  74  year.s.  Mrs.  Watson  was  descended  from  one  of  the  oldest  French 
families  in  the  state,  after  whom  was  named  St.  Aubin  avenue. 

JAMES  HARRINGTON.— James  Harrington  died  at  his  residence,  Janu- 
ary 30,  1893,  aged  96  years. 

MRS.  JOHN  MILES. — Mrs.  Alice  Miles,  wife  of  the  late  John  Miles, 
died  January  5,  1893,  at  the  age  of  87  years. 

LEWIS  M.  KIVARD. — Lewis  M.  Rivard  died  at  Grosse  Point,  January 
7,  1893,  aged  84  years.  He  was  a  worthy  representative  of  the  original 
French  settlers  of  Detroit,  retaining  in  a  marked  degree  many  of  their 
courteous  and  genial  characteristics. 

JAMES  LAIRD. — James  Laird  died  January  10,  1893,  aged  90  years. 

FRANCIS  CRAWFORD. — Francis  Crawford,  one  of  the  oldest  dealers  in 
real  estate,  died  at  the  residence  of  his  son,  Samuel,  in  Springwells, 
January  20,  1893,  at  the  age  of  85  years. 

WILLIAM  GALLOWAY. — William  Galloway,  of  Taylor,  died  January  30, 
1893,  aged  88  years. 

JAMES  WARRINGTON  GRAHAM. — James  Warrington  Graham  departed 
this  life  January  28,  1893,  aged  94  years. 

MRS.  MARGARET  COOPER  VERNON. — Mrs.  Margaret  Cooper  Vernon 
passed  from  earth  January  31,  1893,  from  the  residence  of  her  nephew, 
Wm.  T.  De  Graff,  in  the  87th  year  of  her  age. 

PETER  HILL. — Peter  Hill,  aged  78  years,  passed  away  January  17, 

MARTHA  HOUGHTON. — Martha  Houghton  died  February  16,  1893, 
aged  82  years. 

ELISHA  CROSS. — Elisha   Cross  died   February    20,    1893,    in    his   91st 

194  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

year.  All  who  traveled  the  Grand  River  road  in  early  days  will  recol- 
lect Cross'  Tavern  and  its  genial  host.  As  age  began  to  tell  upon  his 
physical  frame  Mr.  Cross  removed  to  Detroit,  preserving  his  mental 
powers  till  the  end  came  for  his  removal  to  his  final  home. 

MRS.  JOHN  WALSH. — Eliza  Walsh,  relict  of  the  late  John  Walsh, 
died  February  7,  1893,  aged  82  years. 

CARL  HEISE. — Carl  Heise  died  February  17,  1893,  aged  84  years. 

MBS.  JOSIAH  J.  NORRIS. — Mary  Norris,  wife  of  the  late  Josiah*  J. 
Norris,  formerly  of  Detroit,  departed  February  11,  1893,  at  the  age 
of  89  years. 

JOHN  LEDBETER. — John  Ledbeter  died  January  11,  1893,  in  the  84th 
year  of  his  age.  He  was  a  well  known  paving  contractor  for  many 
years  and  did  much  to  improve  the  "ways"  of  Detroit. 

ALANSON  SHELEY. — Alanson  Sheley  went  to  his  long  home,  November 
7,  1892.  He  was  born  in  Albany,  N.  Y.,  August  14,  1809,  and  came 
to  Detroit  in  1831.  t  On  arrival  he  first  engaged  as  contractor  of 
building.  In  1832  he.  superintended  the  construction  of  the  old  light 
house  on  Thunder  bay;  afterwards  he  went  into  lumbering  on  Black 
river;  and,  lastly,  formed  a  partnership  with  the  late  Jacob  S.  Farrand 
in  the  wholesale  drug  trade.  In  all  his  undertakings  he  was  successful. 
He  was  always  foremost  in  church  matters,  and  gave  much  time, 
money  and  thought  in  promoting  all-  moral  reform  enterprises. 

He  served  the  public  well  and  faithfully  as  State  senator  and  in 
other  responsible  official  positions  which  he  held  during  the  half 
century  of  his  life  in  Detroit.  His  integrity  and  great  sagacity  made 
his  advice  sought  after  by  all  classes  of  society  who  now  feel  his  loss. 

MRS.  JOHN  BURT. — Julia  A.  Calkins  Burt,  widow  of  the  late  John 
Burt  and  mother  of  Mrs.  Eobert  Leete,  Mr.  H.  A.  Burt  of  Marquette, 
and  A.  C.  Burt  of  Detroit,  departed  this  life  November  7,-  1892,  aged 
78  years. 

MRS.  HARRIET  A.  ANDREWS. — Mrs.  Harriet  A.  Andrews  died  Novem- 
ber 7,  1892,  aged  71  years.  Mrs.  Andrews  was  a  sister  of  M.  S.  Smith, 
Frank  G.  Smith  and  T.  A.  Smith,  and  mother  of  Mrs.  Wm.  V.  Moon. 

JEREMIAH  HANNIFAN. — Jeremiah  Hannifan  died  November  29,  1892, 
aged  65  years.  He  was  a  soldier  in  the  Mexican  war,  where  he 
received  a  severe  wound  which  made  him  a  pensioner  of  the 


JOHN  TROESTER,  SR. — John  Troester,  Sr.,  died  at  his  residence, 
October  30,  1892. 

JOHN  BARRETT  MULLIKEN. — John  Barrett  Mulliken  died  November 
23,  1892,  aged  61  years. 

E.  PETER  DEMILL. — E.  Peter  DeMill  died  at  the  residence  of  his 
son-in-law,  George  Wm.  Moon,  October  31,  1892. 

Mr.  DeMill  came  to  Detroit  at  a  very  early  day  and  at  once  took  a 
prominent  position  in  the  churches  and  schools  of  the  city  as  well  as 
in  business  circles.  For  a  long  time  he  was  the  secretary  and  manager 
of  the  Detroit  Gas  Light  company,  and  since  his  retirement  from  it 
had  been  identified  with  several  other  manufacturing  enterprises. 

HORACE  HALLOCK. — Horace  Hallock,  who  died  November  12,  1892,  in 
his  86th  year,  was  for  many  years  engaged  in  the  clothing  trade,  in 
which  he  continued  almost  up  to  the  time  of  his  decease.  Mr.  Hallock 
was  identified  with  the  churches  and  Sabbath  schools  of  the  city  for 
over  fifty  years  and  in  all  his  business  and  religious  life  furnished  the 
evidence  of  a  pure  and  conscientious  Christian  man  and  upright 

MRS.  JOHN  M.  PALMER. — Mrs.  Jane  M.  Palmer  died  March  18,  1893, 
at  the  age  of  93  years.  She  was  the  widow  of  the  late  John  Mt 
Palmer,  who  came  to  Detroit  fifty  years  ago. 

MICHAEL  DUNN.— Michael  Dunn,  who  died  March  10,  1893,  was  th  e 
father  of  Mrs.  M.  Lally.  He  had  reached  the  age  of  85  years. 

J.  PETER  DEVROE. — J.  Peter  Devroe  died  March  10,  1893,  aged  93 
years.  He  was  an  old  and  well  known  citizen. 

DAVID  PRINDLE. — David  Prindle  died  at  the  residence  of  his  daugh- 
ter, Mrs.  De  La  Fontaine,  March  20,  1893,  aged  86  years  and  3  months. 

FREDERICK  L.  SEITZ.— Frederick  L.  Seitz,  who  died  March  29,  1893^ 
aged  58  years,  grew  up  in  Detroit;  was  for  many  years  engaged  in 
banking;  latterly  he  was  secretary  of  the  Mutual  Gas  Light  company  ^ 
He  was  always  recognized  as  an  energetic,  generous  man  and  a 
worthy  citizen. 

GEORGE  ZITTEL. — George  Zittel  was  the  beloved  husband  of  Margaret 
Zittel  and  the  father  of  Geo.  Zittel,  Jr.,  Henry  D.  Zittel,  Mrs.  Annie 
Pinet,  Mrs.  Edward  C.  Curtis,  and  Wadsworth  J.  Zittel  of  Buffalo, 

196  ANNUAL  MEETING,  18y3. 

N.  Y.     He   went   to  rest,  leaving   them  all   to  mourn,  March  29,  1893, 
aged  77  years. 

MRS.  SOLOMON  DAVIS. — Mrs.  Solomon  Davis  died  at  San  Diego,  Cal., 
March  4,  1893.  One  year  ago  we  chronicled  the  decease  of  her 
husband,  Solomon  Davis. 

JOHN  TROWBRIDGE. — John  Trowbridge  died  April  8,  1893,  aged  88 

MRS.  PATRICK  BARRY. — Margaret  Barry  went  to  her  last  home  from 
her  daughter's  house,  April  8,  1893.  She  was  the  relict  of  the  late 
Patrick  Barry  and  the  mother  of  Mrs.  Jeremiah  Calnon,  and  had 
reached  the  age  of  84  years. 

JOHN  NAUMANN. — John  Naumann  had  lived  one  hundred  and  three 
years  when  in  April,  1893,  he  was  called  to  a  higher  life.  He  was  the 
father  of  nineteen  children,  among  them  Mrs.  Jacob  Barnowisky,  at 
whose  house  he  died. 

DR.  J.  N.  HOLLYWOOD.— Dr.  J.  N.  Hollywood  died  April  9,  1893, 
aged  79  years.  He  was  regarded  as  a  skillful  physician. 

MRS.  PHILO  PARSONS. — Mrs.  Ann  Eliza  Parsons,  wife  of  the  Hon. 
Philo  Parsons,  died  April  5,  1893,  aged  72  years.  She  was  an 
estimable  woman,  a  true  Christian,  and  beloved  by  all  who  had  the 
pleasure  of  her  acquaintance. 

HENRY  C.  KIBBEE. — Henry  C.  Kibbee,  who  that  knew  him  can 
forget  him?  He  died  April  6,  1893,  at  the  age  of  79  years. 

JOHN  NORMAN. — John  Norman  had  lived  on  this  earth  over  one 
hundred  and  three  years  when  God  called  him  away,  April  6,  1893. 

JOHN  MOLDENHAUSE.— John  Moldenhause  died  May  4,  1893,  aged  80 

MRS.  JOHN  LADUE. — Mary  Angel  Ladue  died  at  her  residence  on 
Lafayette  avenue,  May  5,  1893,  aged  83  years.  She  was  the  widow  of 
the  late  John  Ladue  and  the  mother  of  Geo.  N.,  Austin  G.  and  Charlotte 
M.  Ladue. 

LADINA  ARNOLD.— Ladina  Arnold  died  May  2,  1893,  aged  80  years. 

ALEXANDER  CHAPOTON,  SR.— Alexander  Chapoton,  Sr.,  was  called  to 
take  up  his  abode  in  that  eternal  city  whose  foundation  stones  will 
never  crumble,  May  2,  1893. 


Alexander  Chapoton  was  born  in  Detroit  on  February  2,  1818,  and 
was  therefore  75  years  and  3  months  old  when  he  died.  He  was  a 
descendant  of  an  old  French  family  of  Duges,  Languedoc,  in  the  south 
of  France,  a  member  of  which,  Dr.  Chapoton,  was  the  first  surgeon  of 
Fort  Pontchartrain,  at  the  occupation  of  Detroit  by  Cadillac  in  1701. 
The  Chapotons  had  been  builders  for  generations  back  and  the 
deceased  learned  the  trade  of  stone  and  brick  mason  from  his  father, 
Eustache  Chapoton.  He  started  in  business  for  himself  long  before  he 
was  of  age,  and  acquired  a  fortune  which  is  estimated  at  $250,000. 
He  always  voted  the  republican  ticket  since  the  Grant  campaign  of 
1868.  In  1863  he  served  a  term  in  the  State  legislature,  and  during 
Governor  Baldwin's  administration  he  was  chosen  one  of  the  three 
building  commissioners  to  supervise  the  erection  of  the  State  capitol 
at  Lansing,  completing  it  at  less  cost  than  the  appropriation  fund,  an 
achievement  scarcely  equaled  in  the  history  of  American  public  build- 
ing. In  1881  he  was  a  member  of  the  commission  that  selected  the 
site  for  and  constructed  the  Northern  Asylum  for  the  Insane  at 
Traverse  City.  For  nine  years  he  discharged  faithfully  the  duties  of  a 
member  of  the  board  of  public  works. 

Mr.  Chapoton  was  a  citizen  of  public  spirit  and  integrity,  and  he 
shared  a  large  portion  of  his  wealth  with  the  deserving  poor.  School 
inspector  Lingemann,  who  was  for  years  Mr.  Chapoton's  clerk  in  the 
board  of  public  works,  said: 

"Very  few  people  knew  Mr.  Chapoton's  goodness  of  heart.  Every 
Christmas  he  used  to  give  me  a  number  of  envelopes,  which  contained 
five,  ten,  and  twenty  dollar  bills,  to  deliver  to  poor  people  whom  he 
designated.  But  not  alone  at  that  season  of  the  year  was  he  charitable. 
Every  now  and  then  he  gave  me  money  envelopes  to  give  to  some 
poor  people." 

Mr.  Chapoton  was  father  of  ten  children,  six  of  whom  grew  up  and 
four  of  whom  are  still  living.  They  are  Alexander  Chapoton,  president 
of  the  Peninsular  Savings  bank,  who  is  fifty-three  years  of  age;  Mrs. 
Emily  S.  Brush,  Mrs.  K.  A.  Baby  and  Dr.  E.  A.  Chapoton.  His 
daughter  Elizabeth,  wife  of  A.  E.  Viger,  died -about  eight  years  ago, 
and  another  daughter,  Miss  Felice,  died  last  year.  There  are  twenty 

STEPHEN  W.  LEGGETT. — Stephen  W.  Leggett  died  May  9,  1893,  aged 

85  years. 



Members  of  the  Pioneer  and  Historical  Society: 

LADIES  AND  GENTLEMEN — The  periodical  meetings  of  our  association 
are  occasions  of  mingled  joy  and  sorrow — joy  at  the  greeting  of  long 
known  and  well  tried  friends,  sorrow  that  so  many  of  our  companions 
have  passed  to  the  spirit  land  and  can  be  with  us  here  no  more.  They 
who  were  the  earliest  pioneers  of  our  republic,  who  subdued  the  forest 
and  laid  the  foundation  stones  of  its  noble  institutions  and  of  the 
prosperity  of  its  free  people,  now  no  longer  with  us,  have  built  for 
themselves  a  monument  which  can  never  crumble  to  dust.  Generation 
after  generation  shall  walk  in  their  footsteps  enjoying  the  blessings 
which  their  labor  and  their  foresight  have  secured  and  never  ceasing 
in  grateful  encomiums  of  their  fathers. 

Our  association  deals  with  the  historical.  As  a  single  state  forms 
but  a  small  portion  of  the  great  globe,  so  its  history  constitutes  only 
a  brief  chapter  in  the  history  of  nations;  yet  that  brief  chapter  is  a 
part  of  the  great  whole  and  the  entire  record  must  be  read  as  one. 

The  migrations  of  a  people  in  bodies  large  or  small,  the  settlement 
of  new  countries  and  the  establishment  of  new  nationalities  are  not  a 
thing  of  modern  times  alone.  Despotism  has  always  been  restless  and 
uneasy  and  has  never  ceased  to  thrust  itself  upon  its  neighbors'  terri- 
tory. It  came  to  conquer  and  not  to  bless  or  to  aid.  It  led  its 
phalanx  of  warriors  and  sought  no  place  for  the  agriculturist,  the 


mechanic,  or  the  civilian.  Its  victory  brought  to  the  conquered  only 
the  sad  boon  of  death  or  slavery,  or  utter  degradation.  The  past  is 
full  of  such  aggressions  upon  the  territory  and  the  rights  of  others. 
How  often  has  the  conqueror  passed  over  the  wide  expanse  of  Asia! 
Mede  and  Persian,  Greek  and  Roman.  Mongol  and  Mohammedan, 
have  in  succession  planted  their  foot  in  this  fertile  land,  but  always 
in  hostile  array,  carrying  destruction  and  terror  and  leaving  no  monu- 
ments of  a  higher  civilization.  Eome,  the  mistress  of  the  world, 
extended  her  power  over  almost  all  of  Europe,  and  France  and  Spain 
and  Germany  long  submitted  to  her  authority.  For  almost  five  centu- 
ries England  was  dominated  by  her  power,  and  her  legions  enforced 
her  mandates.  But  in  all  these  we  seek  in  vain  for  any  evidence  of 
the  good  fruit  which  all  immigration  should  bear — the  building  up  of 
communities  with  rights  better  secured,  freedom  of  thought  and  action 
more  safely  guaranteed  and  the  field  for  the  higher  faculties  and 
aspirations  of  man  enlarged. 

But  it  is  not  migrations  such  as  these  that  this  association  would 
commemorate.  The  true  pioneer  is  the  bearer  of  the  banner  of  civiliza- 
tion in  the  highest  sense  of  that  noble  word.  He  comes  n6t  as  a  soldier 
but  as  a  man  and  a  citizen.  He  bears  no  scepter  as  an  emblem  of 
his  power  to  command,  for  in  the  company  of  pioneers  all  are  equal. 
He  is  followed  by  no  military  retinue,  for  his  mission  is  peace  and  he 
has  no  enemy  to  fight.  He  seeks  a  permanent  location  for  himself, 
and  the  generations  which  shall  succeed  him,  where  prosperity  and 
happiness  shall  have  their  home.  Whatever  of  knowledge,  whatever  of 
science,  whatever  of  learning,  whatever  of  economic  habits  and  enter- 
prise, whatever  of  moral  and  religious  principles,  were  his  in  the  old 
homes,  these  are  the  treasures  which  he  carries  with  him  to  the  new. 

But  the  life  of  the  pioneer  is  not  one  of  liesurely  ease  or  voluptuous 
enjoyment.  Here  as  everywhere  success  is  the  outgrowth  of  thought- 
fulness,  of  judicious  action  and  of  toil.  Without  these  success  will 
not  come.  This  necessity,  however,  he  counts  not  so  much  an  evil  as 
an  incentive  to  press  him  on  in  the  noble  work  dearest  to  his  heart, 
and  his  bosom  throbs  with  joy  as  he  overcomes  obstruction  after 

Civilization  in  its  highest  state  of  perfection  with  any  people,  is  the 
growth  of  centuries.  It  is  a  fact  not  a  little  surprising  that  no  con- 
siderable division  of  the  habitable  earth  rests  in  solitude  and  without 
inhabitants.  Within  a  little  more  than  four  centuries  past,  the  area  of 
the  inhabitable  world  has  been  wonderfully  enlarged  by  discovery. 
The  great  American  continent,  Australia,  Australasia,  the  West  India 

200  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

islands  and  the  islands  of  the  Pacific,  comprising  a  very  considerable 
portion  of  the  habitable  globe,  have  been  discovered  within  that  time. 
No  continent  or  island  was  found  to  be  uninhabited,  but  always  by  a 
people  sunk  in  degradation  and  in  the  lowest  stages  of  ignorance  and 
savagery.  Can  these  people,  unaided  by  their  more  enlightened  fellow- 
men,  work  out  for  themselves  the  great  problem  of  civilization?  Can 
they,  by  their  own  efforts  ever  attain  the  dignity  and  elevation  of 
character  which  properly  belong  to  man?  Will  the  uncivilized  negro 
of  Africa  ever  place  himself  beside  the  cultivated  and  christianized 
fellow  man  of  England,  or  France,  or  Germany?  If  no  European  had 
ever  placed  his  foot  within  our  own  national  limits,  would  the  forest 
have  given  place  to  cultivated  fields,  the  institutions  of  humanity  and 
of  learning,  and  the  innumerable  evidences  of  a  highly  cultivated  pop- 
ulation which  now  surround  us?  We  do  not  know  what  Providence 
may  have  in  store  for  them  in  the  illimitable  future,  but  we  do  know 
that  changes  from  savage  life  to  the  refinements,  the  comforts  and  the 
rational  enjoyments  of  civilization  are  necessarily  slow  and  seldom 
complete.  Indeed  modern  history  gives  us  no  instance  of  a  savage  and 
uncivilized  people  becoming  one  of  refined  civilization  by  their  own 
efforts  and  without  intercourse  with  others  more  advanced  and  the  aid 
which  such  intercourse  brings  with  it. 

Civilization  is  itself  progressive.  Growth  within  itself  and  expansion 
without  mark  its  progress.  It  is  the  work  of  the  pioneers  of  civiliza- 
tion to  revolutionize  the  world.  They  are  not  merely  the  promoters 
of  their  own  individual  interests,  but  it  is  upon  them  that  the  improve- 
ment of  the  world  largely  depends.  They  are  the  builders  of  nations. 
The  history  of  all  civilized  and  highly  cultured  and  prosperous  people 
traces  their  rise  from  small  beginnings  and  does  not  fail  to  bestow  due 
praise  upon  the  pioneers  who  have  led  them  on  to  greatness.  It  is 
for  this  reason  and  in  recognition  of  the  noble  work  they  have 
performed,  that  the  pioneers  of  civilized  society  have  come  to  stand 
out  as  a  prominent  class  in  public  esteem  and  to  be  held  worthy  of 
honorable  regard  by  future  generations. 

The  history  of  the  world  presents  no  such  noble  example  of  the 
progress  of  civilization,  the  building  up  of  a  new  nationality  in  a 
wilderness  country  and  beautifying  it  with  cultivated  fields  and  popu- 
lous cities  and  all  that  can  make  it  delightful  as  the  home  of  millions 
of  prosperous  citizens,  as  our  own  republic. 

We  look  for  the  pioneers  of  this  American  territory  to  the  early 
colonists  of  Virginia  in  1607  and  the  Pilgrims  who  landed  at  Plymouth 
in  1620.  Struggling  as  colonists  they  stretched  their  sparse  settlements 


along  a  narrow  strip  of  land  on  the  Atlantic  shore,  and  in  1783  they 
burst  the  bonds  that  bound  them  and  became  a  free  though  a  feeble 
nation.  Yet  here  was  the  nucleus  of  the  present  great  American 
nation.  Here  were  the  pioneers  who  stand  at  the  fountain  head  of  its 
greatness.  But  we  can  but  admit  that  "  They  builded  better  than  they 
knew."  In  their  wildest  dreams  they  never  could  have  fancied  that 
the  time  would  ever  come  when  the  little  strip  of  land  which  they 
occupied  and  the  great  unexplored  and  unknown  wilderness  which 
stretched  away  to  the  west,  and  the  south,  and  the  north  of  them 
would  ever  form  the  great  nation  which  it  has  now  become.  Would 
they  could  now  be  with  us  to  know  and  to  realize  how  great  is  the 
result  from  so  small  a  beginning,  in  which  they  bore  so  prominent  a 

They  would  find  a  nation  foremost  among  the  nations  of  the  earth, 
with  a  population  greater  than  that  of  any  nation  in  Europe,  and  an 
extent  of  territory  exceeded  by  that  of  Russia  alone.  They  would  find 
a  nation  which  excels  all  others  in  the  world  in  its  agricultural 
productions,  in  its  manufactures,  in  its  mining  operations  and  mineral 
product.  They  would  find  a  nation  which  produces  one-half  of  the 
gold  and  one- third  of  the  silver  used  in  the  world,  a  nation  with  fewer 
paupers  than  any  nation  in  Europe  except  Switzerland,  a  nation  where 
ninety  millions  of  dollars  are  paid  annually  for  books  and  newspapers, 
and  where  the  proportion  of  illiterate  persons  who  can  neither  read 
nor  write  is  smaller  than  in  any  other  country  in  the  world.  They 
would  find  the  most  wealthy  nation  on  the  globe,  with  more  miles  of 
railroad  than  all  Europe,  and  with  the  exception  of  England  more 
ocean  navigation.  They  would  find  the  land  which  above  all  others  is 
adorned  with  churches  and  institutions  of  learning  and  asylums  for  the 
relief  of  all  the  ills  to  which  humanity  is  subject. 

More  than  two  hundred  years  have  elapsed  since  these  early  pioneers, 
the  founders  of  the  nation,  finished  their  labors  and  passed  to  their 
rest,  but  the  legacy  which  they  left  to  the  world  and  to  humanity  will 
be  imperishable. 

No  true  American  fails  to  look  upon  England  as  the  home  of  his 
forefathers.  The  English  speaking  people  have  encompassed  the  earth, 
and  in  their  course  have  established  the  language  and  many  of  the 
institutions  of  their  island  home.  Mr.  Dilke,  in  the  interesting  narra- 
tive of  his  travels  through  English  speaking  countries  around  the 
globe,  gives  his  book  the  appropriate  title  of  "  Greater  Britain." 
Britain  is  no  longer  confined  to  the  little  island  washed  by  the  waves 

202  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

of  the  eastern  Atlantic.  It  has  outgrown  its  ancient  limits.  The  city 
without  the  walls  has  become  greater  than  that  within.  Somehow  the 
English  people  seem  peculiarly  fitted  for  planting  the  blessings  of 
civilization  in  foreign  lands.  Their  peculiar  fitness  for  this  work  is 
strikingly  illustrated  in  our  own  history. 

As  early  as  1562  the  Spaniards  took  possession  of  the  southern  portion 
of  our  national  domain  and  built  St.  Augustine,  the  oldest  city  in  the 
United  States.  For  more  than  two  hundred  years  they  held  possession 
of  the  region,  but  their  struggle  for  permanent  occupancy  and 
dominion  came  to  naught.  France  planted  her  colonies  on  the  St. 
Lawrence  before  the  English  settled  at  Plymouth,  or  in  Virginia,  and 
burning  with  ambition  to  build  up  a  nation  such  as  the  world  had 
never  seen,  she  spread  out  her  scattered  settlements  and  claimed 
exclusive  dominion  over  the  vast  valleys  of  the  St.  Lawrence,  the 
great  lakes,  the  Ohio  and  the  Mississippi,  but  her  high  ambition  was 
destined  to  be  disappointed  and  the  rich  prize  fell  into  other  hands. 
The  Swedes,  under  the  sanction  of  the  great  Gustavus  Adolphus, 
established  a  colony  in  New  Jersey  and  Delaware,  but  its  growth  was 
slow  and  its  continuance  brief.  The  Dutch  colonized  Manhattan  Island 
and  the  beautiful  region  bordering  on  the  Hudson  river  as  early  as 
1614,  and  soon  extended  their  occupancy  into  New  Jersey  and  Dela- 
ware. By  Mr.  Bancroft,  the  historian,  Holland  is  declared  to  be  "the 
mother  of  four  of  our  states,"  and  her  industrious,  enterprising  and 
prosperous'  colonists  might  reasonably  have  anticipated  a  growth  which 
would  give  them,  at  no  very  distant  day,  a  national  organization  and 
place  them  at  the  very  front  among  the  powers  of  the  New  World. 
But  all  of  these  efforts  proved  unavailing,  and  Spain,  and  France,  and 
Sweden,  and  Holland,  all  in  turn  withdrew  from  the  scene,  and 
England  with  her  thirteen  colonies  held  full  and  exclusive  sway  over 
the  land. 

We  look  back  to  these  English  colonies  as  the  beginning  of  our 
nation,  and  to  the  colonists  as  the  pioneers  of  American  civilization, 
growth  and  prosperity.  But  if  we  stop  at  this  point  we  leave  half  the 
tale  untold. 

In  1783  the  colonies  became  an  independent  nation  and  the  nation 
in  its  turn  became  the  father  of  pioneers  and  the  builder  of  new  states. 
The  enlargement  of  territorial  limits  by  accession  has  been  marvelous. 
I  well  recollect  reading  many  years  ago  an  extract  from  a  French 
writer  in  which  said  that  the  English  language  would  never  attain  its 
highest  state  of  perfection,  nor  English  institutions  their  most  perfect 
condition  until  the  colonists  had  carried  them  across  the  continent  and 


established  them  on  the  shores  of  the  Pacific.  When  this  was  written 
no  proposition  could  have  been  announced  more  improbable  than  that 
the  feeble  little  colony  on  the  Atlantic  would  expand  until  it  reached 
the  Pacific  and  peopled  the  broad  expanse  of  the  continent.  Yet  all 
this  has  happened.  From  the  day  when  the  colonies  assumed  the 
dignity  of  nationality,  the  star  of  empire  has  been  steadily  on  its  western 
course,  and  thirty-one  new  states  have  been  added  to  the  Union.  Each 
of  these  states  has  had  its  pioneers  who  entered  its  borders  while  it 
was  yet  a  wilderness  and  have  adorned  it  with  the  evidences  of  their 
toil,  their  intelligence  and  their  patriotism. 

And  what  are  these  new  states?  With  the  exception  of  the  slight 
restriction  contained  in  the  national  constitution  which  connects  them 
with  the  Union  and  secures  to  them  blessings  beyond  all  estimation, 
they  are  independent  nations.  They  make  their  own  laws.  They  elect 
their  own  rulers.  They  vote  the  taxes  which  they  are  themselves  to 
pay.  Every  man  is  free  to  enjoy  his  own  opinion,  to  worship  where 
he  pleases  and  read  the  books  and  papers  which  he  chooses.  The 
English  language  is  theirs  and  they  delight  in  the  history  and  glory 
of  old  England — still  the  American  state  is  not  England.  All  of  good 
that  the  venerable  customs  of  the  mother  country  can  give,  all  that  the 
common  law  of  the  realm  in  its  growth  of  ages  has  secured,  all  the 
wisdom  that  her  judges  and  her  statesmen  have  uttered  are  ours;  but 
many  things  in  our  system  of  government,  our  laws  and  our  condition, 
are  purely  American.  We  have  no  recognized  distinction  of  classes,  no 
primogeniture,  no  entailment  of  estates,  no  privileges  of  rank,  no  title 
of  nobility.  Our  written  constitution  was  intended  to  lay  a  broader 
foundation  for  a  popular  government  than  could  elsewhere  be  found, 
to  give  to  the  people  more  freedom  of  action,  to  secure  the  enjoyment  of 
greater  privileges  and  multiply  the  inducements  to  all  to  press  on  to  a 
higher  type  of  manhood  and  civilization.  It  is  the  charter  of  the 
masses  and  not  of  a  favored  few.  It  is  a  guaranty  of  rights  to  the 
democracy  and  not  a  grant  of  license  to  an  aristocracy.  It  seeks  to 
lighten  the  burden  of  taxation  and  to  enforce  economy  in  the  admin- 
istration of  the  government.  While  Great  Britain  pays  her  Queen 
$3,100,000  and  the  Prince  of  Wales  and  other  members  of  the  royal 
family  $1,200,000  annually,  this  nation  pays  its  president  only  $50,000, 
and  has  no  list  of  idle  supernumeraries  to  support.  It  was  of  this 
constitution  that  Mr.  Gladstone  said:  "As  far  as  I  can  see  the 
American  constitution  is  the  most  wonderful  work  ever  struck  off  at 
one  time  by  the  brain  and  purpose  of  man."  It  established  a  new 
and  untried  form  of  government  and  the  praise  which  it  has  received 

204  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

from  hundreds  of  the  most  thoughtful  men  of  other  countries  attest  its 
merits  and  superiority  as  compared  with  others.  It  is  an  instrument 
of  few  words,  but  in  those  few  words  is  treasured  the  germ  of  the 
freest  of  governments  and  the  most  prosperous  of  nations. 

"  Through  America  England  is  speaking  to  the  world."  These  are 
the  words  of  one  who  is  both  'a  true  Briton  and  an  admirer  of  the 
American  Union,  and  they  are  true  words.  Yet  the  voice  of  America 
is  not  the  mere  parrot-like  repetition  of  the  words  of  England.  She 
has  added  largely  to  the  message  of  the  mother  country.  All  that  is 
peculiar  in  her  institutions  and  her  form  of  government,  all  that  her 
history  tells  of  the  blessings  enjoyed  by  a  self-governing  people,  she 
proclaims  in  language  not  to  be  misunderstood,  and  her  message  meets 
with  the  hearty  response  of  all  liberty-loving  people.  The  colonies  of 
England  are  scattered  far  and  wide  over  the  globe  and  the  time  is 
sure  to  come  when  they  will  become  independent  nations.  When  this 
time  comes  who  can  doubt  that  each  in  turn  will  yield  to  the  voice 
and  follow  the  example  of  our  country  and  become  a  republic  like  the 
American  Union  rather  than  a  monarchy  like  England? 

It  is  the  pride  of  Michigan  that  she  is  one  of  the  states  that  sprung 
from  the  "old  thirteen"  on  the  Atlantic.  There  are  those  living  who 
well  remember  the  venerable  men  who  were  the  first  of  our  lineage  to 
enter  its  borders  and  whose  death  occurred  before  the  present  State 
organization.  Peace  be  to  their  ashes  and  honor  ever  to  their  memory! 

I  see  before  me  some  of  the  pioneers  who  have  witnessed  the  growth 
of  our  State  from  its  beginning  and  whose  energy,  judgment  and 
untiring  toil  have  largely  contributed  to  make  it  what  it  is.  If  you, 
my  friends,  could  recall  and  record  your  hopes  and  your  fears,  your 
discouragements  and  your  joys,  your  aspirations  and  the  many  brilliant 
fancies  of  the  future  which  you  indulged  during  the  period  of  its 
growth,  it  would  be  the  most  interesting  history  of  the  childhood  and 
advancement  of  the  republic  which  could  be  written. 

But  certain  it  is  that  the  most  enthusiastic  of  the  band  of  early 
pioneers  could  never  have  dreamed  of  a  success  which  should  make 
the  Peninsular  State  what  it  has  already  become.  The  richness  of  its 
soil,  the  beauty  of  its  scenery,  the  charm  of  its  many  rivers,  the 
grandeur  of  the  ocean-like  lakes  that  encompass  it,  were  enough  to 
attract  the  beholder  and  mark  it  for  his  future  home.  But  nature  did 
not  then  reveal  even  to  his  searching  scrutiny  half  its  treasures.  He 
did  not  know  that  in  ages  long  past  old  ocean  had  here  deposited, 
now  far  beneath  the  earth's  surface,  its  treasures  of  salt  and  fountains 


of  brine  which  were  awaiting  the  discovery  of  man  and  since  have 
proved  a  mine  of  wealth.  He  did  not  then  know  that  there  was  hid 
in  the  far  away  forest  that  store  of  pine  timber  which  has  since 
yielded  millions  of  wealth  to  the  laborer  and  the  enterprising  operator. 
He  did  not  know  of  those  vast  deposits  of  iron  ore,  the  working  of 
which  has  since  given  employment  to  thousands  of  workmen  and 
furnished  capital  for  the  building  of  towns  and  cities  and  maintaining 
fleets  of  carrying  vessels  on  the  lakes.  I  have  not  at  hand  the  means 
of  ascertaining  the  aggregate  sum  of  the  product  from  this  source 
since  the  opening  of  the  mines  forty  years  ago,  but  a  single  furnace 
which  closed  down  only  a  few  days  ago  is  reported  to  have  turned  out 
pig  iron  to  the  amount  of  thirty  millions  of  dollars,  and  official 
documents  show  that  Michigan  produces  more  iron  than  any  other 
state  in  the  Union,  and  nearly  half  of  the  entire  quantity  furnished 
by  all. 

The  copper  mines,  now  so  famous,  were  for  all  practical  purposes 
unknown  until  their  discovery  by  Dr.  Hough  ton,  the  geologist  of  the 
State  in  1840.  In  the  abundance  of  the  yield  and  the  richness  of  the 
ore  these  mines  have  no  equal  in  the  world.  For  more  than  forty 
years  they  have  given  to  the  market  a  product  almost  beyond  estimate 
in  value.  A  single  mine,  the  Calumet  and  Hecla,  is  said  to  have  paid 
its  owners  in  dividends  for  two  years  the  princely  sum  of  four  millions 
of  dollars  and  to  have  yielded  forty  millions  of  dollars  worth  of  copper 
since  the  organization  of  the  company  in  1867. 

But  it  is  not  merely  secrets  such  as  these  that  nature  has  revealed 
in  modern  times  to  aid  in  human  progress.  Science  has  disclosed 
many  a  fact  in  the  natural  world  of  great  practical  value.  Steam, 
which  no  man  can  see,  is  so  applied  as  to  do  work  beyond  all  human 
power.  It  labors  at  the  mine,  it  works  at  the  mill,  it  operates  the 
machinery  of  the  manufacturer,  it  gives  continuous  motion  to  the  press 
of  the  printer  and  folds  the  printed  sheets,  it  warms  our  houses,  it 
propels  the  steamers  of  the  world  and  draws  the  cars  upon  the  world's 
three  hundred  thousand  miles  of  railroad.  Electricity,  that  mystery  of 
mysteries,  has  just  put  itself  at  the  service  of  man  for  practical  use. 
It  propels  the  car  and  lights  our  streets  and  dwellings.  It  carries 
written  messages  around  the  world;  and  if  we  would  hear  the  voice  of 
a  distant  friend  we  have  but  to  turn  our  ear  to  the  telephone  and  we 
listen  to  his  words. 

All  these  are  but  instruments  in  promoting  the  .welfare  of  man,  and 
they  aid  in  pressing  him  forward  to  the  highest  stage  of  civilization, 
intelligence  and  happiness  which  man  can  attain  on  earth. 

206  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

In  all  these  blessings  Michigan  has  had  her  full  share.  In  all  the 
labors  necessary  for  true  progress  Michigan  has  borne  her  full  part, 
and  we  may  well  congratulate  ourselves  on  the  result. 

MEMOIR   OF   DR.   T.   C.   ABBOT. 


A  pure,  strong,  brave  spirit  has  gone  from  among  us.  These  halls, 
where  for  so  many  years  his  work  was  done,  will  know  him  no  more. 
Not  again  will  he  pass  under  these  beautiful  oaks;  his  daily  tasks  will 
lead  him  not  again  over  these  green  lawns.  This  great  school  which 
he  did  so  much  to  establish,  will  remain  arid  grow,  but  for  it  his 
personal  work  has  ceased.  In  the  lives  of  the  many  students  whom  he 
quickened  and  strengthened,  his  influence  will  grow  from  year  to  year, 
but  his  voice  will  no  more  be  heard  to  counsel  and  to  inspire.  I 
would  recall  some  of  the  events  of  a  life  so  strong  and  so  reverent, 
some  of  the  qualities  that  gave  him  influence  so  deep  and  lasting, 
some  of  the  deep  gratitude  that  today  lives  in  the  hearts  of  men, 
scattered  in  many  lands,  who  have  been  helped  by  that  influence. 

From  the  eastern  and  the  middle  states  has  come  the  great  stream 
of  manhood  that  has  brought  strength,  industry,  education,  religion, 
the  institutions  of  law  and  liberty  throughout  the  mighty  west.  In 
the  most  eastern  of  the  Eastern  states,  Theophilus  Capen  Abbot  was 
born,  the  home  of  his  infancy  being  in  Vassalboro,  Maine.  While  he 
was  yet  an  infant  his  father  removed  to  Augusta,  Maine,  where  in  the 
public  schools  he  received  his  early  training,  and  from  whence,  at  the 
early  age  of  fifteen  he  entered  the  classical  course  in  Colby  University 
at  Waterville,  then  known  as  Waterville  College.  He  graduated  in 
1845,  a  leader  among  the  thoughtful  men  of  his  class.  He  taught  for 
a  short  time  in  an  academy,  then  for  several  years  in  a  seminary  in 

MEMOIR  OF  DR.  T.   C.  ABBOT.  207 

northern  Maine,  spending  his  vacations  usually  at  Waterville  in  grad- 
uate study. 

His  temperament  led  him  to  reflect  on  the  great  questions  of  religion 
and  to  think  of  entering  the  ministry.  He  took  a  course  in  theology 
at  the  Bangor  Theological  Seminary  in  preparation  for  this  work,  on 
completing  which  he  again  took  up  teaching,  this  time  entering  the 
faculty  of  his  college  as  teacher  of  Greek,  where  he  continued  for  a 
year  and  a  half. 

He  had  now  been  for  many  years  closely  engaged  in  school  work, 
either  as  student  or  teacher,  and  desired  rest  and  change.  He  desired 
to  see  somewhat  of  our  "old  home"  across  the  sea,  and  to  go  among 
the  scenes  endeared  to  all,  where  have  been  enacted  some  of  the  great 
deeds  in  the  progress  of  human  liberty,  where  have  lived  some  of  the 
greatest  poets  and  historians  and  orators  of  the  world.  He  went  to 
England  •  and  Scotland  and  remained  about  a  year,  studying  their 
history,  their  literature,  their  people  on  the  spots  made  famous  by 
some  of  the  greatest  men  of  all  time.  Soon  after  his  return  from 
abroad  he  came  to  Michigan,  in  1856.  He  taught  for  a  few  months 
in  Berrien  Springs,  Berrien  county,  then  accepted  the  principalship  of 
the  high  school  in  the  city  of  Ann  Arbor,  then  one  of  the  important 
educational  positions  in  Michigan.  Here  he  first  met  the  lady  who 
afterwards  became  his  wife,  Miss  Sarah  Merrylees,  she  being  then 
preceptress  in  the  Ann  Arbor  high  school.  During  his  first  year  at 
Ann  Arbor  he  was  chosen  to  the  chair  of  English  Literature  at  the 
Agricultural  College,  but  his  engagement  there  prevented  his  coming 
here  until  the  year  following.  In  1858  he  entered  upon  his  duties 
here  where  the  remainder  of  his  great  work,  extending  through  nearly 
thirty  years,  was  to  be  done.  His  thorough  knowledge  of  the  subject 
he  taught,  his  clearness  as  a  teacher,  his  constant  courtesy  and  kind- 
ness made  him  from  the  first  successful.  He  won  friends  at  once 
among  students,  faculty,  and  board  of  control. 

In  1860  he  was  married  to  Miss  Merrylees  in  Ann  Arbor.  The 
coming  of  a  bride  to  the  college  was  in  those  days  an  unusual  and 
important  event.  Under  the  efficient  leadership  of  Dr.  George  Thurber, 
then  professor  of  botany,  the  faculty  and  students  decorated  the  house 
(now  Dr.  Beal's),  in  which  the  newly  wedded  couple  were  to  live,  with 
branches  of  evergreens,  with  great  ferns  from  the  woods,  with  the  few 
flowers  that  in  those  early  days  were  to  be  found  on  the  campus.  As 
the  carriage  containing  the  couple  drove  to  the  door  it  was  greeted  by 
the  whole  college  population,  cheerful  lights  gleamed  from  the  windows 
of  the  flower-decked  rooms,  and  a  great  balloon,  made  for  the  occasion 

208  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

under  the  Doctor's  direction,  sailed  into  the  skies  to  proclaim  the 
welcome.  His  home  at  once  became  the  chief  social  center  of  the 
college,  and  so  continued  during  the  many  years  that  he  and  Mrs. 
Abbot  lived  on  the  campus. 

It  was  in  the  summer  of  1858  that  he  entered  upon  his  work  here 
as  professor  of  English,  in  which  work  he  continued  until  1866,  when 
he  was  transferred  to  the  chair  of  logic  and  mental  philosophy,  which 
he  held  until  his  death.  From  1858  to  1861  he  was  treasurer  of  the 
college.  From  1861  to  1863  he  was  the  secretary  of  the  board  of 
control.  In  1863  he  was  chosen  unanimously  to  the  presidency  of  the 
college,  which  place  had  been  left  vacant  by  the  resignation  of  the 
first  president,  Joseph  R.  Williams,  in  1859.  For  more  than  twenty- 
five  years,  through  the  days  when  the  college  was  poor,  small, 
struggling,  unknown;  through  the  days  when  it  began  to  have  wealth 
and  influence  and  success;  until  after  many  years  it  had  fame  and 
friends  in  many  states  and  in  foreign  lands,  he  controlled  its  policy 
and  guided  its  fortunes. 

His  work  at  the  college  was  always  confining  and  severe.  There 
was  little  rest  from  year's  end  to  year's  end.  Sometimes  his 
support,  from  those  of  whom  support  was  most  to  be  expected,  was 
not  hearty.  As  years  went  by  the  strain  told  on  his  health  and  spirits. 
In  1874  he  took  his  family  to  Europe  for  a  year's  rest  for  his  wife 
and  himself,  and  to  give  his  daughter  and  son  the  benefit  of  schools 
in  Paris.  But  on  returning  the  old  steady  grind  settled  down  upon 
him.  He  worked  under  a  pressure  too  severe,  he  carried  a  burden  too 
heavy  for  any  man  to  bear.  Several  times  he  sought  release  from  the 
duties  of  the  presidency,  but  each  time  it  seemed  impossible  for  his 
request  to  be  granted,  and  so  the  weary  work  went  on.  At  length,  in 
1885,  it  became  evident  that  he  must  stop.  The  board  of  agriculture 
acceded  to  his  request  and  relieved  him  from  the  office  of  president, 
continuing  his  duty  as  professor  of  logic  and  mental  philosophy.  His 
family  and  friends  hoped  much  from  the  change.  For  a  short  time 
his  health  and  strength  seemed  improved.  He  taught  with  something 
of  his  old  clearness  and  force;  he  went  among  his  books  with  some- 
thing of  the  old  interest.  But  the  change  had  come  too  late.  The 
brain,  once  so  clear  and  alert,  was  too  deeply  affected.  It  a  few 
months  it  began  to  be  whispered  that  he  would  not  be  better  so  long 
as  the  diseased  body  should  be  the  prison  of  the  spirit.  The  predic- 
tion was  only  too  true.  Quietly,  gently,  without  suffering  the  dissolution 
went  on.  Month  by  month,  year  by  year,  the  body  became  more 
feeble,  the  brain  became  less  able  for  its  work.  For  six  years  his  wife 

MEMOIR  OF  DR.  T.  C.  ABBOT.  209 

and  daughter  cared  for  him  with  all  gentleness.  Every  want  was 
attended  to,  every  comfort  was  supplied.  At  length  in  the  morning  of 
Monday,  November  7,  1892,  his  day  of  freedom  came, 

Shrill  November  gave  gloomy  skies  and  bitter  winds  for  the  day  of 
burial.  Old  friends  and  students  assembled  at  the  home  in  Lansing. 
Prayer  was  offered  by  Rev.  C.  H.  Beale,  of  the  Congregational  church, 
then  the  body  was  borne  to  the  church  for  a  funeral  service.  Plants 
and  flowers  from  the  college  greenhouses  decked  the  pulpit  and  the 
coffin.  Friends  came  from  far  and  near.  The  faculty  of  the  college 
had  been  so  changed  since  his  retirement  from  active  work,  that  many 
of  them  had  never  met  him,  yet  they  gathered  in  sorrow  at  the  grave 
of  one  who  had  done  so  much  for  the  college  which  they  served. 
Scarcely  one  of  the  present  students  had  ever  seen  him,  but  they 
knew  of  the  loyal  devotion  of  those  former  generations  of  students, 
who  were  indebted  to  him  so  deeply,  and  they  came  to  look  upon  the 
coffined  body  whence  had  fled  the  spirit  that  wrought  so  well  for  the 
development  of  the  school  that  now  trains  them  for  life's  work.  Rev. 
C.  H.  Beale  read  from  the  Bible  and  led  the  hearts  of  all  in  prayer. 
The  'choir  gave  such  music  as  lifts  the  thoughts  to  God.  President  O. 
Clute,  a  graduate  of  the  college  in  the  class  of  '62,  spoke,  alas,  how 
inadequately,  of  the  manly  -qualities  and  the  noble  character  of  him 
whose  happy  release  had  come.  Then  the  body  was  borne  to  the 
cemetery  at  Mount  Hope.  Ashes  were  returned  to  ashee,  dust  to  dust. 
The  spirit  so  true  to  all  goodness,  so  faithful  to  all  noblo  work,  so  able 
in  knowledge,  in  training,  in  grasp  of  thought,  freed  ]<ow  from  the 
feeble  body  and  the  clouded  brain,  had  come  to  the  day  of  its 

Agricultural  College,  May  16,  1893. 

The  discourse  given  by  Pres.  Clute  at  the  funeral  service  is  printed 

"Ye  shall  know  them  by  their  fruits."    Matt,  v.i,  16. 

We  have  been  drawn  together  today  by  a  common  appreciation  of 
the  noble  friend  whose  emaciated  body  is  in  the  casket  before  us,  by 
a  common  sorrow  for  his  loss.  For  years  that  loss  has  been  slowly 
coming.  The  overworked  brain  gradually  lost  its  powers;  the  clear 
thought  faded,  the  bright  eye  dimmed,  the  friendly  grasp  relaxed.  The 
dissolution,  so  long  in  progress,  was  completed  two  days  ago.  To  him, 
whose  once  strong  mind  had  been  so  long  hampered  by  the  imperfec- 
tions of  the  bodily  machinery,  the  dissolution  surely  came  as  a  happy 
release.  Freed  from  the  trammels  of  the  flesh,  he  is  now  once  more 

210  ANNUAL,  MEETING,   1893. 

himself.  Again  he  will  rejoice  in  keen  thought,  in  high  purpose,  in 
noble  activity.  Again  will  he  take  his  place  as  the  companion  of  great 
gouls  in  the  divine  works  of  God's  many  mansions.  Those  of  us  who 
knew  him  and  loved  him,  when  in  strength  he  worked  among  us  and 
for  us,  now  bid  him  God  speed  in  his  onward  journey,  glad  that  from 
eclipse  he  has  entered  into  that  realm  of  being  where  his  noble 
spiritual  powers  are  freed  from  the  bondage  of  the  body,  and  may  go 
forward  into  those  paths  of  study,  and  thought,  and  work  that  gave 
him  his  chiefest  pleasure  here. 

We  judge  men  by  the  difficulties  which  they  surmount,  by  the  work 
which  they  accomplish,  by  the  friends  whom  they  bind  to  their  hearts 
with,  hooks  of  steel,  by  the  character,  the  inner  life,  which  they  attain. 
Dr.  Abbot's  busy  life  shows  us  the  organizer,  the  teacher,  the  man. 
Let  us  consider  him. for  a  few  minutes  in  these  three  aspects. 

To  organize  a  great  enterprise  requires  the  clear  vision  to  see  the 
completed  work  before  that  work  has  existence.  The  great  organ- 
izer has  a  great  imagination.  We  often  wrongly  think  that  it  is  only 
the  poet,  the  artist,  the  orator  who  has  this  creative  vision;  but  they 
share  it  with  all  great  organizers,  with  all  leaders  of  business  and  of  men. 
The  poet  expresses  this  vision  in  rhythmic  sweeps  of  song,  the  business 
man  expresses  it  in  his  warehouses,  the  railroad  manager  in  his  mighty 
roads,  the  educator  in  his  great  school.  Dr.  Abbot  saw  the  school  he 
would  create,  while  as  yet  the  elements  of  that  school  were  in  chaos. 
He  studied  the  methods  by  which  that  school  could  be  created;  he  in 
great  measure  trained  the  men  who  were  to  aid  him;  and  he  educated 
the  State  which  was  to  give  him  money  to  accomplish  his  work.  The 
successful  general  knows  clearly  the  forces  which  he  must  conquer. 
So  Dr.  Abbot  knew  well  the  difficulties  which  were  in  his  way.  When 
he  came  to  the  presidency  of  the  Agricultural  College  the  students 
were  few,  the  faculty  was  small  in  numbers  and  entirely  lacking  in 
experience  in  such  a  school  as  was  to  be  founded,  the  friends  of  the 
school  had  vague  ideas  of  what  they  wanted  and  of  the  methods  to  be 
pursued;  often  these  friends  were  divided  in  opinion  and  most  impa- 
tient for  speedy  results.  The  whole  income  of  the  college  depended 
upon  legislative  appropriations  which  were  easily  cut  down  by  watchful 
opponents.  The  ready  gibe  was  often  hurled  in  the  press  or  in  public 
address  against  the  "hayseed  college."  With  few  students,  untrained 
faculty,  small  and  uncertain  income,  impatient  and  divided  friends, 
numerous  and  bitter  enemies,  he  entered  upon  the  work.  To  do  so 
required  the  courage  of  a  warrior.  To  win  victory  against  such  odds 
required  a  generalship  not  less  able  than  that  which  conducts  a  great 

MEMOIR  OP  DR.  T.  C.  ABBOT.  211 

campaign.  His  invincible  courage  and  his  masterly  generalship  enabled 
him  to  hold  his  ground,  and  year  by  year  to  win  points  of  vantage. 
His  genial  temper  and  honorable  methods  won  the  friendship  of  good 
men  of  all  parties.  Slowly  the  college  buildings  increased,  the  equip- 
ment improved,  the  faculty  became  permeated  with  a  common  idea  and 
gave  to  that  idea  loyal  devotion.  Foes,  convinced  of  his  clearness  of 
head  and  honesty  of  heart,  became  fast  friends  of  his  ideas  and  of 
himself.  Before  his  failing  health  compelled  him,  in  1885,  to  resign 
the  presidency,  he  saw  the  college  established  on  sure  foundations, 
with  a  large  body  of  united  and  influential  friends,  with  an  increasing 
number  of  alumni  and  of  those  students  who  had  not  remained  to 
graduate,  and  with  an  endowment  from  the  national  grant  yielding  a 
generous  income.  Surely  the  results  of  his  many  years  of  faithful 
service  proved  the  clearness  of  his  insight,  the  wisdom  of  his  plans, 
the  courage  of  his  purposes,  the  force  of  his  work. 

The  teacher,  like  the  poet,  is  born,  not  made.  Perhaps  the  first 
requisite  of  the  good  teacher  is  keenness  to  see  quickly.  He  must  be 
alive  to  his  subject,  to  his  class,  to  his  time.  He  must  have,  moreover, 
a  perfectly  clear  understanding  of  what  he  teaches.  He  must  have 
studied  it  from  every  aspect,  so  that  it  is  to  him  as  open  as  the  sun. 
He  must  so  have  absorbed  it  that  it  is  a  part  of  himself.  He  must 
then  insist  on  keenness,  clearness,  thoroughness  from  his  pupils, 
having  at  the  same  time  sympathy  for  the  student's  ignorance,  and 
dullness,  and  difficulties,  so  that  he  may  meet  them  and  conquer  them 
by  rousing  enthusiasm  and  attention.  All  these  qualities  Dr.  Abbot 
possessed  in  an  unusual  degree.  His  manner  in  the  class  room  was 
quiet.  Not  a  shadow  of  fuss  or  bluster,  never  the  slightest  attempt  at 
joke,  or  sarcasm,  or  brow-beating.  But  from  the  first  hour  the  student 
felt  that  his  professor  was  in  earnest,  that  he  understood  the  subject 
he  was  teaching,  and  that  he  expected  earnestness  and  understanding 
from  every  student.  As  the  weeks,  and  the  months,  and  the  years 
went  by,  the  greater  part  of  students  found  themselves  in  intellectual 
affiliation  with  their  professor.  They,  too,  became  keen,  clear, 
enthusiastic,  faithful,  thorough. 

Some  of  the  "  old  boys "  are  now  old  in  fact  as  well  as  in  the 
familiar  college  speech,  for  they  are  grandfathers.  They  are  scattered 
far  and  wide  in. Michigan  and  in  other  states  and  in  lands  beyond  the 
sea.  Wherever  you  meet  them  they  refer  in  terms  of  affectionate 
appreciation  to  the  service  rendered  them  by  President  Abbot  in 
their  student  days.  Successful  and  honorable  men  in  nearly  all  walks 
of  life  they  trace  their  success  to  their  college  training,  and  especially 

212  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

to  the  formative  influence  of  President  Abbot.  Himself  a  teacher, 
many  of  his  students  have  become  teachers.  Since  his  active  work  at 
the  college  ended,  his  influence  planted  in  college  work  and  spirit  has 
gone  on,  and  not  a  few  of  our  recent  students  carry  out  thoughts  and 
methods,  which  were  his  thoughts  and  methods,  into  professional  work 
in  other  states  and  in  distant  lands.  All  are  permeated  by  the  spirit 
and  strengthened  by  the  training  which  he  helped  so  much  to  incorpo- 
rate in  our  study  and  our  work,  all  are  carrying  this  thought  and 
influence  and  character  around  the  world.  From  mind  to  mind,  from 
heart  to  heart,  his  power  as  &  teacher  and  inspirer  will  be  felt  to  far 
away  ages. 

The  idealist  is  never  able  to  realize  fully  his  ideal.  The  great 
business  man  does  not  get  his  business  into  such  perfect  shape  as  he 
dreams.  The  poet  is  never  able  to  put  into  words  the  pulsing  thought 
and  music  which  his  own  ear  catches.  The  orator's  speech  cannot 
fully  glow  with  the  fire  that  burns  within.  That  is,  the  man  is  always 
more  than  appears  in  his  works.  Dr.  Abbot's  works  were  good;  his 
ideal  was  nobler  than  his  works;  his  life  was  noblest  of  all.  Pure, 
simple,  faithful,  strong.  He  lived  in  the  light.  His  reverent  soul 
rejoiced  in  all  truth  and  good.  His  faithful  heart  served  loyally  his 
God  and  his  fellow  man. 

His  strong  character  is  felt  today  in  his  work  and  in  the  men  he 
trained.  Yet  all  do  but  dimly  show  the  force,  the  strength,  the  honor, 
the  thought  that  everywhere  gleamed  through  the  gentleness  which 
clothed  him  as  a  garment. 

Scarcely  less  noticeable  than  his  gentleness  was  his  unassuming 
estimate  of  himself.  Some  men  pose  constantly,  anxious  for  admira- 
tion; or  they  go  around  with  a  nauseating  strut,  anxious  to  show  their 
accomplishments,  however  small.  Dr.  Abbot  lived  in  forgetfulness  of 
himself.  He  thought  not  of  winning  applause,  but  of  doing  work  that 
would  count.  He  did  not  display  himself;  he  displayed  his  college. 
He  showed  not  his  own  attainments  but  the  course  of  instruction 
which  was  gradually  evolved  under  his  guidance,  the  valuable  equip- 
ment of  the  college  collected  in  all  departments,  the  spacious  lawns, 
the  beautiful  groves,  the  wide  fields,  the  noble  buildings  that  grew 
under  his  thoughtful  care;  especially  did  he  delight  in  the  men  whose 
training  of  brain  and  hand  attained  under  his  leadership  made  them 
powers  for  good  wherever  they  found  work  to  do. 

He  lived  in  a  time  when  burning  questions  were  agitating  the  whole 
world;  questions  of  human  rights,  politics,  reform,  literature,  science, 
religion.  For  all  these  great  themes  he  had  warm  sympathy.  They 

.  MEMOIR  OP  DR.  T.   C.   ABBOT.  213 

touched  in  him  responsive  chords.  They  were  founded  in  truth  and 
goodness,  and  hence  in  time  he  knew  they  would  prevail.  But  he  had 
set  himself  to  do  a  certain  work,  and  to  that  work  he  gave  his  thought, 
his  strength,  his  life.  However  important  and  interesting  were  these 
other  themes,  he  could  give  to  them  only  sympathy  and  good  wishes. 
His  theme  was  the  college  which  he  led.  His  work  lay  in  advancing 
human  happiness  by  creating  a  noble  school.  In  the  words  of  the 
great  apostle  he  said,  "  this  one  thing  I  do." 

In  him  the  old  and  the  new  mingled  in  harmony.  He  read  with 
appreciation  the  great  poetry  of  the  ancients.  Job  and  Homer,  Virgil 
and  Horace,  came  to  him  with  revelations  of  love  and  beauty,  of 
heroism  and  religion.  When,  in  early  manhood,  he  visited  Europe,  he 
was  especially  attracted  by  the  scenes  made  famous  in  the  works  of 
Shakespeare,  by  the  haunts  of  Burns,  the  home  of  Scott,  the  lake 
district  where  Wordsworth  dreamed  and  sang.  And  the  poets  of  today 
found  him  equally  responsive  to  their  songs,  which  deal  with  the  new 
questions  of  the  new  time.  In  the  old  and  in  the  new  he  felt  the 
human  struggle  and  aspiration.  In  the  new  as  well  as  in  the  old  he 
was  thrilled  with  the  presence  and  the  struggles  of  the  human  spirit 
as  moved  by  the  Divine.  Indeed,  to  his  clear  vision,  there  wag  no  old 
and  no  new,  there  was  only  the  one  humanity,  then  and  now,  groping 
upward  to  the  light,  in  response  to  the  same  divine  leading. 

He  desired  greater  opportunity,  better  education,  better  wages,  more 
of  true  liberty,  greater  measure  of  justice,  a  truer  obedience  to  duty 
for  every  human  being.  As  one  of  the  most  efficient  means  of  securing 
these  he  looked  to  education,  the  rational  training  of  all 'human  powers 
and  faculties.  The  new  education  had  in  him  a  faithful  worker.  By 
the  new  education  he  understood  the  training  of  men  and  women  by 
the -best  methods,  in  the  most  important  knowledge,  which"  experience 
has  discovered.  In  his  mind  the  new  education  implied  no  severing  of 
the  present  from  the  past,  but  a  gradual  growth  from  the  past  to  the 
present,  and  from  the  present  to  the  future,  and  an  appropriation  by 
the  present  of  all  the  good  the  past  has  brought  us.  He  believed  that 
the  new  education  would  develop  men  rather  than  machines;  that  it 
would  make  not  dreamers  only,  but  workers;  that  it  would  so 
strengthen  every  faculty  as  to  enable  men  to  learn  daily  more  and 
more  of  the  secrets  that  are  writ  in  the  constitution  of  nature,  and  to 
become  more  able  to  use  the  powers  of  nature  for  the  service  of  man. 
He  made  no  public  displays  of  enthusiasm  for  the  new  education,  he 
had  nothing  of  the  eagerness  of  the  young  convert  to  magnify  his  new 
thought.  But  in  careful  ways  he  incorporated  the  new  thought,  the 

214  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

new  methods,  the  new  results  into  the  courses  at  the  Agricultural 
College.  His  successors  have  followed  in  the  line  he  marked  out.  As 
a  result  there  is,  perhaps,  no  school  where  the  course  of  instruction  in 
all  departments  is  based  more  fully  on  v  modern  knowledge  and  the 
modern  spirit. 

Among  the  fruits  of  his  life  we  find  a  home  united  and  affectionate; 
friends  made  from  youth  to  age  among  the  pure  and  strong;  a  great 
school  founded  in  the  methods  of  the  new  education  whose  broad  and 
constructive  spirit  is  but  just  coming  to  be  understood;  students  from 
that  school  planting  its  influence  and  that  of  its  organizer  and  of  its 
faculty  in  all  the  varied  departments  of  human  activity;  a  character  in 
himself  that  was  nobler  than  any  work  he  did,  more  helpful  than  any 
organization  that  sprung  from  his  clear  and  reverent  mind.  By  these 
fruits  we  know  him  as  one  of  the  helpers  of  men,  one  of  the  servants 
of  God. 



Francis  E.  Stebbins  was  born  at  Williamstown,  Vermont,  on  the  '26th 
of  October,  1818.  His  father,  Captain  Bliss  Stebbins,  was  born  in 
Wilbraham,  Massachusetts,  December  12,  1777,  and  in  1805  settled  in 
Williamstown,  Vermont,  where  he  resided  until  his  death,  March  10, 
1826.  His  ancestors  were  English. 

November  17,  1802,  he  married  Miss  Betsey  Euth  Cossitt,  of  Clare- 
mont,  New  Hampshire,  by  whom  he  had  five  children,  Francis  E. 
being  the  youngest. 

Mrs.  Betsey  Euth  Stebbins  was  born  in  Claremont,  N.  H.,  April  21r 
1783,  and  died  in  Adrian,  Mich.,  February  21,  1870.  She  was  of 
French  descent.  Francis  E.  took  his  name  from  an  uncle  (Frangois 
Een6  Cossitt).  At  the  age  of  sixteen  years  he  commenced  to  learn 
the  cabinet  makers  trade,  with  his  brother-in-law,  Lyman  Briggs,  at 
Montpelier,  Vermont,  earning  money  enough  to  pay  for  several  terms 


tuition  at  the  Academy  in  Montpelier.  In  1837,  he  came  to  Michigan, 
and  joined  his  brother,  C.  B.  Stebbins,  who  was  carrying  on  the 
cabinet  business  at  Palmyra,  in  Lenawee  county  (Palmyra  then  aspiring 
to  become  the  future  metropolis  of  the  county).  Here  he  remained 
for  about  two  years,  and  then  went  to  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  in  the  employ 
of  Cooley  &  Gralligan,  cabinet  makers. 

While  at  Palmyra  he  wrote  articles  for  the  Michigan  Whig,  little 
thinking  that  at  some  day  he  would  be  its  editor.  He  also  contributed 
to  the  Michigan  Observer  of  Detroit,  and  to  the  emancipator  of  New 
York.  While  in  Buffalo  he  wrote  for  the  Buffalonian,  the  Commercial 
Advertiser,  the  Republican,  and  several  other  papers,  and  was  finally 
given  charge  of  the  editorial  work  of  the  Morning  Tattler,  a  society  paper, 
with  the  understanding,  however,  that  it  should  not  interfere  with  his 
work  as  a  cabinet  maker.  Alternating  between  Vermont,  Buffalo  and 
Palmyra,  for  a  few  years,  he  finally  came  to  Adrian  in  the  fall  of  1841, 
and  from  that  time  until  his  death,  which  occurred  on  the  29th  day  of 
September,  1892,  resided  in  that  city.  With  the  exception  of  a  few 
months  spent  in  the  study  of  law,  in  the  office  of  Baker,  Harris  & 
Millard,  Mr.  Stebbins,  during  the  entire  period  of  his  residence  in 
Adrian  (comprising  more  than  half  a  century  of  time),  was  continu- 
ously engaged  in  the  business  of  which  he  had  made  himself  master 
in  his  youth.  Commencing  in  a  small  way,  working  at  the  bench 
himself,  and  always  doing  what  he  did  in  the  best  possible  manner, 
he  gradually  built  up  one  of  the  largest,  best,  and  most  successful 
factories  and  furniture  stores  in  southern  Michigan, 

A  part  of  the  time  he  was  in  partnership  with  his  brother,  C.  B. 
Stebbins;  a  part  of  the  time  the  two  brothers  carried  on  the  same 
business,  separately,  side  by  side,  and  always  in  perfect  harmony. 

In  1853  the  brothers,  in  connection  with  S.  P.  and  T.  D.  &ermain, 
built  a  four  story  brick  block  on  east  Maumee  street  in  the  city  of 
Adrian — then  the  only  four  story  building  in  Lenawee  county — and  in 
that  portion  of  the  block  erected  upon  his  land  he  continued  in  business 
until  the  day  of  his  death. 

While  Mr.  Stebbins  was  thoroughly  master  of-  his  trade,  and  always 
prided  himself  in  making  and  keeping  for  sale  furniture  made  upon 
honor,  and  of  the  very  best  quality,  and  in  so  managing  his  shop  and 
store  as  to  keep  them  well  in  hand  and  completely  under  his  control; 
yet  his  strong  literary  bias  and  the  urgent  solicitations  of  the  propri- 
etors, induced  him  to  assume  the  editorship  of  the  weekly  and  tri-weekly 
Expositor,  of  Adrian,  which  position  he  held  from  1850  to  1860;  and 
so  long  as  he  lived  he  continued  to  write  for  the  press.  Few  men 

216  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

have  made  more  of  their  opportunities  than  did  he.  For  nearly  thirty 
years  prior  to  his  decease,  he  spent  a  portion  of  each  year  in  travel, 
and  while  on  these  excursions  wrote  many  interesting  and  instructive 
letters  of  travel,  covering  the  country  from  Lake  Superior,  and  the 
river  and  gulf  of  St.  Lawrence  to  the  gulf  of  Mexico. 

He  was  fond  of  what  is  termed  "outing" — had  a  cottage  at  Grand 
Lake,  Presque  Isle  county,  Michigan,  and  one  at  Sand  Lake,  Lenawee 
county,  and  as  long  as  he  lived  spent  a  part  of  each  summer  at  one 
or  the  other  of  these  cottages;  and,  during  the  latter  part  of  his  life, 
a  part  of  each  winter  in  Florida,  where  he  made  very  thorough 
explorations  of  Indian  River. 

He  was  a  lover  of  nature,  and  with  a  few  congenial  friends,  derived 
the  greatest  possible  pleasure  from  these  annual  excursions. 

Mr.  Stebbins  was  a  public  spirited  man  and  identified  with  the 
growth  and  prosperity  of  the  city  of  Adrian  and  of  the  State  of  Mich- 
igan for  more  than  half  a  century.  He  was  a  zealous  and  active 
member  of  the  pioneer  society  of  the  county  of  Lenawee,  and  also  of 
the  State  pioneer  society,  contributing  during  his  membership  interesting 
and  valuable  articles  to  each  society.  He  served  as  alderman  of  his 
ward  in  the  common  council  of  the  city  of  Adrian,  also  as  a  member  of 
the  public  school  board,  where  either  as  president  or  chairman  of  the 
building  committee,  he  had  the  leading  charge  of  the  erection  of  the 
present  central  school  building,  the  main  features  of  the  plan  of 
which  were  furnished  by  him  and  adopted  by  the  board.  He  served 
as  a  member  of  the  old  volunteer  fire  department  of  the  city  and  had 
much  to  do  with  the  erection  of  its  buildings;  was  a  member  of  the 
committee  having  charge  of  the  erection  of  the  soldiers'  monument, 
furnishing  the  design  which  was  adopted  for  the  base;  and,  in  short, 
has  been  directly  or  indirectly  identified  with  almost  every  movement 
that  has  been  made  calculated  to  advance  the  best  interests  of  the 
city,  during  his  long  residence  therein. 

In  politics  Mr.  Stebbins  was  a  whig  and  cast  his  first  vote  in  Buffalo 
for  William  Henry  Harrison  for  president,  and  subsequently  became 
identified  with  the  republican  party  and  did  yoeman  service  therein  so 
long  as  he  lived.  He  was  an  active  politician  but  never  sought  for 
any  public  office.  He  was  a  religious  man  in  the  best  and  broadest 
sense  of  the  word,  was  liberal  and  catholic  in  his  views,  and  a  member 
of  the  Presbyterian  church.  It  can  be  truly  said  of  him,  that  he  was 
an  honest,  conscientious,  and  good  man.  When  it  became  apparent  to 
him,  as  it  did  some  little  time  before  his  death,  that  he  had  but  a 
short  time  to  live,  he  had  no  fear.  For  him  death  had  no  terrors. 


He  had  so  lived  that  when  his  summons  came  he  could  "Wrap  the 
drapery  of  his  couch  about  him  and  lie  down  to  pleasant  dreams." 

Mr.  Stebbins  was  twice  married;  his  first  wife  being  Miss  Mary  E. 
Meyer  of  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  to  whom  he  was  married  on  the  3d  of 
August,  1841,  and  by  whom  he  had  three-  children,  Francis  G.  Stebbins 
and  Mary  L.  Colvin,  who  survive  him,  and  Ellen  C.,  who  died  in 
childhood.  Mrs.  Mary  E.  Stebbins  was  born  in  Coxsakie,  N.  Y.,  June 
15,  1820,  and  died  in  Adrian,  April  16,  1852.  He  was  again  married 
October  24,  1853,  to  Migs  Sarah  Louise  Briggs,  of  Claremont,  New 
Hampshire,  by  whom  he  had  three  children,  Lilla  Louise,  Fred  B.  and 
Edwin  J.  Mrs.  Sarah  Louise  Stebbins  was  born  at  Charlestown,  New 
Hampshire,  February  25,  1833.  She  and  her  two  sons,  above  named, 
survive  her  husband,  and  reside  in  the  city  of  Adrian.  Lilla  Louise, 
the  daughter,  married  Mr.  Edwin  J.  Pierce  and  died  in  Hingham, 
Massachusetts,  on  the  27th  day  of  September,  1890. 

The  three  eons,  Francis  G.,  Fred  B.  and  Edwin  J.,  who  had  long 
been  in  the  employ  of  their  father,  continue  the  business,  which  he 
had  spent  over  half  a  century  in  establishing  on  a  firm  basis.  Mr. 
Stebbins  will  be  greatly  missed  in  the  city,  in  the  county  and  State, 
and  in  this  Society. 

We  can  only  add:     "The  end  of  a  well  spent  life." 



No  Michigan  man  has  done  more  to  preserve  the  records  of  leading 
pioneers,  especially  those  of  southwestern  Michigan,  than  Anson  De 
Peuy  Van  Buren.  Of  Dutch  descent  he  was  "the  son  of  Ephriam  and 
Olive  (Jay)  Van  Buren,  and  was  born  April  22,  1822,  at  Kinderhook, 
Columbia  county,  N.  Y.  He  was  the  youngest  of  nine  children.  The 
family,  in  1826,  removed  to  New  York  Mills,  Oneida  county,  N.  Y., 

218  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893, 

where  Anson  received  such  an  education  as  the  village  schools  of  that 
day  gave  a  boy  of  his  years.  And  here,  in  his  later  boyhood,  he  had 
the  rare  opportunity  of  listening  to  the  preaching,  lectures,  and  public 
discussions  of  the  foremost  preachers,  oratory,  and  reformers  of  that 
day.  Here  he  heard  the  eloquent  McDowell,  of  New  York,  on  moral 
reform;  Theodore  Weld,  on  temperance;  President  Besiah  Green,  the 
powerful  abolition  advocate;  Grerritt  Smith,  the  anti-slavery  reformer; 
Charles  G.  Finney,  the  revivalist;  and  that  brilliant  orator,  the  James 
Otis  of  his  day,  Alvan  Stewart,  on  temperance  and  reform.  And  it 
was  here,  being  thus  early  taught  by  such  great  masters,  that  the 
subject  of  this  sketch  imbibed  those  views  of  religion,  temperance,  and 
reform  that  governed  his  after  life."  The  above  are  his  own  words, 
found  on  page  287,  Vol.  14,  Pioneer  Collections. 

With  his  father's  family  he  removed  to  Michigan,  October  1,  1836. 
The  trip  was  by  canal  to  Buffalo,  taking  some  weeks,  thence  by  the 
steamer  United  States  to  Detroit.  The  son,  then  at  the  age  of  thirteen, 
retained  vivid  recollections  of  the  long  journey,  and  has  recalled  them 
in  his  "Pioneer  Annals,"  Vol.  5,  Pioneer  Collections.  From  Detroit 
the  family  journeyed  in  a  wagon  drawn  by  two  yoke  of  oxen  to  Battle 
Creek,  and  found  a  log  cabin  built  on  the  claim,  by  older  brothers. 
The  son  helped  his  father  cut  the  first  trees  on  the  farm  and  was  kept 
busy  with  the  other  boys  at  hard  labor.  The  family  had  brought  five 
hundred  pounds  of  dried  codfish  from  their  old  home,  which  was 
exchanged  for  pork  with  neighbors,  then  called  "paying  with  dicker." 

The  fact  is  placed  on  record  that  in  the  spring  of  1837  "wheat  was 
two  dollars  a  bushel,  corn  and  oats  very  high,  when  they  could  be 
bought  at  all,  potatoes  were  ten  shillings  per  bushel,  and  it  was 
necessary  to  go  to  Prairie  Bonde,  a  round  trip  of  some  sixty  miles,  to 
get  them  at  that  price.  We  gave  thirteen  dollars  for  a  shoat  of  the 
wind-splitter  breed,  weighing  probably  sixty  pounds  dressed.  It  was  so 
lean  it  would  not  fry  itself.  We  had  to  boil  it  in  half  a  dozen  waters 
and  then  it  would  not  pass  as  *  legal  tender'  with  anyone  who  knew 
what  pork  was."  The  cattle  were  kept  through  with  a  scarce  supply 
of  marsh  grass  and  the  buds  and  tender  twigs  of  tree  tops  cut  down 
for  that  purpose.  He  records  as  a  tender  remembrance  of  those  days 
that  after  a  year  had  gone  by  and  they  had  not  seen  a  person  or  thing 
they  had  known  in  New  York,  his  mother  found  a  house  fly  that  had 
been  caught  and  preserved  between  the  leaves  of  a  book  and  exclaimed: 
"Here  is  a  fly  from  New  York  state!  Now,  children,  don't  touch  it, 
let  it  remain  in  this  book,  just  as  it  is,  for  it  is  a  fly  that  once  lived 
in  our  old  home." 


Thus  commenced  his  Michigan  life.  For  the  first  few  years  he  had 
no  school  advantages,  but  made  the  chimney  corner  his  school  room, 
and  the  elementary  spelling  book,  the  old  English  reader,  Olney's 
geography,  Daboll's  arithmetic,  and  Kirkham's  grammar  his  teachers. 
It  was  an  evening  school,  kept  mostly  in  the  winter  season,  and  all 
the  light  he  had  was  that  which  came  from  the  hickory  bark  thrown 
on  the  fire.  There  he  studied,  made  himself  master  of  the  books 
named,  and  in  the  winter  of  1838,  at  the  age  of  sixteen,  he  received  a 
certificate  to  teach  the  Goguac  Prairie  school.  He  continued  to  teach 
winters  in  Battle  Creek  until  the  spring  of  1843,  when  he  entered  the 
branch  of  the  Michigan  University  at  Kalamazoo,  remaining  there 
three  years.  He  entered  the  University  at  Ann  Arbor  in  the  summer 
of  1847,  leaving  in  the  fall  to  teach  at  Athens,  Calhoun  county.  He 
taught  in  various  places  until  the  fall  of  1857,  when,  with  failing  health, 
he  went  to  Mississippi.  There  he  soon  took  charge  of  an  academy 
near  Yazoo  City,  returning  to  Michigan  after  the  lapse  of  a  year, 
opening  a  select  school  at  Battle  Creek,  and  finally  closed  his  long  and 
successful  career  as  teacher  in  the  Climax  high  school. 

In  the  fall  of  1859  he  published  his  book  entitled,  "Jottings  of  a 
Year's  Sojourn  in  the  South,"  which  was  favorably  received  both  north 
and  south.  This  work  is  a  volume  of  320  pages  and  is  a  racy  record 
of  southern  life  in  those  days,  and  worthy  of  a  choice  place  in  every 
Michigan  library.  Among  the  reminiscences  are  graphic  sketches  of 
George  M.  Poindexter,  Henry  S.  Foote,  General  Quitman,  Joseph  Holt, 
George  D.  Prentice,  S.  S.  Prentiss,  Colonel  McClung,  Jefferson  Davis, 
and  others.  Never  have  we  seen  elsewhere  so  vivid  and  lifelike  a 
sketch  as  that  of  the  eloquent  S.  S.  Prentiss  given  by  him.  He  brings 
the  matchless  orator  before  you  so  that  you  see  the  man  and  almost 
hear  the  words  that  came  from  his  lips  and  swayed  the  people  like 
the  touch  of  magic. 

In  1864  Mr.  Van  Buren  engaged  in  life  insurance,  which  became  his 
occupation  for  the  rest  of  his  life.  He  married  Miss  Mary  L.  Gibson, 
November  14,  1866,  and  resided  in  Galesburgh,  where  he  held  various 
town  offices.  He  died  June  27,  1892,  highly  -  esteemed  by  every  one 
who  ever  knew  him.  His  widow  is  still  living  in  Galesburgh. 

Henry  Bishop  of  Kalamazoo  says  of  him:  "He  was  a  terse  and 
vigorous  writer  on  subjects  congenial  to  him.  No  man  furnished  more 
interesting  historical  sketches  of  old  pioneers  for  the  different  volumes, 
of  the  State  pioneer  history  than  Mr.  Van  Buren.  He  was  an  honest 
temperance  worker,  an  earnest  Bible  student,  a  great  aid  to  Sabbath 
schools,  and  a  member  of  the  Congregational  church.  The  greater  part 

220  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

of  his  life  was  spent  in  the  school  room,  where  he  endeavored  to  teach 
true  manhood  by  example  as  well   as  by  precept." 

The  counties  of  Calhoun  and  Kalamazoq  are  fortunate  that  he  was  a 
resident,  first  at  Battle  Creek,  later  at  Galesburgh.  As  a  writer  of 
biography  he  has  never  been  excelled  by  any  resident  of  Michigan, 
and  from  his  pen  preserved  in  the  Pioneer  Collections,  the  names  of 
many  leading  pioneers  have  been  rescued  from  oblivion.  With  a 
thorough  command  of  language,  a  remarkable  memory,  a  humor  that 
never  exhausted  itself,  he  gives  in  inimitable  style  the  anecdotes  of 
those  hardy  pioneers.  These  alone  would  form  a  volume  of  genuine 
humor,  and  this  characteristic  of  the  man  ,was  fresh  and  genial  as  ever 
up  to  the  last  hours  of  his  life.  While  he  did  not  become  a  member 
of  the  State  Pioneer  Society  until  1883,  many  of  his  papers  of  previous 
years,  written  for  the  county  pioneer  societies  of  Calhoun  and  Kalama- 
zoo, have  been  preserved  in  the  Pioneer  Collections.  Some  years  of 
his  life  must  have  been  spent  in  writing  these  papers,  and  all  are 
graphic  and  enjoyable  in  the  highest  degree.  Neither  time  nor  space 
would  suffice  to  give  even  the  titles  of  all  his  papers.  Among  the 
leading  papers  of  the  humorous  character  are  "The  Political  Campaign 
of  1840,"  with  incidents,  anecdotes,  and  recollections  of  its  distinguished 
editors  and  orators,  north  and  south,  in  Volume  10,  Pioneer  Collections; 
and  "That  Glorious  5th,  How  it  was  Celebrated  in  1845  at  Kalamazoo," 
would  shake  the  ribs  of  a  misanthrope.  Other  valuable  papers  are 
"Temperance  in  Pioneer  Days,"  "History. of  the  Old  Branches  of  the 
Michigan  University,"  and  of  "  The  Branch  University  at  Kalamazoo," 
"Michigan  in  Pioneer  and  National  Politics,  and  in  the  Campaign  of 
1856,"  and  a  complete  history  of  "The  Temperance  Conflict." 

But  in  "  The  Log  School  House  Era,"  a  paper  of  120  pages,  Volume 
14,  Pioneer  Collections,  we  get  the  key  of  his  life  and  character.  As 
a  pioneer  school  master  he  devoted  twenty-one  years  of  his  life  to 
teaching,  mostly  country  schools,  for  it  was  all  country  then,  and  gives 
his  full  experience  as  a  teacher  from  the  age  of  sixteen  to  thirty-six, 
commencing  in  1838  and  closing  in  1859.  He  was  the  best  type  of  the 
western  pioneer  schoolmaster.  He  had  started  with  the  determination 
to  be  a  teacher,  and  after  a  first  trial  attended  higher  schools  in 
summer  to  make  up  for  defects  he  found.  With  the  smallest  of  wages 
he  persevered,  and  finally  gained  name  and  fame  as  a  teacher.  What 
his  wages  were  the  first  school  in  1838  is  not  recorded,  but  in  1842, 
we  find  him  contracting  to  teach  for  eight  dollars  a  month  and 
"board  around."  In  1847  he  had  reached  the  figure  of  $14  a  month, 
and  later  $18  per  month;  finally,  in  a  higher  grade  of  school,  $75  per 

MEMOIR  OF  ANSON  DE  PEUY  VAN  BUREN.          221 

month.  He  knew  only  one  common  school  teacher  who  was  a  college 
graduate,  and  he  was  not  among  the  best  teachers. 

Then  "the  school  officers  were  the  'board  of  regents'  and  the  school 
master  played  the  part  of  president  and  professor  in  that  rude  seat 
of  learning,  the  pioneer  schoolhouse.  His  advanced  students  drove 
him  beyond  the  'three  r's'  into  natural  philosophy,  algebra,  and 
perhaps  into  botany  and  astronomy."  The  college  bred  student  was 
"not  so  competent  to  teach  a  district  school  as  the  teacher  who  had 
been  trained  in  the  curriculum  of  that  school."  "  When  the  school 
master  of  the  old  days  stepped  upon  the  floor  of  the  log  school  house 
his  foot  was  on  his  native  heath,  and  he  was  at  home  amid  his 

He  vividly  describes  his  first  school  house:  "It  was  built  of  oak 
logs  with  'cobbed  up'  corners.  The  roof  was  composed  of  shakes  that 
were  held  in  their  places  by  long  poles  laid  lengthwise  over  the  lap 
of  each  course,  and  pinned  down  at  each  end.  The  floor  was  of 
puncheon.  A  fireplace  with  broad  jams  was  surmounted  with  a  stick 
chimney,  which  ran  up  on  the  outside  and  east  end  of  the  building. 
There  was  but  one  door  and  but  one  window,  close  beside  it,  on  the 
south  side.  The  door  swung  on  oaken  hinges,  and  was  fastened  by 
and  answered  to  a  wooden  latch  that  was  raised  by  the  accustomed 
leather  latch  string.  The  logs  were  'chinked  and  mudded  up'  and  the 
building  was  considered  fit  for  winter  use.  There  was  not  a  nail  or  a 
particle  of  iron  about  the  house.  The  glass  was  secured  in  the  sashes 
by  little  wooden  pegs,  and  the  cross-piece  over  the  fire  place  was  a  wooden 
support.  Our  school  room  furniture,  like  the  building,  was  of  the 
most  primitive  kind.  Holes  were  bored  into  the  logs  some  three  feet 
from  the  floor,  on  the  sides  and  west  end  of  the  room,  into  which 
long  pegs  were  driven;  boards  were  secured  on  these  pegs  slanting 
inward  for  desks.  Rough  boards  on  wooden  legs  ran  parallel  to  the 
desks  for  seats.  Slabs  with  shorter  legs  constituted  the  seats  for  the 
smaller  children.  The  schoolmaster's  table  was  also  of  pioneer  make." 
The  teacher  was  without  blackboard  or  bell,  and  called  his  school  to 
order  by  rapping  on  the  sash  of  the  lone  window  with  a  book.  His 
equipment  was  a  cherry  ruler,  whip  and  penknife.  Daily  the  pens  were 
made  for  each  scholar  far  enough  advanced  to  write,  but  he  seems  to 
have  used  the  whip  but  little,  in  spite  of  that  remark  of  the  many 
wived  Solomon,  "Spare  the  rod,  spoil  the  child,"  which  has  cost  the 
descendents  of  the  Pilgrims  so  many  million  "lickings." 

With  such  a  commencement  Mr.  Yan  Buren  perfected  himself  as  a 
teacher,  followed  it  many  years  at  the  lowest  of  wages,  because  he 

222  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

loved  the  profession  on  which  he  conferred  signal  honor.  His  vivid 
and  thorough  record  of  his  long  services  as  a  teacher  is  of  itself  a 
monument  of  which  any  man  might  well  feel  proud.  Teacher  of  the 
pioneers,  thyself  a  pioneer,  we  salute  thee  in  death! 

In  person  Mr.  Yan  Buren  was  tall  and  graceful,  with  a  head  and 
face  that  were  a  model  for  the  sculptor.  As  a  member  of  the  State 
Pioneer  Society  from  1883  until  his  death,  he  stood  very  high  in  the 
estimation  of  his  fellow  members.  Except  for  deafness  he  would  have 
filled  the  position  of  president  long  before  his  death.  For  many  years 
he  was  a  member  of  the  historical  committee  and  his  services  were  of 
great  value  in  that  capacity.  His  place  no  one  else  can  fill.  He  has 
written  much  of  value  for  the  later  writers  of  history  and  biography, 
and  for  himself  has  won  fame  that  will  inure  with  the  name  and  fame 
of  the  State  he  loved  and  served  so  well. 



When  one  who  for  more  than  the  average  lifetime  of  man  has 
filled  a  large  space  in  the  public  eye,  holding  important  positions, 
executing  high  trusts  and  wielding  a  commanding  influence  among  his 
fellows,  drops  suddenly  out  of  sight,  almost  without  warning,  the  shock 
of  the  general  loss  is  likely  at  first  to  be  felt  by  us  more  than  that 
which  is  personal,  and  we  stand  in  the  awful  presence  of  death  appalled 
chiefly  by  the  great  vacancy  in  the  social  and  civil  state  which  the 
blow  has  made.  But  ere  long  the  tender  chord  of  memory,  responsive 
to  recollections  of  early  friendships,  common  enjoyments,  common 
trials  and  common  aspirations,  make  us  sensible  of  the  pain  of 
sundered  ties,  and  the  sense  of  general  loss  gives  place  to  the  more 
exquisite  sorrow  of  personal  bereavement. 


Charles  M.  Croswell  affords  us  one  of  those  striking  illustrations,  of 
which  the  history  of  America  is  full,  of  boys  without  the  help  of 
fortune,  or  education,  or  influential  friends,  by  the  force  of  native 
energy  and  perseverance,  raising  themselves  to  positions  of  eminence 
and  usefulness,  and  filling  them  with  distinguished  honor.  He  was  an 
orphan  at  seven  years  of  age,  with  the  prospect  before  him  of  a 
laborious  and  inconspicuous  life,  with  no  adventitious  circumstances 
whatever  upon  which  he  could  rely  for  exceptional  success.  At  the 
age  of  eighteen,  when  I  first  saw  him,  he  was  learning  the  trade  of  a 
carpenter.  He  had  the  industry  and  the  energy  which  were  the  sure 
auguries  of  success,  and  had  he  continued  in  that  occupation  it  is  not 
to  be  doubted  that  he  would  in  time  have  become  a  man  of  note  in 
the  community,  if  not  a  man  of  wealth.  He  had  Franklin's  love  of 
books,  and  it  was  certain  from  the  first  that  as  he  grew  in  years  he 
would  find  a  congenial  sphere  of  action  in  which  his  self -acquired 
learning  would  be  of  special  value,  and  would  enable  him  to  compete 
with  others,  more  fortunate  in  their  early  advantages,  for  important 

It  is  difficult  to  speak  of  him  fittingly  without  speaking  also  of 
myself,  for  .before  he  attained  his  majority  we  were  thrown  much 
together,  and  with  his  gifted  cousin,  George  W.  Hicks,  constituted  a 
trio  of  youth,  all  equally  without  the  favors  of  fortune,  equally 
dependent  on  individual  exertions  for  all  that  should  be  attained  or 
possessed,  but  with  similar  tastes,  w,hich  could  only  be  gratified  by 
hard  labor  and  the  strictest  economy,  and  in  the  gratification  of  which 
we  might  be  of  mutual  assistance.  The  untimely  death  of  young  Hicks 
had  the  effect  to  draw  the  survivors  more  closely  together,  and  the 
intimacy  grew  and  was  unbroken  until  the  time  came  when  public 
affairs  almost  monopolized  attention. 

I  have  spoken  of  him  as  having  been  without  the  advantages  of 
education.  His  indebtedness  to  schools  was  but  small  and  his  upward 
path  was  made  more  difficult  in  consequence.  But  the  consciousness  of 
the  disadvantage  only  operated  as  a  spur  to  effort,  and  he  came  in 
time  to  be  a  well  read  man,  with  a  large  fund  of  useful  knowledge 
which  by  diligence  he  had  made  the  books  impart  to  him.  He  was 
especially  attracted  by  historical  works;  and  few  men  so  much  absorbed 
by  business  and  public  avocations  as  he  shortly  became,  were  more 
familiar  with  the  general  facts  of  ancient  and  modern  history,  and 
especially  with  the  history  of  his  own  country  and  of  its  leading 
public  characters.  He  was  fond  of  lighter  literature  also,  and  he 
studied  rhetoric  as  art  to  the  full  extent  that  his  circumstances  enabled 

224  ANNUAL  MEETING    1893. 

him  to  do.  As  a  result  his  mind  was  not  only  well  stored  with  useful 
information,  bat  what  he  knew  he  was  prepared  effectively  to  use;  and 
though  he  was  never  a  ready  he  was  always  a  favorite  speaker,  since 
what  he  had  to  say  was  carefully  studied  and  was  delivered  with  grace 
and  in  accurate  diction. 

When  Mr.  Croswell  decided  to  study  law  he  entered  my  office  for 
the  purpose,  and  when  admitted  to  the  bar  he  became  my  partner. 
But  he  had  no  fondness  for  the  law  and  was  preeminently  a  man  of 
business.  He  filled  with  credit  many  local  and  county  offices  which  I 
will  not  delay  to  enumerate,  and  in  1866  was  chosen  to  the  State 
senate.  In  that  body,  although  it  contained  several  older  and  more 
experienced  lawyers,  he  was  made  chairman  of  the  judiciary  committee, 
a  high  compliment  from  the  late  governor,  which  was  fully  justified  by 
the  able  and  painstaking  manner  in  which  the  duties  were  performed. 
The  senate  paid  him  a  still  higher  compliment  when  by  common 
consent  it  elected  him  president  pro  tempore,  an  office  commonly 
conferred  only  on  a  member  of  considerable  experience.  But  probably 
not  one  of  his  associates  was  so  admirably  fitted  for  the  post  as  was 
he,  for  from  the  time  of  his  election  he  had  given  special  and  careful 
attention  to  parliamentary  law,  and  can  be  truthfully  said  to  have  made 
himself  master  of  its  peculiar  and  to  some  extent  arbitrary  rules.  He 
held  a  seat  in  the  senate  for  three  successive  terms,  and  long  before 
he  left  it  he  was  the  acknowledged  and  trusted  leader  of  his  party  in 
both  houses.  In  1867  he  was  chosen  to  a  seat  in  the  convention  for 
revising  the  constitution  of  the  State,  a  body  to  which  the  people  had 
sent  many  of  their  ablest  men  and  best  trained  intellects.  And  there 
again  his  thorough  familiarity  with  parliamentary  rules  as  well  as  his 
fairness  was  recognized,  as  they  had  been  in  the  senate,  by  his  being 
called  to  preside,  and  he  did  so  to  the  entire  satisfaction  of  all  parties. 
Five  years  later  he  was  a  member  of  the  popular  house  of  the 
legislature  and  was  made  its  speaker.  In  these  several  public  positions 
as  well  as  in  those  he  held  afterwards,  his  official  papers  and  addresses 
were  conspicuous  for  terseness  and  lucidity,  and  gave  cogent'  evidence 
that  his  self -training  had  been  as  accurate  as  it  was  laborious. 

In  1876  Mr.  Crosswell  was  nominated  by  acclamation  in  the  conven- 
tion of  the  dominant  party  in  the  State  to  the  office  of  governor  and 
was  of  course  elected.  In  that  high  office  he  brought  undoubted 
integrity,  careful  preparation,  correct  business  habits  and  great  industry. 
The  State  has  never  had  a  more  painstaking  executive,  never  a  cleaner 
administration,  never  a  firmer  head  to  its  affairs.  He  had  not  the 
faculty,  if  he  had  the  taste,  of  impressing  the  general  public  by 


pageant  and  demonstration;  but  in  his  quiet,  patient,  indiistrious,  and 
persistent  way,  be  gave  to  the  State  a  faithful  and  strong  administra- 
tion, which  was  alike  an  honor  to  him  and  an  honor  to  the  common- 
wealth which  he  loved  and  was  proud  to  preside  over.  Many  a  state, 
which  has  suffered  in  various  ways  from  the  want  of  careful  business 
qualities  in  more  brilliant,  demonstrative  and  pretentious  executives, 
might  well  have  envied  Michigan  its  careful,  thoughtful,  and  untiring 
governor.  And  though  without  full  knowledge  upon  that  subject  I 
speak  with  great  confidence  when  I  say  that  he  left  this  high  office 
with  means  diminished  by  his  having  held  it. 

On  retiring  from  the  office  of  governor,  he  took  up  cheerfully  the 
duties  of  a  private  citizen,  and  these  were  faithfully  and  diligently 
performed  until  the  fatal  illness  overtook  him.  Public  life  with  him 
had  not  as  with  so  many  others,  destroyed  his  regular  business  habits, 
and  he  "had  no  wasteful  or  vicious  tastes  to  sap  his  fortune  or  consti- 
tution, or  to  lead  others  to  ruin.  But  it  is  as  needless  for  me  to  enter 
upon  his  every  day  life  as  it  would  be  to  give  in  detail  the  list  of  his 
public  employments.  It  is  quite  enough  to  say  in  this  presence  where 
he  was  so  well  known,  that  with  him  public  office  was  always  a  sacred 
public  trust  and  that  he  recognized  in  his  capacity  of  private  citizen, 
duties  as  imperative  as  any  that  could  be  conferred  by  the  choice  of  his 
fellows.  As  we  face  any  public  building  in  the  city,  we  are  reminded 
of  some  important  service  performed  or  some  worthy  address  delivered 
in  it;  as  we  enter  any  principal  street  we  are  met  by  recollection  of 
something  notable  with  which  in  the  nearly  fifty  years  of  his  residence 
among  us  he  was  prominently  concerned.  A  great  place  was  indeed 
left  vacant  when  he  passed  away. 

Six  days  ago,  on  learning  of  his  illness,  I  came  to  stand  by  his  bed- 
side, and  to  say,  if  I  might,  a  word  of  cheer.  I  knew  that  so  well 
had  his  intellectual  powers  been  preserved  that  he  was  still,  as  to  them, 
in  the  prime  of  life  and  I  hoped  that  the.  physical  disease  was  not 
serious.  But  I  saw  at  once  that  death  had  marked  him  for  its  prey, 
and  that  the  end  was  nigh.  But  his  mind  was  not  upon  the  brief  tenure 
of  existence;  if  he  had  any  dread  of  what  was  immediately  before  him 
he  did  not  express  it.  On  the  contrary  he  directed  attention  at  once 
to  his  public  life  and  the  wish  uppermost  in  his  thoughts  was,  that 
when  he  had  passed  away  it  should  be  said  of  him  in  respect  to  his 
discharge  of  duties  in  his  highest  office, 

"He  was  faithful." 

Into  the  sanctities  of  private  life  we  should  in  the  presence  of  death 

226  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

be  awed  from  intrusion;  but  I  may  be  permitted  to  say  how  well  I 
knew  how  the  members  of  his  family  were  held  by  that  great  heart  of 
his  in  anxious  but  close  and  loving  embrace.  The  curtain  falls  now 
between  us  and  him;  but  just  as  the  record  of  his  public  service  will 
be  imperishable,  so  also  to  us  will  be  the  remembrance  of  his  private 

"  Death  cannot  claim  the  immortal  mind; 
Let  earth  close  o'er  its  sacred  trust, 
But  goodness  dies  not  in  the  dust." 

Hon.  Charles  M.  Croswell  was  born  October  31,  1825,  at  Newburgh, 
Orange  county,  N.  Y.,  and  was  son  of  John  and  Lottie  (Hicks) 
Croswell.  His  father  was  of  Scotch-Irish  extraction,  was  a  paper 
maker,  and  carried  on  business  in  New  York  city.  When  the  son  was 
seven  years  of  age  his  mother,  a  woman  of  superior  ability  and  worth, 
and  his  only  sister  died,  and  but  three  months  after  the  death  of  his 
mother  his  father  was  accidentally  drowned  in  the  Hudson  river  at  New- 
burgh,  leaving  him  the  last  of  the  family,  without  means  of  support. 
He  found  a  friend  in  an  uncle,  James  Berry,  a  house-builder  and 
contractor,  with  whom  he  came  to  Adrian  in  1837,  where  he  resided 
until  his  death,  which  occurred  suddenly  there  December  13,  1886. 



BY   A.    C.    MAXWELL. 

Iii  undertaking  to  write  an  account  of  those  men  who  have  hereto- 
fore been  members  of  the  Bay  county  bar  I  have  found  myself  so 
embarrassed  by  any  attempt  at  discussion  of  the  character  of  those 
members  still  living  that  I  shallonly  give  some  account  of  those  who 
are  dead. 

I  settled  in  lower  Saginaw  (now  Bay  City)  in    March,    1857.     When 


I  arrived  there  I  found  that  Messrs.  C.  H.  Freeman,  W.  L.  Sherman, 
and  James  Birney  had  preceded  me,  and  they  were  all  then  actively 
engaged  in  the  practice  of  the  law. 


Hon.  James  Birney  was  born  at  Danville,  Kentucky,  in  1817.  His 
father,  James  G.  Birney,  candidate  for  the  liberty  party  for  president 
in  1840  and  1844,  resided  in  Lower  Saginaw  from  1840  until  1850. 
He  was  trustee  of  the  old  Saginaw  Bay  company,  which  owned  the 
section  of  land  on  which  the  original  plat  of  Lower  Saginaw  was  first 
laid  out,  and  no  doubt  the  interests  that  he  left  in  Bay  City  was  the 
cause  of  the  settlement  of  his  son  at  that  place. 

James  Birney  was  educated  at  Center  College,  Ky.,  and  at  Miami 
University,  Ohio,  from  which  latter  institution  he  was  graduated  in  1836. 
For  the  two  years  succeeding  his  graduation  he  occupied  the  position 
of  professor  of  the  Greek  and  *  Latin  languages  at  that  institution. 
He  afterward  studied  law  at  New  Haven,  Conn.,  and  subsequently 
entered  upon  the  practice  of  that  profession  at  Cincinnati,  Ohio.  While 
at  New  Haven  he  married  Miss  Moulton,  cousin  of  Commodore  Isaac 
Hull  who  captured  the  Guerriere  on  the  19th  day  of  August,  1812.  In 
1856  Mr.  Birney  removed  with  his  family  to  Lower  Saginaw  (now  Bay 
City)  and  at  once  interested  himself  in  the  development  of  the  place. 
From  that  time  until  his  death  Bay  City  was  his  home. 

Mr.  Birney  was  a  prominent  republican  in  politics  and  in  1858  was 
elected  to  the  State  senate,  and  in  this  office  he  displayed  both  great 
capacity  and  great  independence.  In  the  year  1859  most  of  that  great 
grant  of  swamp  land  which  the  general  government  had  made  to  the 
State  for  the  purpose  of  drainage  and  reclamation  was  appropriated  by 
the  State  for  the  building  of  State  roads  and  to  the  construction  of 
drains  and  ditches.  And  here  Mr.  Birney  rendered  services  to  northern 
Michigan,  for  which  its  people  for  all  time  to  come  should  be  forever 
grateful.  There  was  a  strong  body  of  men  in  the  legislature  that  year, 
who  were  determined  to  ignore  and  neglect  the  conditions  of  the  trust, 
and  to  sell  the  swamp  lands  and  apply  the  proceeds  of  the  sale  to  the 
school  fund,  thus  leaving  the  northern  portions  of  the  State  with  its 
swamps  and  morasses  to  take  care  of  themselves.  And  as  the  phrase 
went,  let  them  get  out  of  the  woods  as  best  they  can.  Mr.  Birney 
overcame  this  faction  and  secured  the  legislation  which  has  opened  up 
northern  Michigan  through  every  portion  of  it  with  the  State  roads. 

So  well  did  he  perform  his  duty  as  senator  as  to  attract  general 
attention,  and  in  1860  he  was  elected  lieutenant  governor  of  the  State. 

228  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

He  was  exceptionally  well  qualified  for  the  office  of  president  of  the 
senate.  He  was  careful,  studious,  and  absolutely  impartial  and  inde- 
pendent, and  managed  to  perform  his  duties  with  a  constant  suavity 
and  grace  that  caused  the  members  of  that  body  to  be  very  proud  of 
him,  and  justly  too,  for  of  all  the  men  who  have  succeeded  him  in 
that  office,  none  has  reached  that  high  standard  attained  by  Judge 
Birney  as  a  presiding  officer. 

In  the  senate  that  year  (1861)  were  Henry  P.  Baldwin,  afterwards 
governor  and  senator,  Byron  G.  Stout,  afterwards  a  candidate  of  his 
party  for  governor  and  since  a  member  of  congress,  and  Solomon  L. 
Withey,  afterwards  judge  of  the  federal  courts  at  Grand  Rapids,  and 
many  other  distinguished  sons  of  Michigan.  And  it  is  safe  to  say 
that  Judge  Birney  was  the  full  equal  of  all  these  distinguished  men. 
He  had  a  natural  aptness  in  the  transaction  *  of  public  business.  He 
frequently  debated  questions  on  the  floor  of  the  senate;  always  with 
sincerity  and  ability,  and  always  with  firmness  and  kindness.  While 
he  was  ambitious  he  was  totally  above  all  the  low  schemes  and  prac- 
tices of  modern  politicians. 

In  the  spring  of  1861  Governor  Birney  was  appointed  circuit  judge 
of  the  eighteenth  judicial  circuit,  then  composed  of  the  counties  of  Bay, 
losco,  Alcona,  and  Alpena.  He  presided  four  years  on  the  bench  of 
that  circuit.  He  was  a  dignified,  prudent,  and  careful  judge.  His 
administration  of  justice  was  satisfactory.  He  was  modest,  kind, 
accommodating,  fair  and  impartial,  and  generally  right,  but  like  all 
judges  he  made  some  mistakes.  I  remember  once  he  intimated  a 
decision  against  me.  I  mentioned  to  him  that  the  supreme  court  had 
decided  otherwise,  and  showed  him  the  decision  of  Tannahill  vs.  Tuttle. 
He  refused  to  modify  his  ruling  and  simply  remarked  "  So  much  the 
worse  for  the  supreme  court."  I  cheerfully  add  that  he  was  right,  as 
Tannahill  vs.  Tuttle  was  afterwards  overruled.  He  was  not  well 
adapted  to  a  judicial  position.  While  his  mind  was  active  and  clear, 
he  could  not  comprehend  and  would  not  follow  many  of  the  rules  of 
law  which  to  the  general  student  appear  unreasonable. 

After  leaving  the  bench  he  resumed  his  practice  of  law  in  Bay  City. 
In  1867  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  constitutional  convention  and 
actively  participated  in  the  proceedings  of  that  body.  He  was  very 
conservative,  perhaps  too  much  so,  as  the  work  of  the  convention  was 
rejected  by  the  people. 

In  1870  Mr.  Birney  established  the  Bay  City  Chronicle,  a  weekly 
newspaper,  and  in  1873  it  was  issued  daily.  It  was  published  until 
after  Mr.  Birney's  departure  for  the  Hague,  when  it  was  merged  into 


the  Tribune.  In  1872  he  was  appointed  centennial  commissioner  for 
Michigan  and  as  such  was  of  considerable  service  to  the  State.  He 
was  noted  as  such  for  his  affability  and  kindness. 

In  1872  he  was  appointed  minister  to  the  Netherlands.  This  was  a 
position  to  which  he  was  exceptionally  wel]  adapted.  He  held  this 
office  until  1882,  when  he  returned  to  Bay  City.  His  father  was  a 
graduate  of  Princeton,  a  man  of  fine  taste  and  elegant  accomplishments. 
He  was  simple  and  free  in  his  manner,  liberal  in  his  views  in  every- 
thing except  upon  the  subject  of  slavery,  perfectly  honest,  and  no 
doubt  from  him  Judge  Birney  acquired  those  elegant  manners  for 
which  he  was  noted. 

At  the  court  of  Holland,  as  a  representative  of  the  United  States,  he 
was  highly  distinguished,  and  it  is  probable  that  of  all  the  representa- 
tives of  the  nations  at  that  court  he  was  the  most  respected  and 
admired  as  a  man.  It  is  true  the  embassadors  from  Germany,  France, 
and  Russia  with  millions  of  armed  men  near  at  hand,  and  England 
with  her  tremendous  navy,  each  able  to  crush  Holland  in  a  month, 
must  be  shown  great  consideration;  but  this  was  due  to  force  and  to 
the  position  of  affairs,  not  to  the  representative  or  to  the  man  who 
might  happen  to  represent  the  nation.  Judge  Birney  maintained  a 
high  position  there,  and  did  much  to  elevate  the  embassy  and  in  the 
building  up  of  friendly  feelings  towards  the  people  of  the  United 
States.  He  died  in  May,  1888. 

Mr.  Birney  was  a  man  of  great  public  spirit  and  filled  the  many 
public  offices,  to  which  he  was  either  elected  or  appointed,  with  ability 
and  fidelity.  He  was  devoted  to  the  interests  of  Bay  City  and  Bay 
county,  and  took  an  active  part  in  promoting  their  growth  and 

At  the  time  of  his  death  he  was  president  of  the  board  of  education 
of  Bay  City,  and  in  this  office,  as  in  all  other  positions  of  public  trust 
occupied  by  him,  he  made  his  duty  to  the  people  of  paramount 
importance.  He  was  a  man  of  sensative  and  refined  feelings,  firm  in 
his  convictions,  of  fine  appearance,  and  eminently  qualified  by  educa- 
tion and  manners  to  shine  in  the  higher  •  walks  of  public  life. 
Politicians  accused  him  of  being  an  aristocrat,  but  he  was  a  true, 
loyal,  tender  hearted  gentleman  who  could  not  play  the  demagogue. 


Although  Judge  Birney  was  self-possessed  and  circumspect  in  his 
conduct  generally,  one  morning  in  the  spring  of  1859  he  said  to  me, 

230  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

"I  feel  most  devilishly  ugly  this  morning."  The  next  morning  Z 
learned  the  occasion  of  his  wrath.  At  this  time  there  was  not  a  rod  of 
made  road  in  Bay  county.  There  was  but  one  span  of  horses  in  town. 
People's  cattle,  cows,  pigs  and  geese  run  everywhere  at  large  on  the 
property  of  every  land  owner  with  impunity.  Judge  Birney  had 
cleared  some  blocks  between  Ninth  and  Tenth  streets  in  Bay  City,  and 
had  made  some  clearing  where  the  family  homestead  now  stands.  He 
had  cleared  his  lands,  fenced  it,  and  planted  it.  It  so  happened  that 
this  enclosure  embraced  a  sand  ridge  over  which  the  settlers'  cows  had 
passed  out  to  the  woods  to  graze.  On  each  side  of  the  judge's  fences 
were  swamps,  so  that  when  the  cattle  got  beyond  his  enclosure  they 
could  not  find  their  way  home,  and  every  night  the  settlers  would  pull 
down  his  fences  and  let  the  cattle  through  to  their  homes.  Finally  he 
laid  in  wait  for  them  and  one  evening  caught  two  old  German  settlers 
named  Mikler  and  Steinbauer  letting  down  his  fences.  It  was  past 
one  o'clock  in  the  morning.  He  at  once  woke  up  Squire  Chilson,  had 
both  trespassers  arrested,  tried  them  before  two  o'clock  in  the  morning 
and  had  them  in  jail  punctually  at  three. 


Among  the  members  of  the  bar  who  gained  a  special  notoriety  at  an1 
early  age  of  his  life  was  Theophilus  C.  Grier.  His  reputation  was 
known  all  over  the  State  as  one  of  the  rising  lawyers  of  our  country. 

Judge  Grier  was  born  at  Ravenna,  in  the  state  of  Ohio,  on  the  2d 
day  of  January,  1834,  and  was  a  descendent,  on  his  mother's  side,  of 
Rev.  John  Cotton,  of  Pilgrim  fame.  His  parents  died  while  Mr.  Grier 
was  yet  a  mere  lad,  and  he  was  taken  and  cared  for  during  a  short 
time  by  an  uncle  whose  name  was  Carlton,  and  who  was  a  minister  of 
the  Universalist  denomination  of  more  than  ordinary  reputation.  At 
the  age  of  fifteen  young  Grier  became  apprenticed  as  a  printer  to  one 
Joel  D.  Brattels,  who  was'  then  editor  of  the  Trumbull  County 
Democrat.  This  training  was  subsequently  of  immense  value  to  him  as 
a  writer.  The  young  man's  health  became  very  delicate,  and  he  was 
necessarily  compelled  to  quit  the  printing  business  and  cultivate  his 
physical  strength.  After  a  short  time  he  became  strong  enough  to 
attend  school  and  entered  an  educational  institution  at  Marietta,  Ohio. 
Subsequently  he  made  up  his  mind  to  enter  the  legal  profession,  and 
to  this  end  he  became  a  student  in  the  law  office  of  Riddle  &  Hatha- 
way, of  Chardon,  Ohio.  His  circumstances  were  such  that  it  was 
necessary  for  him  to  teach  school  during  the  winter  season  of  the  year 


and  pursue  his  law  studies  during  the  summer,  spending  what  he 
earned  during  the  winter  to  enable  him  to  prosecute  his  studies  during 
the  summer.  While  thus  engaged  and  while  yet  a  youth  he  became 
acquainted  with  Jennie  Miller,  whom  he  married  in  July,  1857.  Three 
children  were  the  fruits  of  this  marriage,  the  oldest  being  Carlton 
Grier,  who  is  now  a  resident  of  Spokane,  Washington,  the  second,  a 
daughter,  who  died  in  Bay  City  some  years  ago,  and  the  third,  Rev. 
A.  Grier,  who  is  now  one  of  the  most  scholarly  and  eloquent  ministers 
of  the  gospel  of  the  state  of  Towa. 

Shortly  after  the  marriage  of  Judge  Grier,  he  was  admitted  to  the 
bar  in  the  state  of  Ohio,  and  moved  with  his  wife  to  Pine  Run, 
Michigan,  where  he  commenced  the  practice  of  his  profession.  This 
practice  for  the  first  few  years  was  confined  chiefly  to  the  justices' 
courts,  as  is  the  case  with  most  of  the  lawyers  of  his  training  and 
advantages.  In  this  field,  however,  Mr.  Grier  showed  indications  of 
his  future  merits  and  abilities.  He  soon  sought  a  more  extended 
opportunity  in  which  to  grow,  however,  and  during  the  year  1859  he 
took  up  his  residence  in  Bay  City.  Here  he  found  remunerative  calls 
for  his  services  from  the  beginning.  His  great  ability  as  a  rising 
lawyer  was  at  once  recognized,  and  in  the  year  1860  he  was  elected 
prosecuting  attorney  and  circuit  court  commissioner  of  Bay  county. 
As  a  public  prosecutor  he  was  the  dread  and  fear  of  criminals  and  at 
once  came  to  the  front  as  a  trial  lawyer.  During  the  month  of  Sep- 
tember, 1861,  he  associated  with  him  A.  McDonell,  now  of  Bay  City,, 
and  this  firm,  under  the  name  of  Grier  &  McDonell,  controlled  a  very 
extensive  and  lucrative  practice  until  Judge  Grier  was  elected  to  the 
bench.  They  were  engaged  in  the  trial  of  as  many  as  one  hundred 
and  ten  issues  of  fact  during  one  term  of  the  Bay  county  'circuit  court. 
In  1865,  Mr.  Grier  was  appointed  city  attorney  of  Bay  City.  In  1867 
he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  State  legislature.  In  this  body  he 
commanded  the  respect  of  his  colleagues,  and  the  attention  of  the 
State,  by  his  power  as  a  ready  debater,  his  eloquence,  and  his  acute 
and  discriminating  mind,  as  well  as  his  sharp  and  incisive  logic.  Few 
men  of  the  day  were  equal  to  him  in  debate  on  the  floor  of  the 
legislative  hall.  His  industry  as  a  committee  man  was  also  noticeable. 
He  was  called  by  the  press  of  the  State  the  "  Ajax  of  the  House. " 
Few  men  possessed  the  power  of  Mr.  Grier  before  a  miscellaneous 
audience.  As  a  political  speaker  on  the  stump  his  influence  was  almost 
matchless,  and  during  our  political  campaigns  his  services  were  in 
constant  demand  all  over  his  State.  In  1871  the  territory  of  the  tenth 
judicial  circuit  of  Michigan  was  changed  and  the  eighteenth  circuit 


232  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

was  organized,  composed  of  Bay,  losco,  Alcona,  and  Alpena  counties. 
Mr.  Grier  was  elected  judge  of  the  new  circuit  as  the  unanimous  choice 
of  both  political  parties,  he  being  a  democrat.  This  position  on  the 
bench  he  held  until  his  death,  which  occurred  on  the  5th  day  of  June, 
1872.  The  decease  of  Judge  Grier  at  this  early  day  of  his  life,  was 
sorrowfully  and  keenly  felt  by  his  many  friends  of  the  Saginaw  Valley. 
It  occurred  at  a  period,  as  will  be  seen,  when  he  was  on  the  threshold 
of  a  brilliant  and  useful  life.  He  was  strictly  a  self  made  man,  having 
no  advantages  except  those  given  him  by  nature  herself.  The  com- 
munity in  which  he  lived  during  the  last  ten  years  of  his  life  looked 
upon  him  as  one  of  the  most  brilliant  men  of  his  age;  his  judgment 
on  law  questions  was  considered  eminently  accurate  and  sound;  he 
seldom  erred  in  matters  of  opinion,  and  his  power  as  a  public  speaker 
and  especially  as  a  jury  lawyer  was  almost  dangerous,  because  under 
the  excitement  of  his  addresses  he  ignored  everything  but  the  success 
of  his  client. 


The  late  Judge  Sidney  T.  Holmes  was  born  at  Skaneateles,  N.  Y., 
in  August,  1815.  His  father,  Judge  Epenetus  Holmes,  was  a  promi- 
nent attorney  at  that  place,  but  he  removed  to  Morrisville,  a  thriving 
village  and  county  seat  of  Madison  county,  N.  Y.,  when  the  subject  of 
our  sketch  was  but  four  years  old.  Here  the  child  attended  the  village 
school  and  graduated  from  the  village  academy,  afterwards  completing 
his  education  at  the  Waterville  seminary.  He  then  engaged  in  teach- 
ing and  in  the  study  of  the  law  and  civil  engineering.  He  was 
appointed  chief  engineer  of  the  Chenango  and  Black  River  canal,  and 
afterwards  was  engaged  on  the  New  York  and  Erie  railroad.  In  1888 
he  married  and  settled  in  Morrisville  in  the  practice  of  the  law,  a  pro- 
fession to  which  he  became  greatly  attached  and  in  time  acquired  a  great 
and  well  earned  reputation.  In  1851  he  was  elected  county  judge, 
filling  that  position  for  twelve  years,  and  in  1864  he  was  elected  to 
congress  from  the  twenty-second  congressional  district  of  New  York, 
receiving  the  largest  majority  ever,  given  to  any  candidate  up  to  that 
time.  He  served  his  term  of  two  years  in  congress  to  the  entire 
satisfaction  of  his  constituents,  but  declined  a  renomination,  preferring 
his  profession  to  that  of  congressional  life  at  Washington.  Soon  after 
his  return  home  he  became  associated  at  Utica  in  the  practice  of  the 
law  with  Hon.  Boscoe  Conklin,  remaining  in  the  firm  three  years,  but 
their  large  practice  devolving  mostly  upon  the  Judge,  his  health 
became  impaired  and  he  came  to  Bay  City  to  recuperate  his  failing 


health,  and  to  visit  friends  and  relatives,  and  was  so  favorably 
impressed  with  the  push  and  prospects  of  the  place  that  he  deter- 
mined to  locate  in  Bay  City.  He  returned  to  Utica  and  as  soon  as 
possible  with  so  large  a  practice,  dissolved  his  connection  with  the  firm 
and  removed  with  his  family  to  Bay  City,  opened  an  office  in  the 
Watson  block,  with  Mr.  Haynes  and  J.  L.  Stoddard,  a  young  attorney 
who  had  come  with  him  from  Utica.  Mr.  Haynes  removing  to  the  west 
the  firm  afterwards  became  Holmes,  Collins  &  Stoddard.  But  for 
some  years  before  his  death  the  firm  was  Holmes  &  Collins.  Judge 
Holmes'  death  occurred  January  16,  1889.  None  stood  higher  in  his 
profession  or  was  better  known  throughout  central  New  York  than 
Judge  S.  T.  Holmes.  He  was  republican  in  politics  and  liberal  in  his 
religious  belief.  Honor  and  the  strictest  integrity  gave  him  influence 
not  only  at  the  bar  but  among  the  citizens  who  knew  him  best. 

Judge  Holmes  was  a  great  lawyer.  This  was  true  of  him  not  only 
as  counsel  with  parties  about  their  business  transactions,  but  also  in 
the  preparation  and  trial  of  causes.  He  was  an  all  around  lawyer.  He 
had  been  an  engineer  in  early  life.  Prior  to  his  coming  to  Bay  City, 
he  had  made  political  speeches  from  his  early  manhood  all  over  the 
country.  He  was  for  twelve  years  surrogate  judge  of  Madison  county, 
New  York.  He  acquired  an  intimate  knowledge  of  the  business  affairs 
and  details  of  the  business  life  of  the  community  in  which  he  lived. 
He  had  a  great  knowledge  of  human  nature.  His  knowledge  of  the 
law  was  profound.  He  studied  hard,  earnestly  and  deeply.  His  knowl- 
edge of  New  York  case  law  and  of  the  cases  governing  the  general 
principles  of  the  law  was  very  great.  He  kept  a  large  library  well 
stocked  with  text  books;  kept  up  his  reports  and  digests  and  kept 
abreast  of  the  law  as  the  decision  came  out.  All  of  this  combined, 
made  him  an  able  and  wise  counselor.  When  it  came  to  advising 
about  matters  of  law,  particularly  in  connection-  with  business  transac- 
tions, his  advice  and  judgment  were  able  and  shrewd.  Before  litigation 
commenced  he  was  in  favor  of  exhausting  all  reasonable  means  to 
effect  a  settlement  which  would  avoid  litigation,  but  after  litigation 
was  commenced  his  watchword  then  was  ''fight,"  and  from  the 
beginning  to  the  end  of  litigation  he  was  a  zealous,  earnest,  and  able 
combatant  and  advocate. 

His  preparation  of  causes  for  trial  was  thorough  and  exhaustive.    On 
trial    of    causes    he    was    alert,    vigilant    and   active.     In    the  examina- 
tion and  cross-examination  of   witnesses   he    was    very    able,  and  where 
there  were  any  questions  of   fraud  involved  or  any  question  where  the 

234  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

motives  of  parties  were  in  issue,  his  cross-examination  was  wonderfully 
ingenious  and  shrewd  as  well  as  combative  and  gome  of  the  events  in 
this  class  of  cases  are  long  to  be  remembered  by  those  who  witnessed 

His  presentation  of  a  case  to  the  court  was  most  able,  and  he 
analyzed  and  presented  case  law  with  great  effect.  In  arguing  cases  to 
the  jury  he  analyzed  testimony  closely.  He  argued  strongly  and  made 
powerful  and  logical  arguments,  arguments  that  were  homely  and 
strong.  And  at  the  same  time  from  his  wide  range  of  reading  and 
study  he  had  many  apt  illustrations  and  anecdotes  at  his  command 
which  he  used  with  great  effect  to  enforce  his  points.  His  antagonists 
and  the  witnesses  whom  he  cross-examined  very  often  thought  he  was 
entirely  too  severe  and  combative,  but  his  own  clients  seldom  have 
entertained  that  opinion.  His  repartee  and  hits  on  opposing  counsel 
were  sometimes  quite  caustic  and  in  the  heat  of  argument  he  was 
sometimes  severe  on  opposing  parties  and  witness  and  counsel;  but 
he  could  take  as  well  as  give,  and  when  the  contest  was  over  he 
carried  no  spite  or  ill  feeling. 

In  a  trial  of  a  cause  he  contested  every  inch  of  the  ground  and 
never  willingly  gave  up  the  contest  that  was  against  him  until  the  last 
decision  of  the  highest  court  had  settled  the  question  beyond  recall. 

To  sum  up  in  a  few  words,  he  was  wise  and  able  as  a  counselor  in 
his  office,  as  a  trial  lawyer  he  was  shrewd,  aggressive  and  strong 
before  court  or  jury. 

And  whether  in  his  office  or  in  litigation,  he  was  both  honest  and 
honorable  and  had  the  strength  that  a  reputation  for  honor  and 
honesty  gives. 

While  Judge  Holmes  was  a  very  great  lawyer,  careful,  studious,  and 
able,  he  was  hampered  by  natural  deficiencies  of  a  very  serious 
character.  He  was  totally  deficient  of  imagination.  His  speeches  to 
court  and  jury  were  strong,  direct,  and  logical,  but  he  had  not  a  trace 
of  fancy.  His  earnestness  lent  some  interest  to  his  speeches,  but  he 
was  not  an  orator,  or  even  a  good  debater.  While  he  showed  greater 
familiarity  with  the  New  York  reports  than  any  man  I  ever  saw,  being 
able  to  turn  to  the  book  and  page  where  almost  any  case  was  reported 
in  an  instant,  he  was  totally  unable  to  extract  from  the  authorities  the 
philosophical  reasons  on  which  they  were  founded.  The  case  was 
presented  by  him  to  the  court  stripped  of  all  interest,  except  the  bare 
point  of  the  decision.  Here  was  a  decision  in  his  favor,  and  that  was 
all  there  was  of  it.  The  reason  or  the  rule  laid  down  in  the  case 
seemed  of  no  consequence  to  him.  The  .decisions  and  the  facts  on 


which  they  were  founded  were  put  fairly  and  fully  before  the  court, 
and  such  reasoning  as  followed  was  from  the  decision  as  a  point 
established  and  not  to  sustain  the  reason  and  principle  of  the  case. 

These  difficulties  were  apparent  to  those  with  whom  he  practiced 
law.  He  was  conscious  of  them  himself,  but  he  overcame  every 
obstacle  by  work.  He  supplied  the  place  of  qualities  he  lacked  by 
work,  work,  work,  till  he  became  the  great  and  learned  lawyer  that  he 
was.  Judge  Holmes,  outside  of  the  contentions  of  the  bar,  was  an 
amiable  and  sociable  man,  and  the  extent  of  his  information  about  the 
public  men  of  the  country  was  astonishing. 

One  fall  I  went  hunting  with  him  for  about  a  week.  In  the  evenings 
he  used  to  tell  anecdotes  about  nearly  all  of  the  public  men  of  the 
country.  Of  Lincoln,  Seward,  Marsey,  and  about  Kent,  Walworth,  and 
the  other  judges  of  the  state  of  New  York.  Also  about  Seymour, 
Conklin,  Tilden,  and  Charles  O'Connor,  and  he  had  a  marvelous 
amount  of  knowledge  about  them.  His  fund  of  anecdotes  seemed1 
inexhaustable.  Besides  this  he  had  a  great  fund  of  knowledge  of  the 
inside  or  secret  history  of  decisions  of  the  courts  and  in  regard  to 
public  measures.  His  mind  was  stored  with  this  unwritten  history 
more  fully  than  any  other  man  I  ever  met  with  the  one  exception  of 
General  Cass. 

To  the  young  man  aspiring  to  eminence  at  the  bar  no  better  example 
could  be  set  before  him  than  the  achievements  of  Judge  Holmes  which 
show  that  careful  and  continued  study  will  make  the  good  lawyer  and 
overcome  all  obstacles  and  personal  deficiencies. 

In  his  manner,  when  out  of  the  court  room  and  out  of  his  office,  he 
was  simple  as  a  child.  He  was  a  man  of  simple  truth.  He  had  no 
vein  for  romance  or  exaggeration.  His  conversation  was  modest,  chaste 
and  delicate,  yet  highly  interesting  from  the  fullness  of  his  store  of 


BY   HON.    ENOCH   T.    MUGFORD. 

Although    still    in    the    infancy    of    its    development,    Oceana    county 
possesses    many    advantages     and     attractions    not    enjoyed     by     other 

236  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

counties  in  this  great  and  growing  State.  It  has  passed  from  the 
critical  lumber  stage  of  its  existence,  and  is  now  fairly  entered  upon  a 
period  of  unsurpassed  agricultural  and  horticultural  prosperity.  Washed 
by  the  waters  of  Lake  Michigan,  the  heat  of  summer  and  the  rigors  of 
winter  are  modified,  while  the  invigorating  breezes  from  this  great 
body  of  water,  fan  the  villages  and  country,  sweeping  away  the  germs 
of  malaria,  making  a  climate  delightful  and  healthy. 

The  surface  is  high  and  rolling.  The  soil  sand  and  heavy  clay  loam 
and  light  sand.  The  county  is  divided  by  a  range  of  hills  running 
from  the  southwest  to  the  northeast,  making  two  water  basins.  From 
the  southeast  the  White  river,  fed  by  small  -streams,  takes  its  way  to 
White  lake,  while  the  two  branches  of  the  Pentwater  river  flow  through 
the  northern  and  central  portions  of  the  county  and  empty  into  Pent- 
water  lake.  These  streams  have  been  used  in  the  past  for  transporting 
millions  of  feet  of  logs  from  Oceana's  grand  forests  to  its  great  mills. 
These  streams  flowing  into  the  main  river  find  their  source  in  springs 
which  furnish  waters  favorable  for  the  propagation  of  trout  and  other 
fish.  The  grayling,  next  to  the  trout,  is  the  most  highly  prized,  and  is 
native  to  these  waters.  In  1878  some  enterprising  sportsman  planted 
in  several  of  these  streams  2,000  brook  trout.  In  1880,  9,000  more, 
and  in  1881,  75,000.  The  result  of  this  has  been  astonishing.  At  the 
present  time  the  streams  of  Oceana  county  furnish  the  most  delightful 
fishing  waters  for  sportsmen.  Trout  weighing  from  two  to  four  and 
one-half  pounds  have  been  caught;  and  as  many  as  fifty  in  a  day  by 
one  person.  The  time  is  not  far  distant  when  these  streams  will  have 
a  national  reputation  for  their  fish. 

For  agricultural  purposes  this  county  is  adapted  to  the  successful 
cultivation  of  hay.  Corn,  oats,  wheat,  rye,  barley,  and  peas  are  as 
successfully  raised  as  in  many  of  the  southern  counties  of  the  State. 
Potatoes  and  all  kinds  of  vegetables  are  grown  in  perfection. 

It  is  perhaps  the  adaptability  of  soil  and  climate  for  fruit  raising 
that  has  given  this  section  its  greatest  reputation.  The  Michigan 
fruit  belt,  as  it  is  called,  is  a  strip  of  territory  extending  along  the 
eastern  shore  of  Lake  Michigan  from  Benzie  county  on  the  north  to 
Berrien  county  on  the  south,  and  being  from  ten  to  twenty  miles  in 
width.  By  an  examination  of  the  map  of  Michigan,  it  will  be  seen 
that  Oceana  county  lies  about  midway  between  the  northern  and 
southern  extremes,  and  it  has  the  greatest  projection  into  Lake  Michi- 
gan of  any  portion  of  the  State. 

The  population  of  the  county  is  20,000.  Its  assessed  valuation  is 
about  $4,000,000.  It  has  eighty-six  school  districts  employing  teachers 


and  four  union  schools.  The  school  buildings  as  a  general  thing  are 
new,  commodious  and  furnished  with  modern  appliances.  There  are 
twenty  organizations  having  church  edifices.  There  is  invested  in 
manufacturing  enterprises  over  $1,000,000  capital.  There  are  four  banks, 
five  flouring  mills  and  five  newspapers.  The  Chicago  and  West  Michigan 
railway  traverses  the  county  from  its  southern  boundary  to  Pentwater, 
its  northern  terminus.  It  has  one  lake  harbor  located  at  Pentwater, 
repaired  and  maintained  by  government  appropriation.  The  United 
States  also  has  a  life  saving  station  and  lighthouse  established  at  this 
point,  and  a  lighthouse  at  Petite  Pt.  Au  Sable. 

It  has  a  fine  large  court  house  building  located  at  Hart,  the  county 
seat,  and  a  poor  farm  in  the  same  township,  well  improved,  under  a 
good  state  of  cultivation  and  with  good  commodious  buildings.  Stand- 
ing upon  the  threshold  of  a  new  era  in  its  development,  it  presents 
three  prominent  characteristics  that  have  attracted  general  attention 
and  which  will  have  great  influence  upon  its  future  growth  and 
prosperity.  We  here  refer  to  its  fish,  fruit,  and  health.  It  has  been 
known  in  the  past  principally  for  its  lumber  productions,  but  from 
this  time  it  will  be  known  as  the  center  of  Michigan's  fruit  belt,  the 
healthiest  location  in  the  state  and  a  favorite  resort  for  sportsmen. 

In  February.  1855,  an  act  to  provide  for  the  organization  of  Oceana, 
Mason,  and  Manistee  counties  was  passed  by  the  legislature  and  the 
first  election  of  county  officers  was  held  at  Stony  Creek  (now  Benona) 
on  the  first  Monday  of  April  following,  and  consisted  of  the  following 
named  persons:  John  Barr,  sheriff;  Amos  R.  Wheeler,  treasurer; 
Harvey  Tower,  clerk  and  register  of  deeds. 

The  act  provided  that  when  by  a  certain  day  named,  the  clerk 
and  register  and  treasurer  elect  should  file  their  oaths  of  office  with 
each  other,  the  official  machinery  of  the  county  should  begin  to  move, 
having  a  legal  existence. 

On  the  last  day  of  the  time  allowed  for  filing  their  oaths,  the  officers 
elect  with  other  prominent  citizens  met  to  consider  the  question 
whether,  after  all,  it  was  not  better  to  remain  attached  to  Ottawa  for 
judicial  purposes,  as  the  taxes  then  were  light,  than  to  incur  the  much 
greater  expense  of  supporting  a  separate  county  organization.  But  as 
the  people  had  expressed  a  desire  to  organize  by  electing  county  officers, 
it  was  deemed  best  to  perfect  the  organization. 

How  the  oath  was  to  be  administered  was  a  question  that  seemed 
greatly  to  trouble  some  of  the  knowing  ones.  Anxious  to  avoid  any 
error  that  would  vitiate  the  proceedings,  they  insisted  that  the  officers 
must  be  sworn  in  on  the  Bible;  but  to  those  upon  whom  devolved  the 

238  ANNUAL,  MEETING,  1893. 

duty  of  qualifying  that  day  there  was  a  matter  of  greater  concern  than 
the  matter  of  administering  the  oath.  The  nearest  officer  qualified  to 
do  that  resided  at  White  River,  fifteen  miles  distant,  the  only  road 
being  the  sandy  beach  of  Lake  Michigan.  Before  a  conclusion  was 
reached  the  clock  numbered  2  p.  m.,  and  it  took  another  hour  at  least 
to  obtain  horses  for  the  journey.  About  three  o'clock  Tower  led  oft* 
mounted  on  his  elegant  "  Brutus,"  Wheeler  closely  following  on  his  less 
showy,  but  more  plucky,  "  Old  Bob."  Arriving  at  White  River,  after 
some  delay,  Justice  J.  D.  Stebbins  was  found,  who  going  immediately 
to  his  office  administered  the  oath  with  great  dignity.  Meantime  the 
horses  had  rested  and  the  officers,  full  fledged,  save  filing  their  oaths 
of  office,  mounted  their  steeds  for  home,  which  they  reached  about  ten 
minutes  before  the  time  expired. 

To  say  that  the  rain  fell  in  torrents  would  give  but  a  faint  idea  of 
that  storm  encountered  on  the  home  stretch.  I  doubt  if  it  ever  rained 
harder  since  the  time  of  Noah.  The  clothing  of  the  riders  was  wet 
through  and  the  water  ran  down  filling  their  boots  and  running  over 
in  streams.  Arriving  at  Stony  Creek  we  found  the  fire  fair,  blazing, 
and  the  vestment  warm,  and  the  new  treasurer,  after  his  first  official 
act  of  filing  the  clerk's  oath,  came  from  an  adjoining  room  with  glass 
and  decanter  in  hand,  remarking  as  he  appeared:  "Tower,  I  don't 
believe  a  little  good  Bourbon  would  hurt  either  of  us."  What  could 
poor  Tower  do  but  take  a  little?  Ye  teetotalers,  say — say,  ye  severest, 
what  would  ye  have  done? 

The  first  board  of  supervisors  was  composed  of  the  following  persons 
named:  A.  S.  Anderson,  of  Claybanks,  and  Warren  Wilder,  of  Stony 
Creek,  with  Harvey  Tower  county  clerk.  There  were  raised  for  county 
purposes  three  hundred  dollars,  and  by  a  resolution  established  the 
county  seat  at  Whisky  Creek  and  adjourned. 

Claybanks  was  the  first  township  organized  by  authority  of  an  act  of 
the  legislature  of  February  13,  1855.  The  first  election  took  place  the 
2d  day  of  April,  1855,  supervisor,  A.  S.  Anderson;  clerk,  Timothy 
Brigham,  Stony  Creek  (now  Benona).  The  first  township  meeting 
was  held  at  the  house  of  Amos  R.  Wheeler,  April,  1855,  with  Harvey 
Tower  chairman.  Warren  Wilder  was  elected  supervisor,  and  Malcom 
Campbell  clerk.  Pentwater  'held  its  first  town  meeting  at  the  house  of 
Edwin  R.  Cobb,  April  7,  1856;  E.  R.  Cobb  was  elected  supervisor,  and 
James  Dexter  clerk.  In  1858  Greenwood  held  its  first  town  meeting  at 
the  house  of  Wm.  R.  Wilson  and  elected  Oliver  Swain  supervisor,  and 
Cyrus  W.  Bullen  clerk.  1858  Eldridge  (now  Hart)  held  their  first 


town  meeting  at  the  house  of  S.  G.  Rollins   and    elected  S.  G.  Rollins 
supervisor  and  H.  H.  Fuller  clerk. 


During  the  month  of  November,  1866,  the  Hon.  A.  B.  Turner,  then 
as  now,  editor  and  proprietor  of  the  Grand  Rapids  Eagle,  having  a 
curiosity  to  learn  something  concerning  the  new  territory  north,  made 
a  trip  through  Oceana  county  in  the  United  States  mail  stage.  Being 
a  gentleman  of  intelligent  appearance,  well  dressed,  and  accompanying 
the  mail,  and  making  frequent  inquiries  of  the  settlers,  he  was  taken 
to  be  a  government  officer  and  as  such  looked  upon  as  an  important 
personage.  Writing  of  this  trip  he  says:  "We  drew  up  at  a  postoffice. 
Here  we  are  glad  to  get  off  and  warm  while  the  mail  is  changing. 
The  contents  of  a  large  bag  are  emptied  on  the  floor  and  the  postmas- 
ter and  his  wife  are  down  in  the  necessary  posture  assorting  the 
packages.  We  are  in  Oceana  county,  from  which  we  have  not  heard 
the  result  of  the  election,  and  we  open  a  conversation  thus: 

"'Are  you  the  postmaster  here?' 

"  Receiving  an  affirmative  reply  we  ask : 

"  '  How  are  political  matters  with  you  ?' 

"  Evidently  understanding  the  question  as  referring  only  to  himself 
and  family,  promptly  answers: 

"'We  are  republicans,  sir.' 

"'Don't  you  support  President  Johnson?' 

"'No,  sir'  (very  curtly). 

"Assuming  an  air  of  as  much  solemnity  as  possible  we  remarked  that 
'the  president  has  a  right  to  the  support  of  the  office-holders  of  the 
country  and  that  support  is  expected.'  The  postmaster  here  raises 
himself  to  an  erect  position,  full  six  feet  high,  and  giving  us  a  wither- 
ing look  square  in  the  face,  emphatically  says: 

" '  Sir,  we  don't  keep  principles  for  sale  here,  but  you  can  have  the 
office  if  you  like.' 

"  The  wife  keeps  her  recumbency  but  pauses  in  her  work  long  enough 
to  give  us  a  searching  look  over  her  spectacles  and  ejaculates: 

"  '  Guess  you'll  have  hard  work  to  find  a  Johnson  man  on  this  road 
to  make  a  postmaster  of.' 

"  Our  solemnity  here  gives  out,  but  before  an  explanation  can  be 
made  to  satisfy  our  friends  that  we  are  not  an  agent  of  the  president 
on  a  '  bread  and  butter '  mission  we  resume  our  seat  in  the  stage  and 
proceed  northward." 

240  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

And  no\s,  brothers  and  sisters,  fearing  I  have  trespassed  too  long 
upon  your  time  and  patience,  I  will  listen  to  the  experience  of  others. 


Mr.  President,   Brother  and  Sister  Pioneers: 

I  am  of  the  opinion  that  as  time  passes  we  are  inclined  to  dwell  too 
much  upon  the  past.  But  today  we  are  expected  to  recall  some  of 
our  pioneer  experience,  and  I  will  try  to  do  my  part  as  best  I  can. 

We  started  the  first  of  May,  1857,  from  Erie  county,  N.  Y.,  for 
western  Michigan.  We  were  the  first  to  start  from  the  home  nest,  and 
our  parents  thought  we  could  hardly  have  made  a  poorer  selection;  we 
would  have  fever  and  ague  and  mosquitoes  to  contend  with,  besides 
other  hardships  too  numerous  to  mention.  This  was  the  encouragement 
we  had  to  commence  with. 

However  we  (husband,  myself,  and  two  little  boys,  the  oldest  not 
quite  four  and  baby  sixteen  months  old)  started  Monday  morning,  after 
bidding  parents,  brothers,  sisters,  and  friends  a  sad  good  by.  By  boat  on 
lakes  and  rivers;  by  rail,  stage,  and  private  conveyance,  we  arrived 
at  Nelson  Green's,  in  Claybanks,  the  eleventh  day  from  the  time  we 
left  home,  a  distance  we  can  now  pass  over  in  twenty-four  hours. 

To  me  that  journey  was  the  most  trying  of  my  pioneer  experience. 
Most  of  the  petty  trials  I  could  laugh  at,  but  not  that.  The  hardest 
was  by  stage  from  St.  Johns,  the  terminus  by  rail,  to  Lyons,  eighteen 
miles,  where  we  took  a  flat  boat  on  Grand  river. 

The  stage  was  two  lumber  wagons;  the  women  and  children  rode  in 
one,  the  men  and  baggage  in  the  other;  so  I  had  to  carry  the  heavy 
baby  alone.  Mr.  White  had  to  walk  a  good  part  of  the  way  and  help 
to  lift  the  wagons  out  of  the  mud.  We  were  the  best  part  of  two 
days  going  that  eighteen  miles.  But  I  will  not  go  over  that  journey 

The  third  day  after  our  arrival  at  Mr.  Green's  we  took  up  our  abode 
on  the  plains,  where  we  stayed  until  the  fifth  day  of  July.  There 
were  seven  miles  of  road  to  cut  through  an  unbroken  wilderness  before 
we  could  reach  our  land.  I  have  heard  Mr.  White  say  that  was 
"quite  a  chore."  He  had  no  help  to  commence  with  but  millions  of 
mosquitoes.  But  Providence  favored  us,  I  think.  About  the  third 
week  after  he  commenced  work,  Mr.  J.  M.  Wilson  came  from  Lenawee 
county  with  his  wife  and  three  children.  He  had  taken  land  just 
north  of  us  and  would  help  to  cut  the  road.  This  was  company  we 

Our    living    while    there    was    very    plain.       We    had    started    some 


provisions  around  the  lakes  but  they  did  not  reach  Grand  Haven  until 
late  in  June,  owing  to  ice  in  the  straits;  then  it  took  some  time  to  get 
them  hauled. 

I  distinctly  remember  one  incident  that  occurred  while  we  were  on 
the  plains.  It  became  necessary  for  us  to  have  supplies  from  Mr. 
Green's  so  we  wives  prevailed  upon  our  husbands  to  let  us  go  for  them 
while  they  took  care  of  the  babies.  They  said  something  about  our 
not  knowing  enough  to  find  our  way  there.  I  had  been  over  the  trail 
or  wagon  road  twice,  but  it  was  covered  with  leaves.  So  we  kissed  the 
babies  and  started  very  early.  Thought  to  be  back  by  noon.  We  had 
a  few  rods  to  go  before  reaching  the  road,  then  we  started  in  ,the 
opposite  direction.  This  seems  strange  to  me  now,  but  I  suppose  we 
were  so  elated  over  the  idea  of  seeing  some  neighbors,  and  perhaps 
hearing  some  news  from  outside,  that  we  did  not  even  look  up.  Well, 
we  walked  and  walked  until  the  thought  occurred  to  us  that  we  were 
lost.  That  we  knew  by  the  sun.  But  we  were  so  turned  we  did  not 
know  the  direction.  Finally  we  retraced  our  steps  for  a  time,  but 
failed  to  find  the  path  where  we  entered  the  road.  So  we  turned  again 
and  kept  straight  ahead,  and  finally  came  out  at  Carl  ton's  mill.  We 
got  something  to  eat,  had  a  good  laugh  over  our  shortsightedness,  and 
started  back,  found  the  path  that  led  to  our  shanty,  stuck  up  a  stick 
to  mark  the  place  if  it  was  dark  when  we  returned,  and  went  on  to 
Mr.  Green's,  got  our  provisions  and  started  back  in  a  hurry.  We  got 
home  about  dark,  feeling  less  confidence  than  we  started  out  with. 
We  had  walked  about  twenty  miles,  the  men  judged.  We  were  very 
foot- sore  for  a  number  of  days,  but  thankful  we  did  not  have  to  stay 
out  over  night. 

To  go  back,  the  third  day  of  July  the  men  said:  "  We  will  start  a 
load  of  lumber  for  the  woods  tomorrow."  "Could  I  go  on  the  load?" 
I  said,  "  Yes,  it  will  save  three  dollars  in  gold*"  So  in  the  morning 
we  started  for  our  future  home.  It  took  some  time  to  go  over  that 
seven  miles.  Mr.  White  was  already  there  clearing  off  a  place  for  our 
shanty.  He  had  stayed  the  night  before  under  some  boughs.  We  were 
very  hungry  by  the  time  we  got  there.  We  could  not  cook  for  the 
emergency  as  we  now  do,  but  I  had  some  bread  baked  and  we  had 
some  potatoes,  for  which  we  paid  two  dollars  per  bushel,  some  pork  at 
fifty  dollars  per  barrel,  and  we  never  knew,  when  we  went  to  the  barrel, 
what  part  of  the  hog  we  should  find.  Flour  was  twelve  dollars  per 
barrel,  spring  wheat,  and  poor  quality  at  that.  Those  were  the  prices 
and  kind  of  provisions  furnished  us  in  those  days.  This  was  under 

242  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

Buchanan's  administration,  with  no  protection.  Well,  they  set  the  stove 
up  on  its  legs,  built  a  fire,  and  I  proceeded  to  get  some  dinner.  After 
it  was  nearly  ready  we  happened  to  think  we  had  nothing  with 
which  to  eat  our  potatoe  and  gravy.  Abel,  our  little  boy,  said,  "I  can 
whittle  a  paddle."  And  paddles  it  was.  We  did  not  eat  many  meals 
in  this  primitive  way  for  we  had  some  of  the  necessaries  when  our 
goods  came. 

We  soon  had  a  roof  over  our  heads;  it  did  not  shed  rain,  but  it  was 
tolerably  comfortable.  I  wanted  a  door,  but  the  lumber  did  not  hold 
out  so  we  substituted  a  blanket.  There  was  no  animal  found  its  way 
in,  but  one  night  we  were  awakened  by  a  hoarse  grunt  at  the  blanket. 
Mr.  White  got  up  and  found  an  Indian.  He  said  he  wanted  some 
water.  We  gatfe  him  a  kettle  full  and  he  laid  outside  until  the  next 
day,  when  he  was  able  to  walk  away.  He  came  from  the  trading  post. 
I  do  not  think  he  was  a  prohibitionist.  This  made  me  a  little  timid 
for  a  time,  but  we  never  had  another  visit  of  that  sort.  I  did  not 
state  we  left  Mrs.  Wilson  sick  on  the  plains.  In  about  two  weeks  she 
was  brought  up  on  a  bed  and  for  a  long  time  we  did  not  expect  her 
to  get  well.  The  first  of  August  Mr.  White  started  in  pursuit  of  a 
cow.  He  was  gone  just  a  week  and  drove  home  a  cow  and  calf  from 
Ionia,  for  which  he  paid  forty  dollars.  As  we  remember,  that  was  a 
long  week. 

The  llth  day  of  August  our  house  was  raised;  thirty-six  years  ago 
this  coming  August.  There  was  not  a  man  to  help  but  came  seven 
miles.  The  house  still  stands,  a  shelter  for  farming  tools,  and  the  roof 
still  tight.  Here  we  spent  many  happy  days;  yes,  blissful  days,  with 
no  serious  interruptions  as  far  as  our  own  family  was  concerned. 

After  we  were  fairly  located  we  had  a  good  many  chances  to  enter- 
tain land-lookers.  The  first,  I  believe,  was  Mr.  Lake,  of  Crystal  Lake, 
and  his  father,  then  an  old  man,  and  I  believe  he  has  but  recently 
passed  away  at  a  very  advanced  age.  Such  visits  were  always  a  treat 
as  they  helped  to  break  the  monotony  of  our  shut-in  life.  They 
generally  came  hungry,  but  we  always  had  enough  to  place  before 
them,  however  frugal. 

One  Monday  night  I  recall,  five  men  came  in  as  we  were  about 
ready  for  bed.  They  came  from  the  lake  shore,  where  they  had  landed 
from  a  sail  boat,  and  said  they  were  almost  starved.  We  soon  had  a 
fire  and  some  potatoes  and  meat  cooking.  But  I  was  without  bread, 
having  eaten  the  last  for  supper.  The  quickest  way  to  supply  the 
place  was,  I  thought,  to  fry  pancakes,  so  I  stirred  up  a  pan  of  batter 
and  seating  them  at  the  table  commenced  to  fry.  I  soon  emptied  the 


pan,  and  finally  a  second  pan  before  their  appetites  were  appeased. 
They  had  considerable  fun  over  it,  but  I  believe  that  was  about  where 
the  fun  carne  in.  However,  I  think  most  of  them,  if  not  all,  located 
land  near  us. 

In  1863  was  held  our  first  school  in  Mr.  Wilson's  house,  taught  by 
Christie  McArthur,  a  sister  of  Mrs.  McNabb,  for  three  dollars  per 
week,  with  seven  children.  Our  rate  bill  was  thirteen  dollars  and  a 
fraction  for  two  scholars.  About  this  time  Elder  Darling  came  with 
his  young  wife  and  baby  girl.  This  was  a  joyful  event.  I  recall  with 
what  pleasure  we  prepared  our  whole  family  for  meeting.  He  worked 
hard  and  earnestly  for  our  good,  with  but  a  small  pittance  with  which 
to  supply  his  temporal  wants.  I  wish  to  speak  of  a  contagious  fever 
that  broke  out  in  the  families  of  Messrs.  Eagle,  Hill  and  Wheeler,  six 
miles  east  of  us. 

This  was  a  gloomy  time;  in  the  year  1865,  I  think.  It  raged  all  summer 
and  until  snow  came  in  early  winter.  There  were  not  enough  well 
ones  to  take  comfortable  care  of  the  sick.  Mrs.  Carpenter  and  myself 
walked  that  road  over  a  good  many  times  to  help  care  for  them  as  best 
we  could.  Doctors  Jenks  and  Powers  doctored  them  and  preached 
their  funeral  sermons,  for  in  that  time  seven  were  buried  from  our 
sight,  three  mothers,  one  father,  and  three  children.  Many  more  were 
sick,  but  they  wore  the  disease  out.  I  remember  one  morning  Mr. 
Wilson  came  in  very  early,  he  said:  "  Well,  White,  can  you  find 
boards  for  another  coffin."  I  listened  with  fear  and  trembling. 
"Mrs.  Wheeler  died  last  night,"  was  what  he  said.  Yes,  they  made 
the  coffin  in  our  shop,  stained  it  with  camwood,  found  something 
white  to  line  it  with,  and  it  was  a  fit  receptacle  for  Mrs.  Wheeler.  In 
August  my  dear  friend,  Mrs.  Wilson,  was  taken  from  us,  but  she  had 
set  her  house  in  order  and  was  prepared.  She  was  a  good  woman, 
beloved  by  all  who  knew  her,  especially  the  children.  They  loved  her 
next  to  their  own  mothers.  She  never  had -a  morsel  she  would  not 
divide  with  them.  I  believe  she  went  to  her  reward.  Mr.  White  went 
to  White  Hall  and  stayed  for  a  coffin  to  be  made  for  her.  Mr.  Pratt 
preached  a  good  funeral  sermon. 

We  lived  in  the  old  log  house  until  we  outgrew  it.  The  trundlebed 
still  stands  in  the  chamber,  and  the  children  cherish  what  was  once 
their  trundlebed.  In  the  fall  of  1873  we  moved  "  out  of  the  old  house 
into  the  new."  The  children  were  much  elated  and  their  father 
thought  I  was  unnecessarily  long  in  making  ready  to  move,  but  I  fain 
would  linger  upon  the  threshold.  Here  our  three  little  girls  were  born, 
and  our  three  boys  had  grown  almost  to  manhood.  But  I  will  not  stop 

244  ANNUAL,  MEETING,   1893. 

to  moralize,  but  will  say  that,  unlike  our  former  move,  we  had  prepared 
a  good  supper,  and  an  extension  table  in  the  house  around  which  our 
own  family,  eight  in  number,  'clustered  for  the  first  time  with  plenty 
of  elbow  room. 



Some  time  since,  at  the  suggestion  of  Judge  Miller,  of  Bay  City, 
"  That  it  was  his  belief  missions  had  been  planted  by  the  French  and 
that  they  nourished  at  a  very  early  day  on  the  banks  of  Saginaw  river 
and  its  tributaries,"  the  writer  took  occasion  to  investigate  as  to  facts 
in  history  leading  to  a  confirmation  of  his  opinion. 

He  finds  that  as  early  as  1540  Jacques  Cartier,  or  Quartier,  knew 
about  the  lower  peninsular  as  the  Sagihnaw  region.  Subsequently  that 
Champlain  in  1611  had  described  the  safe  harbor  afforded  by  the 
Saginaw  river  from  the  stormy  waters  of  a  bay,  which  formed  a  part 
of  a  great  inland  body  of  water,  connecting  two  larger  bodies  of  fresh 
water  which  he  denominated  as  "  seas,"  and  in  his  rough  map,  from 
which  copies  have  been  made  and  which  is  now  in  the  office  of  the 
French  Marine,  he  has  delineated  the  mouth  of  that  river  as  correctly 
as  the  maps  of  the  present  day.  These  facts  would  seem  to  warrant  a 
full  knowledge  on  the  part  of  the  French  of  that  stream  at  a  very 
early  period. 

Faillon  (French)  in  his  history  of  Canada  refers  to  the  Sagihnaw 
country  and  to  the  salt  springs  at  the  junction  of  two  large  rivers, 
which  were  the  resorts  of  the  Indian  tribes  of  all  the  region  between 
Lakes  Michigan  and  Huron. 

He  farther  says:  "That  in  1684  a  large  body  of  farmers  and 
artisans  came  from  France,  that  a  portion  were  sent  to  the  Sagihnaw 
country,  that  with  them  were  five  Jesuit  fathers,  who  were  instructed 
to  found  missions  in  all  that  country  between  St.  Ignace  and  Lake 
Erie."  From  these  statements  we  must  infer  that  the  region  of  the 


Saginaw  valley  would  be  an  important  point  at  which  to  establish  a 
mission.  In  addition  we  know  that  in  1686  the  Jesuits  Engelrau  and 
M.  Perrott  were  exceedingly  active  in  establishing  missions  and 
depots  in  all  the  country  between  the  missions  at  Cheboygan  and  St. 
Ignace  and  the  islands  of  Lake  Erie,  now  known  as  "Put-in-Bay."  and 
the  query  is,  would  they  pass  the  valley  which  was  resorted  to  by  the 
Chippewas,  Pottawatamies,  Hurons,  Ottawas,  the  Sacs  of  the  upper 
peninsula,  the  Fox  and  Illinois  Indian  tribes,  for  the  salt  which  that 
region  was  known  to  produce? 

But  coming  down  to  a  later  period,  we  find  that  when  in  1819 
General  Cass  called  the  Chippewas  and  Pottawatamies  together  at 
Saginaw  certain  reservations  were  made,  as  follows: 

Treaty  with  the  Chippewas  at  Saginaw,  September  24,  1819. 


For  use  of  John  Riley,  the  son  of  Me-naw-cum-e-goqua,  a  Chippewa  woman,  640 
acres  of  land,  beginning  at  the  head  of  the  first  marsh  above  the  mouth  of  the 
Saginaw  river  on  the  east  side  thereof. 

For  the  use  of  Peter  Riley,  the  son  of  Me-naw-cum-e-goqua,  a  Chippewa  woman, 
640  acres  of  land,  beginning  above  and  adjoining  the  apple  trees  on  the  west  side 
of  the  Saginaw  river,  and  running  up  the  same  for  the  quantity. 

For  the  use  of  James  Riley,  son  of  the  sacne  Chippewa  woman,  640  acres  begin- 
ning on  the  east  side  of  the  Saginaw  River,  nearly  opposite  to  Campau's  trading 
house,  and  running  up  the  river  for  quantity. 

For  the  use  of  Kaw-kaw-is-kon,  or  the  Crow,  640  acres  on  the  east  side  of  Sag- 
igaw  river  at  a  place  called  Me-ni-te-gow  and  to  include  in  said  640  acres  the 
island  opposite. 

Fort  St.  Joseph,  at  the  head  of  St.  Clair  river,  was  built  by  Da  Luth  under  the 
direction  of  Denouville  in  1686.  Two  years  prior  there  had  arrived  at  Quebec  a 
large  number  of  immigrants  who  were  farmers  and  artisans  and  a  number  of  priests 
of  the  Jesuit  order,  and  the  Jesuit  Engelrau  was  instructed  to  establish  missions 
throughout  the  Saginaw  region,  which  he  did. — Rev.  Faillon's  History  of  Canada 
and  Prominent  men. 

Iii  the  memoirs  of  Captain  Whitmore  Kaaggs,  he  states  in  respect 
to  the  reservations  made  to  the  Riley  family:  "That  John  was  a  man 
sixty  years  of  age.  Peter  was  at  least  fifty-eight.  Both  told  him  that 
the  '  apple  trees,'  which  formed  a  point  in  the  boundaries  of  the  lands 
which  were  reserved  for  them,  bore  apples  when  they  were  boys.  That 
Kaw-kaw-is-kou,  their  chief,  said  they  were  grown  or  brought  there  by 
4  men  who  wore  long  black  robes  coming  below  the  knees,  white  men, 
whom  they  knew  as  Onetia.'  " 

Assuming  that  all  tlie  statements,  in  reference  to  those  made  by  the 

246  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

biographer  of  "Quartier,"  "of  Champlain,"  "of  Engelrau,"  "Perrott,"and 
the  history  of  Faillon  to  be  well  based,  taken  in  connection  with  the 
physical  facts,  that  the  pear  and  "  apple  trees "  found  at  the  forks  of 
the  Tittabawassee,  Flint,  Shiawassee,  and  Saginaw  by  General  Cass 
and  Whitmore  Knaggs,  as  early  as  1819,  must  have  been  over  sixty 
years  of  age,  and  the  further  fact  that  the  existence  of  saline  springs 
at  these  points  was  well  known  to  the  early  white  explorers  and 
missionaries  and  was  traditional  with  the  Indians  of-  Illinois,  and  all 
the  northwestern  tribes,  that  for  a  long  period  prior  to  Du  Luth's 
construction  of  Fort  St.  Joseph  at  the  outlet  of  Lake  Huron  in  1786r 
the  Chippewas  had  their  permanent  villages  on  the  banks  of  these 
streams,  we  must  reach  the  conclusion  that  the  Jesuit  missionaries  and 
the  Recollet  fathers  would  utilize  this  locality  and  make  it  important 
as  a  permanent  stopping  place  between  the  upper  and  lower  peninsulas. 




The  legislature  of  this  commonwealth  did  some  strange  things  in  the 
days  long  since  gone  by;  in  fact,  even  now  we  find  those  who,  actuated, 
perhaps,  by  partisan  prejudice,  are  ready  to  insinuate  that  wisdom  has 
not  altogether  died  with  the  legislatures  of  these  latter  .days. 

On  July  30,  A.  D.  1880,  the  legislative  council  of  the  territory  of 
Michigan,  after  mature  deliberation  and  discussion,  passed  a  law 
entitled,  "An  act  authorizing  the  sheriff  of  Chippewa  county  to  per- 
form certain  duties  therein  mentioned." 

The  constitutional  lawyers  throughout  the  State  who  are  not  criticis- 
ing, with  technical  zeal,  the  enactments  of  the  legislature  which 
recently  adjourned,  would  no  doubt  take  delight  in  urging  that  the 
object  of  the  law  was  not  clearly  expressed  in  its  title.  This  would 


seem  to  be  true  even  to  the  casual  reader;  but  the  modest  obscurity  of 
the  title  is  compensated  by  the  specific  provisions  of  the  act  itself. 

The  law  authorized  the  sheriff  of  Chippewa  county  to  remove  Martha 
Tanner,  daughter  of  John  Tanner,  of  Sault  Ste.  Marie,  to  some  mis- 
sionary establishment,  or  such  other  place  of  safety  as  he  may  deem 
expedient,  provided  said  Martha  should  consent;  and  in  the  second 
paragraph  of  the  act,  the  said  John  Tanner  was  honored  by  what  is 
probably  the  only  law  ever  passed  in  America  attaching  criminal  con- 
sequences to  injuries  to  a  single  private  person  in  the  following 

"  Sec.  2.  That  any  threats  of  the  said  John  Tanner  to  injure  the 
said  Martha  Tanner,  or  any  person  or  persons  with  whom  she  may  be 
placed  *  *  shall  be  deemed  a  misdemeanor,  punishable  by  fine  and 
imprisonment,  at  the  discretion  of  the  court." 

And  so  it  came  to  pass,  pursuant  to  the  provisions  of  the  statute  in 
such  case  made  and  provided  and  in  spite  of  any  constitutional  objec- 
tions which  John  may  have  argued,  that  Martha  was  taken  by  the 
sheriff  to  a  certain  missionary  establishment,  where  she  was  cared  for  and 
educated.  A  half  breed  herself,  she  became  a  teacher  in  the  Indian 
schpols  of  northern  Michigan,  lived  a  long  and  useful  life,  dying  but  a 
few  years  ago  on  Mackinaw  Island,  honored  and  respected;  but,  as  Bud- 
yard  Kipling  delights  to  interject,  that  is  another  story. 

I  propose  to  tell  you  a  little  of  John  Tanner,  her  father,  and  but  a 
little  of  that  which  might  be  told. 

His  story,  more  than  once  written,  is  fraught  with  all  the  fascinating 
details  of  captivity  among  the  Indians,  of  savage  warfare,  of  hunting 
and  trapping,  of  long  and  adventurous  journeys  into  the  then  far  and 
unknown  wilderness.  You  will  find  it  in  many  books  and  parts  of 
books,  closely  identified  with  the  early  history  of  Michigan,  now  mostly 
old,  out  of  print  and  seldom  read. 

Men,  then  of  national  reputation,  who  yet  live  in  history,  interested 
themselves  in  the  strange  career  of  this  strange  man. 

In  this  locality  where  he  long  lived  and  from  which  he  mysteriously 
disappeared,  many  traditions  of  him  yet  linger  with  the  older  inhabitants. 

Let  me  give  you  the  first  and  last  chapters  in  his  life,  as  they  come 
to  us  through  written  history  or  from  the  lips  of  aged  men  who  yet 
delight  to  dwell  upon  the  exciting  incidents  of  his  story  as  known  to 

It  was  shortly  after  the  birth  of  this  nation,  over  one  hundred  years 
ago,  at  a  settlers'  clearing  on  the  then  frontier  in  Kentucky,  near  the 
mouth  of  the  Big  Miami  on  the  Ohio  river,  that  a  little  boy,  left  at  the 

248  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

irksome  task  of  tending  the  baby,  stole  away  from  his  parents'  cabin  to 
gather  walnuts  under  a  tree  which  stood  in  the  edge  of  the  woods  at 
the  side  of  the  field. 

Indians  were  troublesome  to  the  settlers  in  those  times  and  some 
had  been  seen  lurking  around  the  clearings.  The  child  had  been 
instructed  not  to  leave  the  house,  but  the  sun  was  bright  outside,  the 
day  warm  and  pleasant,  the  baby  was  cross,  he  wanted  the  walnuts  and 
did  not  know  that  the  Indians  wanted  him.  He  had  partly  filled  his 
straw  hat  with  the  nuts  he  was  gathering,  when  he  was  suddenly  seized 
from  behind  by  strong,  savage  hands,  terrified  into  silence,  and  swiftly 
borne  away  into  the  thicket.  His  captors  made  rapid  marches  to  the 
north  and  safely  eluding  pursuit,  returned  with  the  child  to  their  own 
country.  His  absence  was  soon  discovered,  the  little  pile  of  nuts  which 
fell  from  his  hat  under  the  tree  were  found,  with  moccasin  tracks  near 
by;  it  was  readily  understood  that  he  was  kidnapped  by  the  Indians. 
The  alarm  was  given,  frontiersmen  gathered,  and  the  abductors  were 
followed  through  the  forest  for  several  days,  but  all  in  vain.  The 
parents  of  the  boy  never  saw  or  heard  of  him  again.  The  woods  had 
swallowed  him  up  and  there  the  matter  ended.  Their  distress  was  said 
to  have  been  great.  They  long  mourned  him  as  one  dead,  and  died 
sorrowing  over  the  uncertainty  of  his  taking  off. 

The  child  was  John  Tanner,  the  subject  of  this  sketch,  son  of  the 
Rev.  John  Tanner,  a  clergyman  from  Virginia,  who,  under  the  impulse 
of  western  emigration,  which  followed  the  close  of  the  revolutionary 
war,  had  crossed  the  mountains  and  settled  in  the  fertile  valley  of  the 

Over  half  a  century  later,  on  the  5th  of  July,  1846,  the  quiet  little 
outpost  of  Sault  Ste.  Marie,  situated  at  the  outlet  of  Lake  Superior,  at 
the  beautiful  falls  of  the  St.  Mary's  river,  was  thrown  into  a  state  of 
unusual  excitement  by  the  cold  blooded  murder  of  one  of  its  leading 
citizens,  named  James  Schoolcraft,  a  brother  of  the  well  known  author, 
Henry  R.  Schoolcraft. 

He  was  walking  from  his  residence  down  a  path  towards  a  field  he 
had  been  clearing  near  by.  Bushes  fringed  the  way  and  the  assassin 
fired  from  an  ambush  at  close  range,  inflicting  upon  his  victim  a 
mortal  wound  in  the  side,  close  below  the  shoulder.  An  ounce  ball 
and  three  buckshot  passed  nearly  through  his  body.  Schoolcraft  was  a 
strong,  athletic  man  in  the  prime  of  life.  He  made  one  great  leap 
forward  and  fell  dead  on  his  face.  So  violent  was  his  last  dying  spring, 
made  on  receiving  the  unexpected  shot,  that  a  pair  of  light  slippers 
which  he  wore  were  cleared  from  his  feet  and  left  sitting  side  by  side 


where  he  stood  when  the  shot  was  fired.     No  one   witnessed    the   deed, 
but  the  gun  had  been  heard  and  the  body  was  shortly  after  discovered. 

Among  others  who  gathered  on  the  spot  was  Omer  D.  Conger,  late 
senator  from  Michigan,  then  a  young  man  connected  with  a  surveying 
party  on  the  lakes.  He  exercised  his  engineering  skill  by  making  a 
diagram  of  the  scene  of  the  murder. 

It  was  known  that  a  bitter  enmity  existed  between  Schoolcraft  and  a 
Lieutenant  Tilden,  then  serving  at  Fort  Brady.  They  had  been 
involved  in  jealousies  over  some  woman.  The  buck  and  ball  cartridge 
was  then  used  in  the  army  and  it  appeared  that  the  killing  was  done 
by  a  government  cartridge  fired  from  an  army  musket.  At  first  in  the 
minds  of  some  a  slight  suspicion  •  rested  on  the  officer. 

But  it  was  also  known  that  a  former  government  interpreter,  named 
John  Tanner,  called  the  "  White  Indian,"  bore  some  grudge  against  the 
Schoolcraft  family.  Suspicion  was  easily  diverted  to  him. 

He  was  a  strange,  mysterious,  unsocial  character,  who  had  lived  in  arid 
around  the  place  for  many  years.  Though  a  white  man  he  shunned 
the  whites.  His  habits  and  characteristics  were  those  of  an  Indian. 
He  spoke  their  tongue  fluently,  possessed  all  the  arts  of  hunting,  fish- 
ing, camping,  and  general  woodcraft  belonging  to  the  most  skillful 
savage  and  excelled  them  in  their  own  pursuits.  Zet  he  despised 
Indians  and  would  not  associate  with  them.  He  then  had  no  family 
and  lived  alone  in  a  small  house  below  the  town,  near  the  little  rapids. 
An  investigation  disclosed  that  his  house  had  been  burned  the  day 
before  and  he  could  not  be  found.  This  was  taken  as  conclusive  proof 
'.that  he  had  committed  the  murder.  A  vigorous  search  was  at  once 
instituted  for  him.  Everyone  armed  and  went  out;  the  country  was 
scoured  in  search  of  him;  the  soldiers  from  Fort  Brady  were  turned  out 
under  Lieutenant  Tilden,  who  enthusiastically  led  in  the  hunt.  Some 
western  Indians  returning  to  their  own  country  from  Georgian  Bay, 
where  they  had  been  visiting,  were  then  passing.  They  were  known 
as  skillful  hunters  and  great  warriors;  their  services  were  enlisted  in 
the  pursuit.  The  search  carried  on  by  skillful  hunters  both  white  and 
red,  is  said  to  have  been  far  reaching  and  long,  continued,  but  in  vain. 
From  that  day  to  .this  no  man  ever  saw  John  Tanner.  Where  he  went, 
or  where,  or  when,  or  how  he  died,  or  his  final  resting  place  no  man 
knows  of  a  certainty. 

His  last  disappearance  was,  to  those  who  knew  him  here,  as  profound 
a  mystery  as  was  his  first  to  his  sorrowing  parents,  when  as  a  child  he 
left  them  in  their  cabin  home  in  Kentucky. 
32      • 

250  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893, 


It  is  true  that  many  rumors  were  in  the  air  of  his  having  been  seen 
and  heard.  . 

A  squaw  gathering  moss  in  the  thicket  near  the  town  a  few  days 
after  the  murder  came  home  in  terror  and  reported  seeing  him  skulk- 
ing away  with  dead  grass  and  bushes  tied  around  him,  in  a  manner  he 
often  practiced  when  hunting,  so  that  he  was  scarcely  to  be  discerned 
from  the  surrounding  vegetation. 

Some  belated  Indians  coming  along  the  shore  from  Lake  Superior  in 
their  canoes  after  night,  reported  seeing  his  camp  fire  shine  through 
the  trees  and  hearing  him  singing  Indian  songs.  Rumors  came  that 
he  had  made  his  way  back  to  the  northwest  and  been  seen  among 
the  Indians  in  the  Hudson  Bay  territory;  but  all  attempts  to  follow 
up  and  verify  those  clews  resulted  in  nothing. 

Many  years  later  a  Frenchman  named  Gurnoe.  while  searching  in 
the  woods  above  the  town  for  a  lost  pony,  found  a  skeleton  with  two 
gun  barrels,  some  coins,  a  flint  and  steel,  and  other  trinkets  near  it. 
Fire  had  long  ago  passed  over  the  spot,  destroying  the  gun  stocks  and 
other  articles  which  would  burn. 

Some  parties  claimed  to  identify  the  effects  found  as  those  of  Tanner. 
Others  maintain  to  the  contrary  and  the  mystery  yet  remains  without 
definite  solution. 

Strangest  of  all,  Lieutenant  Tilden,  shortly  after  ordered  to  the 
southwest  to  join  in  the  Mexican  war,  confessed  upon  his  death-bed 
that  it  was  he  who  assassinated  Schoolcraft. 

Such  are  the  first  and  last  chapters  in  the  career  of  one  of  the  most 
peculiar  characters  ever  identified  with  the  history  of  Michigan. 

The  Indians  who  stole  Tanner  were  Michigan  Chippewas,  from  the 
Saginaw  river.  The  leader  of  the  party  desired  to  secure  a  white  child 
for  his  wife,  to  take  the  place  of  a  son  who  had  recently  died.  They 
fled  with  him  back  to  Michigan  and  he  was  adopted  by  the  woman, 
who  seemed  delighted  to  receive  a  boy  so  near  the  same  age  as  the 
one  she  had  lost.  She  endeavored  to  treat  him  kindly,  but  he  wa& 
starved,  beaten,  overworked,  and  otherwise  cruelly  treated  by  the  male 
members  of  the  family.  At  one  time  the  man,  who  had  stolen  him,  cut 
him  down  with  his  tomahawk  in  a  fit  of  anger  and  left  him  for  dead. 
To  the  treatment  he  received  while  with  those  Indians  has  been 
ascribed  the  suspicious,  sullen  and  morose  temperament  which  he  at 
times  manifested. 

With  those  people  he  wandered  up  and  down  through  Michigan  for 
several  years,  learning  their  language  and  mode  of  life.  He  was  finally 
purchased  from  them  by  a  prominent  Ottawa  woman,  who  lived  near 


where  Petoskey  now  stands.  She  paid  for  him  a  ten  gallon  keg  of 
rum  and  some  other  small  articles  of  barter.  She  treated  him  kindly 
and  he  remained  with  her  as  long  as  she  lived.  With  her  and  some 
of  her  peoplj  of  the  Traverse  region,  he  emigrated  to  the  Red  River 
country.  He  married  an  Indian  girl  and  had  several  children,  one  of 
whom  was  the  Martha  already  mentioned.  He  had  at  least  two  sons;1 
one  became  a  missionary  among  the  Red  River  Indians,  and  one, 
also  named  John  Tanner,  enlisted  at  Sault  Ste.  Marie  during  the  late 
rebellion  and  was  killed  in  the  second  battle  of  Bull  Run. 

One  of  the  Indians  he  met  and  with  whom  he  hunted  in  the  North- 
west was  a  chief  named  Pe-shaw-ba,  from  Traverse  Bay.  His  name 
yet  lives  in  that  region. 

In  1816  he  rendered  valuable  services  to  Lord  Selkirk  in  guiding 
reinforcements  through  the  wilderness  to  the  Red  River  settlements 
and  in  recapturing  Fort  Douglass,  then  held  by  the  Northwestern  Fur 
company,  with  which  Selkirk  was  at  war.  Selkirk  became  interested 
in  him  and  obtained  sufficient  data  from  which  to  institute  a  search 
for  Tanner's  people. 

Selkirk  visited  Kentucky,  published  a  circular  in  western  papers,  dis- 
covered the  living  members  of  the  family  and  sent  Tanner  to  them. 
He  was  then  so  thorough  an  Indian  and  _  enured  to  savage  life  that 
he  was  not  long  content  to  stay  with  his  people.  He  soon  returned  to 
the  Indian  country  in  the  wild  regions  of  northern  Michigan. 

General  Cass  and  other  prominent  men,  became  interested  in  him. 
He  was  at  different  times  in  the  service  of  the  government  as  an  inter- 
preter, and  also  acted  in  that  capacity  for  various  missionaries.  He  was 
at  times  employed  by  the  fur  companies  and  Indian  traders.  He  made 
his  home  at  Sault  Ste.  Marie  and  while  there  married  a  white  wife, 
with  whom  he  lived  but  a  short  time. 

Much  interest  was  taken  in  his  story  and  he  became  a  fruitful  topic 
for  the  paragraphers  of  the  day. 

In  1830  Dr.  Edward  James,  post  surgeon  at  Fort  Mackinac,  pub- 
lished a  "  Narrative  of  the  captivity  and  adventures  of  John  Tanner," 
as  related  to  him  by  Tanner.  The  work  contains  Tanner's  portrait, 
and  the  incidents  of  his  life,  together  with  lengthy  disquisitions  upon 
the  history,  habits,  traditions,  languages,  political  organizations,  etc.,  of 
the  various  Indian  tribes. 

In  1883,  this  work  was  re-written  by  Dr.  James  McCauley,  modern- 
ized and  popularized,  into  a  genuine  Indian  story  of  the  day  for  boys. 
It  was  put  forth  in  a  flaming  binding  of  green  and  gold,  under  the  taking 
title  of,  "Grey  Hawk;  Life  and  Adventures  among  the  Red  Indians.'* 

252  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

It  is  a  source  of  congratulation  that  the  author  kindly  informs  the 
reader  what  color  the  Indians  were.  It  was  evidently  his  design  to 
work  as  much  crimson  into  the  book  as  possible. 

Among  those  who  met  and  wrote  of  Tanner,  a  great  diversity  of 
opinion  prevails  as  to  his  character.  Some  regarded  him  as  a  treacherous, 
dishonest,  dangerous  savage  of  the  basest  sort;  others  ascribe  to  him 
every  noble  and  generous  quality. 

The  first  writer  who  seems  to  have  noticed  and  mentioned  him  was 
Daniel  W.  Harmon,  a  fur  trader,  who  lived  many  years  in  the  North- 
west, and  made  many  extensive  journeys  to  distant  tribes,  in  pursuit  of 
his  calling.  His  journal  was  published  in  1820.  He  met  Tanner  on 
the  upper  Assiniboine  river  in  1801,  and  recorded  in  his  diary  as 
follows : 

"  This  day,  there  came  here  an  American,  that,  when  a  small  child, 
was  taken  from  his  parents,  who  then  resided  in  the  Illinois  country. 
He  was  kidnapped  by  the  Santeaux  with  whom  he  has  resided  ever 
since,  he  speaks  no  other  language  except  theirs.  He  is  now  about 
twenty  years  of  age,  and  is  regarded  as  chief  among  the  tribe.  He 
dislikes  to  hear  people  speak  to  him  respecting  his  white  relations,  and 
in  every  respect  but  color  he  resembles  the  savages  with  whom  he 
resides.  He  is  said  to  be  an  excellent  hunter.  He  remains  with  an 
old  woman,  who,  soon  after  he  was  taken  from  his  relations  adopted 
him  into  her  family;  and  they  appear  to  be  mutually  as  fond  of  each 
other,  as  if  they  were  actually  mother  and  son." 

In  1824  Professor  Keating  published  a  narrative  of  the  second 
expedition  of  Major  Long  (made  the  year  previous  by  order  of  John 
C.  Calhoun,  secretary  of  war),  to  the  source  of  the  St.  Peters  river, 
Lake  Winnepeek,  Lake  of  the  Woods,  etc. 

The  party  met  Tanner  at  Rainy  Lake,  where  he  was  recovering  from 
a  gun  shot  wound,  inflicted  in  his  arm  by  an  Indian,  said  to  have  been 
instigated  by  Tanner's  wife.  The  author  devotes  considerable  space  to 
a  sketch  of  his  life.  He  says:  **  At  Rainy  Lake  we  met  wi.h  a  man 
whose  interesting  adventures  deserve  to  be  made  known  to  the  public. 
We  had  heard  at  various  places  of  a  citizen  of  the  United  States  who 
had  been  at  an  early  age  taken  prisoner  by  a  party  of  Indians,  and 
who,  having  been  educated  among  them,  had  acquired  their  language, 
habits  and  manners  to  the  exclusion  of  those  of  his  own  country." 

Professor  Keating  seems  to  have  formed  a  high  opinion  of  his 
character,  he  says: 

"  He  never  had  been  seen  to  taste  of  ardent  spirits,  or  to  smoke  a 
pipe.  Instead  of  purchasing  trifles  and  gewgaws  as  is  customary  with 


Indians,  he  devoted  the  products  of  his  hunts,  which  were  always 
successful,  to  the  acquisition  of  articles  of  clothing  useful  to  himself, 
to  his  adopted  mother  and  to  his  relations.  In  his  intercourse  with 
traders  he  appears  to  have  been  honorable,  and  this  reflects  more  credit 
upon  him  as  it  was  at  a  time  when  an  active  competition  between  rival 
traders  frequently  induced  them  to  stimulate  the  Indians  to  frauds 
which  affected  their  opponents.  Of  his  attachment  to  his  children  he 
gave  strong  proof.  There  is  a  feature  in  his  character  which  we  have 
not  alluded  to,  and  as  it  is  honorable  to  him  we  should  be  loath  to 
omit  it.  We  allude  to  his  warm  gratitude  for  all  those  who  have 
at  various  times  manifested  kindness  to  him.  His  affection  for  his 
Indian  mother  and  for  her  family  was  great.  Of  Lord  Selkirk  he 
always  spoke  with  much  feeling.  To  Dr.  McLaughlin  he  appeared 
sincerely  attached." 

And  so  that  author  goes  on,  ascribing  to  him  all  the  cardinal  virtues. 
Dr.  James  and  other  authors  have  written  of  him  in  the  same  vein. 

But  it  so  happens  that  the  opinions  of  the  critics  waver  somewhat 
upon  that  point,  and  plenty  of  authority  can  be  found  to  the  contrary. 

Henry  R.  Schoolcraft,  the  Indian  historian,  died  in  the  belief  that 
Tanner  killed  his  brother.  He  naturally  entertained  great  bitterness 
towards  him,  and  in  his  book  of  personal  memoirs,  entitled  "Thirty 
Years  With  the  Indian  Tribes,"  he  thus  takes  the  romance  out  of 
Tanner's  history:  "He  is  now  a  grey-headed,  hard  featured,  old  man, 
whose  fWlings  are  at  war  with  everyone  on  earth,  white  or  red.  Every 
attempt  to  meliorate  his  manners  and  Indian  notions  has  failed.  He 
has  invariably  misapprehended  them,  and  is  more  suspicious,  revengeful 
and  bad  tempered  than  any  Indian  I  ever  knew.  Dr.  James,  who 
made,  by  the  way,  a  mere  pack  horse  of  Indian  opinions  of  him,  did 
not  suspect  his  fidelity,  and  put  many  things  in  his  narrative  which 
made  the  whites  about  St.  Mary's  call  him  an  old  liar.  This  enraged 
him  against  the  doctor,  whom  he  threatened  to  kill.  He  had  served 
me  awhile  as  an  interpreter,  and  while  thus  employed  he  went  to 
Detroit,  and  was  pleased  with  a  country  girl,  who  was  a  chamber  ,maid 
at  old  Ben.  Woodworth's  hotel.  He  married  her,  but  after  having  one 
child,  and  living  with  him  a  year  she  was  glad  to  escape  with  life,  and 
under  plea  of  a  visit,  made  some  arrangement  with  the  ladies  of  Fort 
Brady  to  slip  off  on  board  of  a  vessel  and  so  eluded  him.  The  legis- 
lature afterwards  granted  her  a  divorce.  He  blamed  me  for  the  escape 
though  I  was  entirely  ignorant  of  its  execution.  Eight  years  afterwards, 
in  July,  1816,  this  lawless  vagabond  waylaid  and  shot  my  brother 
James,  having  concealed  himself  in  a  cedar  thicket." 

254  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

This  view  of  the  case  seems  to  be  presented  with  a  tincture  of 
acrimony,  but  if  it  was  not  true,  Tanner  certainly  had  an  invincible 
case  of  libel  for  heavy  damages,  for  defamation  of  character,  against 
the  renowned  author. 

The  weight  of  oral  tradition  in  this  locality  seems,  though  not 
unanimous,  to  rather  sustain  Schoolcraft's  theory.  It  may  perhaps  be 
illustrated,  if  not  summed  up,  in  the  answer,  more  pointed  than  polite, 
given  me  by  a  back-woods  philosopher,  who  knew  Tanner  personally. 
"Tanner,"  he  said,  after  some  reflection,  "was  a  regular  Injun;  more  of 
an  Injun  than  any  of  the  Injuns,  and  a  d d  mean  Injun  too." 

This  same  philosopher,  I  regret  to  state,  did  not  take  an  optimistic 
view  of  the  Indian  question.  He  concluded  his  reminiscences  of  Tan- 
ner with  a  generality,  worthy  of  the  consideration  of  those  who  have 
to  do  with  the  Indian  problem,  and  which,  shorn  of  certain  improper 
adjectives,  was  to  the  effect,  that  it  is  a  very  easy,  short  job  to  make 
an  Indian  of  a  white  man;  but  when  you  try  to  make  a  white  man  of 
an  Indian  that  is  a  different  thing. 

The  many  interesting  details  and  incidents  of  adventure  in  Tanner's 
story,  are  beyond  the  scope  of  this  article.  Those  curious  enough  to 
inquire  further,  will  find  them  in  abundance  in  the  works  already 
referred  to,  in  "Neil's  History  of  Minnesota,"  "Campbell's  Political 
History  of  Michigan,"  "The  History  of  the  Upper  Peninsula  of  Mich- 
igan," Yols.  2  and  4  of  the  "Michigan  Pioneer  Collections,"  Dr.  Bryce's 
"Sketch  of  Tanner,"  Lanman's  "In  the  Wilderness,"  "Life  on  the 
Lakes"  by  the  author  of  "Legends  of  a  Log  Cabin,"  and  in  the  secular 
press  of  July,  1846. 

As  the  stories  run,  I  take  it,  Tanner's  last  days  were  his  worst  days. 
He  viewed  the  issues  of  life  from  the  Indian  standpoint.  A  veritable 
savage  in  all  his  thoughts  and  habits,  association  with  the  border  whites, 
after  he  had  grown  to  manhood,  worked  in  him  those  results  we  so 
often  see  in  like  cases.  He  lost  many  of  the  virtues  of  the  race  with 
which  he  was  reared  and,  unfortunately,  acquired  only  the  vices  of  the 
whites.  Measured  by  the  standard  of  the  savage  he  excelled  in  the 
qualities  they  admired.  To  civilized  and  refined  sensibilities  there  was 
little  of  the  noble  or  heroic  in  him. 

To  the  curious,  seeking  but  entertainment  in  the  marvelous,  the 
striking  and  unusual  incidents  of  his  life  are  well  fitted  to  "adorn  a 
tale;"  to  the  thoughtful  and  studious  they  "point  a  moral''  in  many 



BY    U.    B.   WEBSTER. 

[Poem  written  for  the  Farmers'  Institute  at  Berrien  Springs,  February  9-11,  1893.] 

Things  are  not  now  as  they  used  to  be 
For  progress  is  making  us  wise,  you  see, 
For  a  day  of  progress  is  over  the  land 
And  we  see  its  results  on  every  hand. 

Yes,  the  things  of  our  youth  have  passed  away, 
For  "Every  dog  must  have  his  day." 
So  the  tallow  dip  has  yielded  to  gas, 
And  that  old  fire-place  has  gone,  alas! 

The  "old  oaken  bucket"  and  well  sweep,  too, 
At  the  old  red  farmhouse  no  more  we  view, 
That  threshing  machine  that  piled  the  chaff 
Today  would  make  all  the  people  laugh, 

For  a  traction  engine  has  come  this  way 
That  knocks  out  two  thousand  bushels  a  day. 
And  a  sulky  plow  on  which  to  ride, 
On  all  modern  farms  is  the  farmer's  pride. 

And  a  hot  weather  stove  that  runs  by  gas, 
A  mighty  fine  thing  for  the  cooking  class. 
The  old  stage  coach  with  its  horses  four, 
That  rattled  along  in  the  days  of  yore, 
The  linchpin  wagon  of  days  gone  by    . 
On  the  farms  of  progress  no  more  we  spy, 

For  we  speed  along  without  "if"  or  "but," 
And  all  of  us  try  to  get  out  of  the  "rut," 
To  find  by  progression  a  better  way, 
And  that's  what  brings  us  all  here  today. 

256  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

But  in  days  gone  by  we  never  had  need 

Of  a  "farmers'  institute,"— indeed, 

They  never  considered  a  change  of  thought, 

And  such  a  convention  they  could  not  have  brought. 

For  men  couldn't  think  as  men  do  now, 

And  the  women,  to  stay  at  home,  knew  how. 

To  speak  in  meeting,  they  mustn't,  oh  my! 
The  girls  were  too  modest,  the  matrons  too  shy; 
In  the  doctrines  of  Paul  they  firmly  believed, 
"Be  silent,"  "heads  covered,"  let  none  be  aggrieved. 

So  the  women  kept  still  in  that  primitive  day 
And  the  men  in  their  meetings  had  little  to  say, 
For  their  means  of  progression  were  simple  and  few, 
They  found  out  by  the  hardest  what  little  they  knew. 

No  railroads,  no  telegraph  lightning  dispatch, 
No  news  from  a  distance  which  quickly  we  catch, 
No  traveling  by  steamers,  no  sailing  away 
To  visit  far  countries,  as  we  do  today, 
No  longing  desire  to  journey  or  roam, 
But  all  were  contented  to  labor  at  home; 
From  sun  in  the  morning  till  darkness  at  eve, 
The  chopping  or  plowing  they  never  would  leave. 

But  when  the  day  had  waned  apace, 

They  gathered  around  the  fireplace, 

With  its  cheerful  blaze  so  cozy  and  warm 

And  the  family  all,  a  household  swarm, 

Not  one  or  two  as  they  now  think  best, 

But  girls  and  boys  "  till  you  couldn't  rest." 

For  this  scripture  then  they  bore  in  mind, 

"Replenish  the  earth  with  your  own  mankind." 

And  one  of  our  number  read  aloud 

From  a  book  or  paper,  to  all  that  crowd; 

For  times  weren't  then  as  they  are  today, 

When  a  dozen  papers  find  their  way 

To  the  farmers'  homes  in  all  this  land, 

And  there's  one  for  each  of  the  household  band. 

WHEN   I  WAS  A  BOY   WITH   A   HEAD   LIKE  TOW.  257 

Of  a  book  or  paper  we  all  were  proud, 

So  a  sweet  voiced  sister  read   aloud 

And  the  rest  all  listened  with  eager  ear 

For  that  much  prized  story  they  wanted  to  hear, 

While  dear  old  grandmother  knitted  away 

Through  the  long  winter  evening 'that  closed  the  day. 

And  when  it  was  time  for  all  to  retire 

The  last  thing  to  do  was  to  cover  the  fire, 

For  matches  were  dear  then,  not  plenty  and  cheap, 

So  we  covered  the  fire  that  through  night  it  would  keep 

And  I  well  remember  how  neighbors  would  come 

To  borrow  some  fire,  when  they  had  none  at  home, 

And  that  was  the  way  things  used  to  go 

When  I  was  a  boy  with  a  head  like  tow. 

And  I  went  off  to  school  in  that  old  log  house, 
All  day  I  was  silent,  as  still  as  a  mouse, 
For  the  master  was  cruel,  a  grim  old  c — s, 
And  I  didn't  dare  make  a  bit  of  a  fuss, 
As  I  sat  on  a  bench  that  was  made  of  a  slab 
And  never  from  me  came  a  word  of  gab. 
So  I  sat  in  silence  as  still  as  a  rat, 
Not  even  daring  my  eyes  to  bat, 
And  my  roost  on  that  perch  I  dare  not  leave 
From  nine  o'clock  till  four  at  eve, 
But  twice  each  day  he  said  to  me, 
'*  Come  here,  sir,"  and  stand  beside  my  knee. 
Now  watch  while  I  point  to  these  letters  here, 
And  speak  out  their  names,  now,  loud  and  clear. 
I  trembled  in  fear  while  standing  there, 
As  afraid  of  him  as  I  was  of  a  bear, 
And  I  said  as  he  pointed,  a,  b,  c, 
And  clear  down  the  line  to  x,  y,  z. 
And  it  took  a  whole  year  to  firmly  fix 
In  my  little  noddle  those  twenty- six. 
Then  the  big  boys  read  of  that  boy  in  the  tree, 
And  "  Old  Tray "  that  got  caught  in  bad  company. 
And  we  all  remember  that  blue  beech  gad 
That  he  plied  on  our  backs,  if  the  least  bit  bad, 

258  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

And  we  held  out  our  hands  for  that  hickory  rule 
Or  sat  in  disgrace  on  the  dunce's  stool. 
And  that  was  the  way  things  used  to  go 
When  I  was  a  boy  with  a  head  like  tow. 

And  that  team  of  oxen,  old  "Buck  and  Bright," 

And  that  old  ox  cart,  a  novel  sight, 

With  its  big  linchpin  and  butterflies 

For  a  load  of  hay  of  monstrous  size, 

So  one  yoke  of  oxen  was  chained  behind 

To  hold  back  down  hill,  which  was  rather  unkind. 

Then  we  sowed  our  wheat  from  a  homespun  bag 

And  harrowed  it  in  with  an  old  crotch  drag, 

And  we  cut  our  grain  with  a  "  turkey  wing," 

For  a  reaper,  then,  was  an  unknown  thing, 

And  we  threshed  it  out  in  that  tedious  way 

With  the  swinging  flail  in  that  bygone  day. 

Then  the/mowers  kept  stroke  with  the  swinging  blade, 

And  we  ate  our  lunch  in  the  generous  shade. 

There  was  no  such  thing  as  a  horse  rake  then 

So  the  hay  was  all  raked  by  sturdy  men, 

And  I  raked  after  the  loading  cart 

To  gather  up  locks  that  fell  apart. 

And  I  rode  a  horse  to  plow  the  corn 

Till  I  wished  in  my  heart  I  never  was  born, 

From  morn  till  night,  day  after  day, 

Till  in  certain  parts  I  was  worn  away. 

And  that  was  the  way  things  used  to  go 

When  I  was  a  boy  with  a  head  of  tow. 

And^we  sheared  the  sheep  and  carded  the  wool, 

And  the  field  of  flax  we  had  to  pull, 

And  break  it,  and  hatchel,  and  comb,  and  spin, 

And  weave  into  cloth  that  was  kind  o'  thin, 

Of  a  brownish  gray,  but  'twas  good  and  stout 

And  it  took  a  long  time  to  wear  it  out, 

And  when  it  was  worn  at  the  knees  or  seat, 

Why,  mother  would  patch  it  so  nice  and  neat, 

That  what  Bobby  Burns  said,  really  was  true, 

That  "  Auld  clothes  were  e'en-a'-most  good  as  the  new. 


And  this  kind  of  clothing  the  men  and  boys  wore 
Through  the  summer  months,  as  I  said  before, 
Both  pants  and  shirts,  and  the  women,  too, 
Wore  this  for  garments  hid  from  view. 
In  winter  'twas  linsy  the  women  all  wore 
And  they  never  once  thought  of  goods  from  the  store, 
And  the  men  wore  "jeans,"  half  cotton  and  half  wool, 
For  store  cloths  cost,  and  the  purse  wasn't  full. 
Then  sweet  honey  we  had  from  industrious  bees 
And  our  sugar  was  made  from  the  sap  giving  trees, 
But  all  were  contented  and  happy  and  strong 
And  each  helped  the  other  on  life's  way  along. 
And  that  was  the  way  things  used  to  go 
When  I  was  a  boy  with  a  head  of  tow. 

Then  we  went  to  church  in  that  good  old  way, 

And  heard  two  sermons  every  day. 

The  minister  stood  in  a  pulpit  high, 

And  the  singers  all  sat  in  the  gallery, 

And  he  always  talked  of  the  wrath  of  God, 

And  his  face  was  as  long  as  a  mortar  hod. 

He  said  we  must  flee  from  the  wrath  of  sin 

Or  the  old  Satan  would  surely  gather  us  in. 

He  said  we  would  burn  in  a  liquid  fire 

Where  the  flames  forever  rose  higher  and  higher, 

That  the  Devil  stood  on  the  caldron's  edge 

A  constant  war  with  his  victims  to  wage, 

And  when  they  would  swim  to  either  side, 

Old  nick  would  fork  them  back  into  the  tide; 

But  never  a  lisp  of  that  sweet  word  love, 

But  wrath,  all  was  wrath  from  the  Father  above, 

And  that  was  the  way  things  used  to  go 

When  I  was  a  boy  with  a  head  like  tow. 

But  the  work  of  Christ  is  a  work  of  love 

And  that  long  faced  preacher  has  gone  up  above, 

So  today  the  minister  shakes  our  hand, 

And  his  sermon  cheers,  and  his  smile  is  bland, 

And  he  preaches  to  us  some  common  sense 

For  the  love  of  God  he  is  called  to  dispense. 

260  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

Love  lies  at  the  bottom  of  all  God's  ways, 
And  preachers  have  learned  that  it  always  pays 
To  preach  of  God's  love,  and  not  of  his  hate, 
For  love  is  the  greatest  of  the  great, 
And  earth  might  be  like  that  world  above 
If  all  mankind  was  taught  to  love. 

In  the  rushing  path  of  progress  we  go 

And  the  world  is  improving  as  all  well  know, 

For  the  primitive  things  of  days  gone  by 

We  never  should  grieve,  we  never  should  sigh, 

But  keep  in  the  drift,  keep  up  with  the  times 

In  methods  of  labor  or  methods  of  rhymes. 

To  the  singing  school  we  used  to  go 
Over  the  glistening  track  of  snow, 
All  loaded  into  the  big  farm  sleigh 
With  jingling  bells  we  sped  away. 
And  a  merry  song  we  sung,  for  we 
Were  happy  as  girls  and  boys  could  be. 
And  the  teacher  came  with  his  tuning  fork 
And  he  walked  around  like  a  crane  or  stork, 
He  would  sing  awhile  and  then  he  would  talkr 
Or  write  on  the  board  with  a  lump  of  chalk. 

So  we  sang  for  an  hour,  and  at  recess, 
They  gave  to  their  sweet  one  a  sly  caress, 
And  then  for  an  hour  we  sang  away 
And  all  went  home  in  that  good  old  sleigh. 
Oh,  the  singing  school,  thy  joys  serene 
Will  ever  remain  in  our  memory  green, 
And  memory  now  those  joys  will  bring 
As  we  think  of  the  songs  we  used  to  sing. 
And  that  was  the  way  things  used  to  go 
When  I  was  a  boy  with  a  head  like  tow. 

And  paring  bees  then  were  a  common  thing, 
When  all  would  pare,  or  core,  or  string, 
Core  to  core,  and  back  to  back, 
Was  the  way  we  fixed  them  upon  the  rack, 


And  when  we  had  emptied  the  basket's  store, 

We  swept  up  the  litter  and  cleared  the  floor 

And  joined  our  hands  to  form  a  ring, 

And  merrily,  then,  began  to  sing,  "Sailing  on  the  wave." 

And  that  was  the  way  things  used  to  go 

When  I  was  a  boy  with  a  head  like  tow. 

And  those  husking  bees,  in  the  autumn  days, 
To  k'  shuck  "  out  the  golden  ears  of  maize, 
And  the  lucky  one,  who  a  red  ear  found, 
Had  a  right  to  kiss  the  girls  all  round; 
So  the  way  we  managed  was  very  queer 
To  find,  as  by  chance,  that  bright  red  ear. 
And  that  was  the  way  things  used  to  go 
When  I  was  a  boy  with  a  head  like  tow. 

And  the  chopping  bees,  and  the  logging  bees, 

And  the  raising  of  barns  and  things  like  these, 

Where  the  men  and  the  boys  and  everyone  went 

To  handle  a  pike  and  lift  on  a  bent, 

When  the  carpenter  stood  a  short  way  out 

And  sang  to  the  men  in  a  lusty  shout, 

"  Now  set  her  right  up,  my   boys,  just  so 

When  I  give  you  the  word,  '  He  O,'  '  He  O,' 

'He,  O  heave,'  'He,  O  heave,'  'He,  O  heave,"  He  O,' 

Set  her  up,  my  boys,  now  steady  and  slow," 

And  everyone  lifted  till  he  saw  stars 

To  get  up  those  monstrous  beams  and  bars, 

But  the  will  was  good  and  the  muscles  stout, 

And  w%e  lifted  in  time  with  the  boss's  shout, 

And  when  it  was  up,  a  feast  was  spread 

Of  pumpkin  pies  and  gingerbread, 

Friedcakes  and  cookies,  and  farmer's  cheese, 

And  we  ate  with  a  relish  of  things  like  these. 

And  that  was  the  way  things  used  to  -go 

When  I  was  a  boy  with  a  head  like  tow. 

But  the  age  of  progress  is  with  us,  I  wean, 
And  the  things  of  yore  no  more  are  seen; 
That  cheerful  fire  of  beechen  logs 
That  was  built  on  those  iron  fire  dogs, 

262  .  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

The  swinging  crane  and  the  pot  hook  too, 
The  skillet  and  lid  no  more  we  view, 
And  the  tallow  dip  that  we  used  to  snuff, 
With  that  little  tow  wheel  and  all  such  stuff, 
The  linsy  dress  and  the  shirt  of  tow, 
Those  rolls  of  wool  that  we  used  to  know, 
And  the  a,  b,  c,  for  the  little  kid, 
By  "Webb's  Word  Method  "  now  are  hid. 
Now  we  never  hear  tell  of  a  lump  of  chalk, 
For  the  crayon  today  does  blackboard  talk. 
The  master,  too,  that  we  used  to  fear, 
With  that  goose  quill  pen  behind  his  ear, 
And  that  old  slab  seat  has  gone  at  last 
On  which  we  sat  till  we  grew  a' most  fast, 
The  old  grain  cradle  and  big  ox  cart, 
That  "old  oaken  bucket,"  so  dear  to  the  heart, 
The  pulpit  high  and  the  sermon  of  wrath, 
Have  all  stepped  aside  from  progress'  path, 
And  things  don't  run  as  they  used  to  go 
When, I  was  a  boy  with  a  head  like  tow. 



BY   L.    D.   WATKINS. 

Pioneers  of  Michigan,  I  come  before  you  with  feelings  of  profound 
respect,  to  recall  again  the  old,  old  story  and  the  incidents  familiar 
now  to  but  few  of  the  millions  of  people  of  our  great  country. 

You  have  seen  this  fair  land  before,  the  hand  of  man  had  destroyed 
nature's  perfect  harmony.  Your  eyes  have  seen  what  no  other  eyes 
can  see  again;  the  transformation  from  a  wilderness  to  a  country 


covered  with  farms,  dotted  with  cities  and  villages,  ribboned  with  roads, 
and  girdled  by  railroads,  telegraph  and  telephone  lines. 

Never  again  will  the  vast  succession  of  coming  people  know  how 
beautiful  this  land  was  in  nature.  No  pen  picture  can  describe  the 
park-like  plains  and  rolling  openings  or  the  solemn  grandeur  of  the 
timber  lands.  No  ear  will  again  hear  the  howl  of  the  wolf  or  the 
scream  of  the  panther.  Lost  to  all  coming  people  is  the  spring-time 
bell-toned  note  of  the  prairie  hen  and  the  chant  of  tfye  sandhill  crane 
and  wild  turkey.  No  more  forever  will  the  rush  of  millions  of  migra- 
tory birds  darken  the  sun  in  their  nights  to  and  from  their  northern 
nesting  places. 

How  beautiful  and  dear  to  our  memories  are  those  days  of  our  own 

My  father,  mother,  brother  and  three  sisters  left  Keene,  New  Hamp- 
shire (I  being  the  youngest  of  the  family)  for  Michigan  on  the  9th  of 
April,  1834.  My  father  had  purchased  ten  lots  of  land  in  Jackson 
county  (T.  4  S.,  B.  2  E.  on  Sees.  13  and  24)  the  year  previous.  Hired 
teams  conveyed  us  to  Albany,  New  York,  where  we  embarked  on  the 
Erie  canal  for  Buffalo,  thence  by  steamboat  to  Detroit  where  two  days 
were  spent  in  procuring  our  outfit  and  supplies,  a  "  breaking-up "  team 
of  four  yoke  of  oxen,  "breaking-up  plow,"  and  two  wagons,  on  which 
were  loaded  our  belongings.  Two  yokes  of  oxen  were  hitched  to  each 
wagon  and  with  these,  together  with  a  horse  and  light  wagon  brought 
from  New  Hampshire,  we  started  for  our  unknown  home  in  the  wilder- 
ness. We  were  six  days  on  the  road  from  Detroit  to  what  is  now 
Fairview  Farm,  a  distance  of  59  miles.  Now  from  Watkins'  Station,  on 
the  farm,  we  go  to  Detroit  in  ninety  minutes.  Our  arrival  was  on  the 
10th  of  May,  1834,  just  one  month  from  the  day  of  our  departure  from 
New  Hampshire. 

Our  nearest  neighbors  were  on  the  west,  seven  miles;  north,  four 
miles;  east,  four  miles;  and  south,  six  miles.  Thus  we  were  nearly  in 
the  center  of  a  wilderness  about  ten  miles  in  diameter,  on  which  no 
white  man  had  ever  made  a  mark  since  the  government  survey.  This 
tract  of  land  was  exactly  on  the  center  of  the  divide  between  the  great 
coal  and  salt  basins  of  Michigan  on  the  north,  and  the  coal,  oil  and 
gas  deposits  of  Ohio  and  Indiana,  on  the  south.  This  divide,  run- 
ning west  by  south,  is  remarkable  for  its  varied  surface  and  soil 
formations.  The  surface  is  a  constant  succession  of  plain,  undu- 
lating and  hilly  lands  with  marshes  and  small  areas  of  heavy  timbered 
land.  The  soil  is  quite  as  varied;  tenacious  clay,  sand,  gravel  and 
marsh  can  be  found  on  a  single  farm. 

264  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

The  most  remarkable  feature  of  this  part  of  the  State  (a  tract  12 
by  34  miles)  is  the  great  number  of  its  deep,  pure  water  lakes.  To 
illustrate:  Within  five  miles  of  my  home  are  thirty-seven  lakes,  some 
of  them  quite  large.  All  discharge  water  freely,  forming  the  sources 
of  five  of  the  largest  rivers  in  southern  Michigan.  In  two  hours  I 
can  drive  you  across  the  Raisin,  Huron,  Grand,  Kalamazoo  and  St. 
Joseph  rivers. 

To  summarize;  This  divide  was  a  constant  succession  of  plains,  oak 
openings,  marshes,  lakes  and  rivers.  The  upland  was  covered  with 
luxuriant  grass  and  was  the  natural  home  of  the  deer,  bear,  wolf, 
panther,  lynx  and  wildcat.  The  deer  and  wolves  were  in  great  num- 
bers. The  rich  pastures  of  the  openings,  with  convenient  lakes  in 
which  to  escape  when  pursued  by  wolves,  made  this  section  a  paradise 
for  deer.  Beaver  dams  in  earlier  times  had  caused  the  overflow  of 
fully  one-third  of  the  country.  These  dams  were  the  origin  of  our 
marshes.  These  marshes  at  the  time  of  pioneer  settlement  were  the 
only  source  of  winter  feed  for  stock.  The  heavy  growth  sedge  and  coarse 
grass  (marsh  hay)  made  a  good  substitute  for  better  hay  before  grass 
could  be  cultivated. 

The  flora  and  silva  of  this  section  is  as  varied  as  the  soil  and 
surface.  Trees  and  flowers  not  common  to  this  latitude  were  found  in 
great  numbers.  On  the  openings,  the  principal  timber  trees  were 
white,  red,  yellow  pine,  and  burr  oak,  hickory  and  a  few  scrub  oaks 
on  the  sand  hills.  On  the  border  of  streams,  on  the  bluffs,  and  on 
the  north  side  of  lakes  we  found  a  great  many  trees  that  in  the 
regular  order  of  distribution  would  be  far  to  the  north  or  south  of  us. 
These  strangers  form,  with  our  indigenous  forests,  a  regular  conglom- 
erate of  the  forests  of  three  sections  each  with  its  peculiar  forest 
grove.  From  the  southward  we  have  the  Buckeye,  White  Wood, 
Honey  Locust,  Kentucky  Coffee-tree,  Mulberry,  Black  Haw  and  many 
others.  From  the  north  came  Hemlock,  Pine  and  Spruce.  The  same 
is  true  of  the  admixture  of  trees  and  plants,  local  on  the  east  and 
west  borders  of  the  State.  These  strangers  are  not  of  common  distribu- 
tion, but  are  generally  found  in  small  isolated  groups.  I  believe  that 
the  only  hemlocks  in  southern  Michigan  were  on  the  east  shore  of 
Wampler's  lake  (T.  4  S.,  E  2  E.),  and  they  were  cut  down  for  fence 
posts  by  vandals  who  supposed  •  them  to  be  cedars.  One  great  sur- 
prise to  all  observers  of  the  silva  of  this  region,  is  the  total  absence 
of  many  kinds  of  trees  for  which  the  soil  and  climate  are  perfectly 
suited,  as  is  proved  by  planting  in  after  years.  Such  as  beech,  maple, 
bass  wood,  elm,  tulip-tree  and  others,  which  are  common  along  streams 


and  in  groups  all  through  this  section,  but  are  not  generally  distributed 
among  other  trees  in  the  upland  timber.  Perhaps  the  great  annual 
fires  that  swept  this  opening  and  plain  land,  destroyed  all  trees  which 
had  thin,  tender  bark  or  that  did  not  reproduce  themselves  by  sprouts 
from  about  the  stump  when  the  top  was  killed  by  fire. 

The  pioneer  found  that  kind  nature  had  anticipated  his  wants  in  an 
abundant  supply  of  wild  fruits  and  nuts.  In  succession  came  the 
delicious  wild  strawberry,  blackberry,  huckleberry,  red  and  black  rasp- 
berry, blue  berry,  grapes,  plums  and  cranberries.  Nuts  were  abundant; 
hickory,  black  walnut,  butternut  and  hazelnut  were  abundant  and  were 
gathered  and  stored  away  for  the  evening  gatherings  of  young  and  old 
around  the  broad  fireplace  and  stick  chimney  on  the  long  winter 
evenings.  Of  snakes  there  were  an  abundance,  but  only  one  was  really 
dangerous,  the  massasaugas,  and  they  were  mostly  confined  to  the  swamps 
and  marshes.  The  blow  snake  was  still  more  feared  (they  are  now 
extinct);  their  habit  of  inhaling  air  until  greatly  extended,  and  then 
exhaling  a  sickening  breath  caused  all  to  fear  them,  but  they  were 
comparatively  harmless,  as  were  also  the  great  blue  racer,  our  most 
beautiful  snake,  and  the  black  and  spotted  water  snakes.  Our  lakes 
were  well  stocked  with  excellent  fish;  bass,  pike,  pickerel,  perch,  sun- 
fish  and  bluegills  were  the  most  common  and  were  easily  taken,  as 
were  also  the  deer  and  wild  fowl.  Thus  did  nature  furnish  the 
pioneer  with  fish,  flesh,  fowl,  and  fruit  in  the  greatest  abundance. 

There  is  to  the  pioneer  no  more  pleasant  recollections  of  these  early 
days  than  that  of  the  wild  flowers.  First  to  greet  the  homesick 
stranger  was  hepatica,  she  seemed  to  open  her  sunny  fragrant  bloom 
on  purpose  to  give  cheer  and  comfort.  But  hepatica  was  only  the 
herald  of  coming  beauties.  One  wave  of  her  blue  bonnet  as  she  left 
us,  and  there  commenced  a  succession  of  flowers  seldom  found  in  any 
other  country.  Maples,  birches  and  alders  spring  into  life.  The  little 
kittens  of  the  willow  begin  to  show  their  furry  coats.  A  bloom  seems 
to  be  gathering  along  the  tree  tops  of  the  water  courses;  our  two  elms 
and  the  red  elm  file  into  line  flanked  by  the  red  maple;  cowslips  and 
skunk  cabbage  meet  you  on  the  wet,  springy  borders  of  marshes  and 
springs;  the  buds  of  oak,  hickory  and  sassafras  are  striving  to  out- 
grow each  other;  trilliums,  violets  in  all  kinds  of  soils,  except  the 
birdfoot  violet,  which  is  found  on  light  sands  only.  Now  comes  the 
June  berry  (three  kinds)  with  its  cloud  of  white  in  perfect  contrast 
with  the  surroundings  of  green  and  brown.  April,  says  Dr.  Beal, 
should  give  us  fifty  plants  and  trees  in  bloom  and  in  May  more  than 

266  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

one  hundred.  In  June  our  woods  and  plains  were  covered  with 
flowers,  some  of  which  are  now  nearly  extinct.  Painted  cup,  lady 
slippers,  phlox,  mandrakes,  rosin  weed,  lillies,  roses,  closed  gentians  and 
golden  rods.  Finally,  when  the  frosts  and  north  winds  come,  we  have 
only  the  fringed  gentian  in  its  robe  of  blue  and  purple,  and  the  witch 
hazel  with  petals  of  gold,  to  close  the  gateway  of  summer. 

"  These  beautiful  children  of  glen  and  dell, 
The  dingle  deep,  the  woodland  stretching  wide, 

and  of  the  mossy  fountain  side. 
Ye  on  my  heart  have  thrown  a  lovesome  spell, 
And  though  the  worldlings'  scorning  may  deride, 

I  love  ye  all." 


BY   BEV.    R.    C.   CBAWFORD. 

In  the  month  of  May,  1841,  I  was  licensed  to  preach,  and  by  the 
same  body  that  gave  me  my  license,  I  was  recommended  to  the  Michi- 
gan annual  conference  as  a  suitable  person  for  admission  on  trial  in 
said  conference.  The  body  which  gave  me  my  license  and  this  recom- 
mendation was  the  quarterly  conference,  of  Pontiac  circuit,  with  Rev. 
George  Smith  as  presiding  elder,  and  Revs.  James  Shaw  and  Francis 
B.  Bangs,  as  circuit  preachers.  The  balance  of  the  conference  consisted 
of  solid  laymen  from  different  parts  of  the  circuit,  such  as  Birmingham, 
Royal  Oak,  Bloomfield  Centre,  Donation  Chapel,  and  Auburn;  at  all  of 
which  places  I  had  been  and  held  services,  as  an  exhorter,  several 
times  during  the  preceding  year,  and  the  people  had  come  to  know  me 
pretty  well,  or  they  thought  they  did.  The  quarterly  conference  was 
held  in  the  court  house,  as  were  all  of  the  services.  All  of  the  men  com- 
posing that  quarterly  conference,  except  myself  and  the  Rev.  James 
Shaw,  are  on  the  other  side  of  the  boundary  line.  He  is  a  superannuate 


of  the  Kansas  conference,  in  his  86th  year  and  lives  at  Atchison  with 
his  oldest  daughter,  Lucy,  widow  of  the  Rev.  L.  D.  Price,  once  a 
member  of  Michigan  conference;  and  he  says  in  a  letter  he  sent  me, 
"I  am  trying  to  keep  sweet  in  my  old  age." 

On  Sabbath  afternoon  of  our  quarterly  meeting  I  preached  my  first 
sermon,  or  took  a  text  and  exhorted  in  a  school  house  at  Bloomfield 
Centre,  five  miles  southeast  from  Pontiac,  where  I  had  been  holding 
services  during  the  spring.  The  house  was  crowded  with  my  friends, 
who  were  bent  on  hearing  my  first  sermon;  and  we  had,  what  we  used 
to  call  "The  shout  of  the  King  in  the  camp;"  but  my  father  used  to 
call  it  a  "Methodist  pow  ivow"  Father  was  brought  up  an  Episcopa- 
lian and  did  not  take  any  stock  in  a  noisy  kind  of  religion;  but  let  him 
go  to  a  barn  raising,  a  logging  bee  or  a  general  training  and  no  man 
in  Oakland  county  could  beat  him  on  making  a  noise.  Dear  old  man, 
I  believe  he  is  in  heaven  now,  where  I  hope  to  meet  him  when  I  cross 
the  line. 

Well,  the  Michigan  conference  held  its  session  at  White  Pigeon,  in 
September  of  that  year,  Bishop  Roberts  presiding;  I  was  admitted  on 
trial,  and  appointed  as  junior  preacher  on  Palmer  circuit,  with  Lovell 
F.  Harris,  as  preacher  in  charge.  My  father  gave  me  a  splendid  saddle 
horse,  my  uncle  loaned  me  a  saddle  and  bridle,  and  Dr.  Ezra  S.  Parke 
gave  me  a  pair  of  portmanteaus  large  enough  to  hold  all  of  my  worldly 
goods,  and  thus  equipped  I  pulled  out  for  my  first  circuit,  which 
embraced  all  of  the  country  bordering  on  St.  Clair  river  and  twenty-five 
miles  on  the  shore  of  Lake  Huron  and  reaching  inland  from  five  to  fifteen 
miles.  We  had  eighteen  preaching  places,  some  of  them  we  visited  on 
the  work  days  of  the  week.  At  Port  Huron,  St.  Clair,  Newport,  now 
Marine  City,  and  Algonac,  we  preached  on  Sabbath  mornings  and 
visited  some  country  school  house  in  the  afternoon  and  evening  same 
day.  The  discipline  of  our  church  fixed  my  salary  at  $100  beside  travel- 
ing and  table  expenses,  but  the  stewards  made  no  estimate  of  my  table 
expenses,  but  said  I  must  do  as  the  country  school  master  did,  board 
around;  and  you  may  rest  assured  I  did  as  they  suggested,  and  by  this 
means  I  secured  the  full  amount  of  my  table,  expenses  if  I  did  fall 
short  $40  on  my  salary.  In  my  boarding  around  I  found  some  very 
good  boarding  places.  One  of  which  I  wish  to  make  special  mention. 
The  head  of  the  family  was  a  widow  and  she  had  three  sons,  Tif, 
George  and  David.  Tif  was  about  my  age,  George  was  next,  and  then 
came  David.  They  all  thought  a  great  deal  of  my  Billy  horse,  and 
David  would  always  insist  on  bringing  him  out  fully  equipped  for  my 
service,  when  it  came  time  for  me  to  leave  for  my  ride  of  fifteen  mile& 

268  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

down  Bell  river  to  Newport,  my  next  place  for  stopping,  and  when 
that  same  David  was  our  governor,  he  used  to  refer  me  to  the  time 
when  he  was  my  hostler,  and  used  to  lead  my  Billy  out  of  the  little 
log  stable,  all  saddled  and  bridled  ready  for  me  to  mount.  The  home 
of  this  Jerome  family  was  at  that  time  about  three  miles  east  of  the 
Gratiot  turnpike  where  it  crosses  Bell  river.  I  don't  think  David,  at 
that  time,  had  any  aspirations  for  the  office  he  has  since  held;  and  I 
don't  think  George  had  any  thought  of  becoming  the  attorney  of  the 
Detroit,  Grand  Haven  &  Milwaukee  railroad.  But  such  is  life,  and 
that  grand  old  mother  of  theirs  little  thought  what  those  boys  were 
destined  to  become  and  do  after  she  should  depart  and  join  their 
father  on  the  other  shore. 

At  that  time  Capt.  Ward  had  his  home  at  Newport  and  was  known 
through  the  state  as  Uncle  Sam,  the  steamboat  king.  Captain  Eber, 
his  nephew,  was  at  that  time  captain  of  one  of  his  boats,  the  Sam 
Ward,  making  daily  trips  between  Detroit  and  Port  Huron.  Captain 
Eber  died  in*  Detroit  a  few  years  ago,  reputed  to  be  worth  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  $5,000,000.  I  think  the  last  steamboat  Uncle  Sam  built  was  the 
Atlantic,  which  ran  from  Detroit  to  Buffalo,  with  the  Mayflower,  in 
connection  with  the  Michigan  Central  railroad,  carrying  its  passengers 
between  the  two  cities  just  named.  Her  last  trip  came  to  a  sudden 
ending  on  her  way  from  Detroit  to  Buffalo.  When  but  a  short  distance 
from  Long  Point  she  collided  with  one  of  the  propellers  of  the  Northern 
Transportation  Go's  line  and  went  to  the  bottom  of  Lake  Erie,  the  passengers 
all  being  saved.  She  was  a  magnificent  steamboat  and  one  of  the  fastest 
sailers  at  that  time  on  the  Jakes.  But  I  am  spending  too  much  time 
on  my  first  years'  itinerancy,  and  while  there  are  many  others  of  whom 
I  would  like  to  make  mention,  but  I  dare  not  for  fear  of  prolixity,  I 
will  therefore  merely  mention  the  names  of  Judge  Bunce,  the  two  San- 
borns,  -Ralph  Wadams,  Esq.  Smith,  Senator  Conger,  Judge  Mitchell, 
John  Beard,  and  Esq.  Ira  Porter,  all  of  whom  afforded  me  excellent 
boarding  places  as  I  went  around;  but  my  chief  or  head  quarters  for 
good  living  was  with  Tucker  and  Daniels  at  Algonac.  In  the  month 
of  June  I  took  to  myself  a  wife,  in  accord  with  a  previous  engagement, 
but  did  not  consider  it  good  economy  to  ask  her  to  go  boarding  around 
with  me  during  the  balance  of  that  conference  year,  so  she  remained 
at  her  father's  until  I  entered  upon  my  second  year  in  the  conference, 
when  we  commenced  boarding  ourselves. 

My  second  circuit  was  Richmond,  embracing  a  small  portion  of  St. 
Clair  county  and  two  townships  in  Macomb  county  in  the  northeast 
corner  of  said  county.  I  had  full  swing  here,  being  the  only  preacher 


on  the  circuit,  and  I  made  the  round  once  in  two  weeks,  preaching  three 
times  each  Sabbath,  at  six  different  places,  and  riding  each  Sabbath 
about  twelve  miles.  Oar  churches  were  all  district  school  houses  and  not 
very  large  at  that,  but  I  doubt  if  Talmadge's  tabernacle  is  more  densely 
packed  from  Sabbath  to  Sabbath  than  were  these  tabernacles,  which  I 
occupied  during  that  year.  Being  now  a  married  man,  I  was  entitled 
according  to  discipline  to  $200  beside  my  traveling  and  table  expenses,  all 
of  which  I  received  except  regular  salary,  on  which  I  fell  short  $50. 
The  winter  of  that  year  was  called  our  hard  winter  and  we  had  good 
sleighing  from  November  25  until  after  town  meeting  in  April. 

My  third  and  fourth  years  were  upon  Shiawassee  circuit,  as  preacher 
in  charge,  with  W.  F.  Cowles  for  my  colleague  the  first  year,  and  F. 

A.  Blades  for  colleague  the  second  year.     We   made   the  round  of  this 
circuit  once  in  four  weeks,  and  had  eighteen  regular    preaching  places, 
Owosso.  Corunna,  Shiawasseetown  and  Byron  were  included,   being  the 
only  cities  of    importance   then    existing   in   Shiawaseee  county.     Here 
I  first  became  acquainted  with  our  pioneer  friend,  of  precious  memory, 

B.  O.  Williams,  and    his    brother   Alfred.     The    house   we    lived    in   at 
Shiawasseetown  was  built  for  a  hotel  of  vast  proportions,  and  with  the 
expectation  of  a  large  city  in   the    near   future,    provisions    were   made 
for  the  accommodation    of    a    great   number  of   guests.     But    for    some 
reason  the  big  city  did  not  get  there,   and  the  multitude  of  guests  did 
not  come,  and  the  big  hotel,  only  finished  in   part,  was  converted  into 
residences  for  poor  families,  like  us  methodist  preachers,  who  were  not 
able  to  pay  extravagant  rents.     We  occupied  the  large  ball  room,  which 
was  lathed  but  not  plastered.     With  boards  unplaned  we  made  a  parti- 
tion across  the  hall,  so  as  to  give  us  two  rooms;  one  for  a  guest  cham- 
ber and  pastor's  study,  and  the  other  and  larger  one  served  for  kitchen, 
dining    room,    sitting    room    and   parlor    with   our   family    bed    in    the 
northeast  corner  of  the  big  room.     My  colleague,  Bro.    Blades,  had  his 
home  with  us,  he  being  a  single  man  and  was  obliged  to  board  around. 
Our  receipts  upon  this  charge  compared  favorably  with    previous  ones. 

Our  next  circuit  was  Livingston,  with  David  A.  Curtis  as  my 
colleague.  The  circuit  embraced  the  most  of  Livingston  county,  and 
we  made  the  round  once  in  four  weeks.  Howell,  Milan  and  Pinckney 
were  the  only  cities  of  importance,  and  the  rest  of  our  preaching 
places  were  in  country  school  houses.  At  Howell  the  Congregationalists 
had  a  small  chapel,  which  we  occupied  once  in  two  weeks;  and  a  Con- 
gregational minister  by  the  name  of  Root  occupied  it  each  alternate 
Sabbath,  which  gave  them  preaching  every  Sabbath;  the  congregation 
being  composed  of  Methodists,  Congregationalists,  Presbyterians,  Bap- 

270  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

tists,  Episcopalians,  and  a  large  proportion  of  persons  not  members 
of  any  church.  Sectarianism  did  not  exhibit  its  hydra  head  to  annoy 
us  in  a  single  instance.  At  Milan  the  Presbyterians  had  a  comfortable 
brick  church,  which  they  kindly  opened  for  our  use  each  alternate 
Sabbath;  and  our  congregation  was  much  like  the  one  at  Howell.  At 
Pinckney  we  had  no  church  building  and  all  worshiped  together  in  a 
school  house,  the  same  harmony  prevailing  as  at  the  two  places 
previously  mentioned.  On  this  circuit  I  made  the  acquaintance  of 
Hon.  Charles  P.  Bush,  one  of  Michigan's  brightest  citizens,  and  one  of 
the  shrewdest  politicians  the  democratic  party  has  ever  placed  in  office 
in  this  State.  He  and  his  family  became  my  fast  friends  and  remained 
so,  notwithstanding  our  difference  in  politics.  He  died  comparatively 
a  young  man  and  his  death  was  a  great  loss  to  Michigan,  and  still 
greater  to  the  democratic  party,  of  which  he  was  a  leader  in  the  fullest 
sense.  At  that  time  he  carried  on  farming,  his  large  and  splendid 
farm  being  located  about  three  miles  southeast  from  Howell,  on  the 
Detroit  and  Grand  Kiver  turnpike.  I  suppose  the  farm  lies  there  still, 
but  Charles  P.  Bush  does  not  own  it  now  and  will  not  come  to 
cultivate  its  fertile  soil  any  more.  He  was  a  member  of  the  legislature 
that  located  the  capitol  where  we  are  now  gathered,  and  afterward 
became  a  resident  of  Lansing,  where  he  was  living  when  death  summoned 
him  away.  I  am  not  certain  but  I  think  some  of  his  family  are  living 
here  at  this  time.  Peace  to  his  ashes.  I  love  to  think  of  him  as  I 
used  to  see  his  manly  form  in  my  congregation  with  his  keen  eyes 
fixed  upon  me  as  I  tried,  to  the  best  of  my  ability,  to  send  the  truth 
into  his  heart.  There  were  other  men  in  that  section. I  love  to  remem- 
ber, such  as  Ely  and  Pardon  Barnard,  Elias  Steadmau,  Judge 
Stansbury,  Deacon  Noble  and  Deacon  Gay,  Lawyer  Whipple,  Frank 
Bush  (brother  of  Charles  P.),  George  Lee  and  his  brother  Fred,  E.  F. 
Burt,  the  McPherson  family,  N.  G.  Isbell,  and  some  others,  I'll  not 
stop  to  name;  while  nearly  every  one  named  have  gone  to  join  the 
great  majority  over  on  the  other  shore,  I  hope  to  meet  them  when  I 
cross  the  river,  in  whose  waters  my  feet  have  been  resting  much  of 
the  time  during  the  past  two  years  and  some  of  the  time  it  has  seemed 
I  should  never  return,  but  I  am  here. 

Our  next"  charge  was  Almont,  embracing  the  village  of  Almont,  in 
Lapeer  county,  and  three  appointments  in  the  surrounding  country.  At 
Almont  we  had  a  chapel  of  our  own  and,  as  I  only  preached  once  in 
two  weeks,  our  Congregational  friends  occupied  the  chapel  each  alter- 
nate Sabbath,  and  thus  services  were  held  every  Sabbath;  and  we 
worshiped  as  one  family  and  had  no  family  brawls  while  I  was  there. 


This  charge  had  no  aspirants  for  national  honors,  but  a  host  of  solid 
men  for  all  work  but  whose  names  have  not  been  very  extensively  cir- 
culated, and  probably  you  would  not  remember  having  heard  of  them  if  I 
should  repeat  them,  and  as  nothing  of  importance  occurred  out  of  the 
ordinary  course  of  events,  I  will  ask  you  to  take  a  trip  with  me  to 
Port  Huron,  where  my  next  appointment  occurred,  and  here  you  will 
discover  quite  a  change  since  my  first  appointment  to  Palmer  circuit 
in  1841.  We  had  a  comfortable  house  of  worship  on  the  south  side  of 
Black  river  and  this  was  well  filled  every  Sabbath,  as  I  and  my 
colleague  occupied  the  pulpit  each  alternate  Sabbath.  The  circuit  was 
changed  only  in  name  and  the  transfer  of  all  territory  north  of  Port 
Huron  to  Lexington  circuit,  so  that  we  preached  at  St.  Glair,  Newport 
{now  Marine  City),  and  Algonac  once  each  Sabbath,  same  as  when  I 
first  traveled  the  circuit.  The  two  years  term  was  spent  pleasantly 
and  I  received  my  full  salary  of  two  hundred  dollars  per  year  and 
table  expenses  without  being  compelled  to  board  around,  as  I  did 
•during  my  first  year's  experience.  Some  new  comers  had  appeared 
while  some  of  the  first  residents  had  disappeared.  One  of  the  new 
comers  was  William  L.  Bancroft,  quite  a  politician  of  the  democratic 
school,  and  was  at  the  time  publishing  a  newspaper,  himself  proprietor 
and  editor.  He  became  my  warm  friend,  notwithstanding  our  differ- 
ence of  opinion  on  political  issues,  and  our  friendship  remained 
unbroken  while  our  acquaintance  continued.  It  is  a  long  time  since 
we  have  met  and  I  presume  he  looks  more  like  an  old  man  than  he 
did  in  1847  and  '48.  At  that  time  L.  M.  Mason,  Esq.,  was  practicing 
law  in  Port  Huron,  and  during  the  trial  of  an  important  suit,  in  which 
Major  Thorn,  a  man  of  large  physical  proportions,  was  an  interested 
party,  Mason,  being  counsel  for  the  other  side,  was  making  his  plea, 
Major  Thorn  sitting  quite  near  him,  and  as  he  was  laying  down  the 
points  of  law  some  remark  dropped  on  the  major's  ear  that  did  not 
please  the  old  man  and  he  belched  forth  the  sentence,  "  You  are  a  liar," 
and  in  a  second  the  old  man  was  stretched  on  the  floor,  the  blood 
flowing  freely  from  his  mouth  and  nose.  Mason  apologized  to  the  court 
saying  he  had  no  idea  his  arm  was  so  long  or  he  would  have  been 
more  careful  how  he  swung  it  when  making  •  his  gestures.  I  don't 
think  the  major  ever  accused  him  of  lying  after  that  wonderful 
gesture  was  made. 

I  had  a  colleague  upon  this  charge  and  he  was  of  small  proportions, 
always  fearful  I  would  be  more  popular  with  the  people  than  himself 
unless  he  could  in  some  safe  way  make  the  impression  that  I  was  not 
as  pious  as  they  took  me  to  be.  I  was  the  owner  of  a  very  fine  brown 

272  ANNUAL,  MEETING,  1893. 

mare,  and  she  was  fat  as  a  seal,  and  everyone  was  speaking  of  her 
beauty  and  fine  qualities.  My  colleague  brought  with  him  to  the 
charge,  a  young  mare  of  good  proportions,  but,  as  he  was  not  much  of 
a  horseman,  he  got  nervous  in  handling  her,  and  an  old  jockey  took 
advantage  of  his  weakness  and  traded  him  an  old  mare,  that  in  the 
matter  of  flesh  resembled  one  of  Pharaoh's  cows,  and  she  was  afflicted 
with  poor  teeth  so  it  was  impossible  to  get  any  flesh  on  her  skeleton. 
On  one  occasion,  where  were  present  several  of  our  leading  members, 
some  one  made  some  remark  expressive  of  his  admiration  of  my  mare. 
The  remark  hurt  the  little  fellow  so  much  that  he  had  to  make  a 
thrust  at  me  and  he  said  "  I  am  afraid  Bro.  Crawford's  mare  gets  into 
the  pulpit  with  him."  My  Irish  wit  came  quick  for  once  and  I  replied 
"  Not  a  bit  of  it,  sir;  but  if  I  could  count  her  ribs  as  far  as  I  could 
see  her  carcass,  she  would  be  on  my  back  every  time  I  tried  to  preach." 
I  heard  no  more  of  it.  Well,  we  next  turn  up  at  Lapeer  county  seat, 
where  I  formed  the  acquaintance  of  Hon.  A.  N.  Hart,  of  precious 
memory,  three  brothers  by  the  name  of  White,  two  brothers  by  the 
name  of  Terrell,  and  several  other  'solid  men,  whose  friendship  I  have 
always  prized,  and  with  satisfaction  cherish  their  memory  now  that 
t4iey  are  all  on  the  other  side  of  the  river  which  forms  the  boundary 
line  between  our  world  and  the  great  future.  Father  Clark,  the  old 
English  pioneer,  was  on  his  farm  five  miles  southeast  of  the  village. 
The  old  man's  welcome  to  me,  as  his  pastor,  was  on  this  wise.  At  my 
first  appointment  in  his  neighborhood,  after  I  had  preached,  I  held 
class  meeting  and  calling  on  Father  Clark  for  his  testimony,  he  pro- 
ceeded "  Well  Crawford,  I  am  glad  you've  coomed,  I  axed  Shaw  for 
you."  Shaw  was  our  presiding  elder.  That  same  fall  t}ie  old  man 
took  a  pair  of  beautiful  male  calves  to  the  State  fair  in  Detroit,  and  on 
his  return  had  to  tell  me  of  his  trials  on  his  way  to  Detroit.  He  said 
"  ivery  body  I  met  axed  me  about  my  calves  and  I  got  oot  of  all  man- 
ner of  patience,  and  I  wouldn't  talk  wi'  'em  at  all.  But  jist  before  I 
got  to  Pontiac  a  fine  looking  gentleman  drove  by  me  and  he  was  in  a 
fine  carriage  and  had  a  fine  team,  and  he  looked  as  though  he  might  know 
some'ut.  He  axed  me  how  old  my  calves  were?  and  I  towld  him  one  of 
them  was  six  months  and  the  other  was  six  months  and  two  weeks. 
And  he  axed  me  if  they  were  twins,  and  I  laughed  him  in  his  face." 
Father  Clark  was  a  man  of  wonderful  natural  endowments  with  no 
education  in  the  schools,  but  he  was  regarded  as  one  of  the  shrewdest 
business  men  of  Lapeer  county.  He  had  such  eccentricities  as  afforded 
me,  at  times,  an  occasion  for  a  right  hearty  laugh  at  his  expense.  I 
will  mention  one  instance  which  must  suffice.  His  wife's  brother  in 


England,  having  died,  left  about  $2,000  to  be  divided  among  his  sister's 
children,  and  they  all  thinking  it  would  be  so  long  coming,  they  had  bet- 
ter sell  out  to  their  father,  providing  he  would  buy;  and  the  old  man 
jumped  at  the  chance,  as  they  offered  to  sell  at  fifty  cents  on  the  dol- 
lar, he  being  sharp  enough  to  know  it  would  not  take  many  months  to 
bring  the  money  from  England.  He  placed  it  in  the  hands  of  C.  C. 
Trowbridge,  of  Detroit,  and  during  my  pastorate,  he  came  up  to  the 
village  one  day,  and  found  a  letter  in  the  postofiice  from  Mr.  Trow- 
bridge, and  hastened  to  the  parsonage  for  me  to  read  it  for  him,  as  he 
could  not  read  his  correspondence.  The  letter  informed  him  his  money 
was  ready  for  him.  The  old  man  looked  at  me,  and  smiling,  said,  "Now 
Crawford,  let  me  say,  first  of  all,  glory  to  God,  its  coomed;  now  I'm 
rich,  Lord  keep  me  rich." 

We  will  now  come  to  our  next  circuit,  which  was  Utica,  in  Macomb 
county,  embracing  the  towns  of  Washington  and  Macomb  as  well  as 
Shelby,  in  which  the  village  of  Utica  was  located.  My  wife's  parents 
resided  within  the  bounds  of  this  charge,  and  insisted  on  our  making 
our  home  with  them  while  on  this  charge,  which  we  gladly  did,  and 
spent  the  time  very  pleasantly.  On  this  circuit  I  found  the  Davises, 
the  Chapels  (Charles  and  Frank),  the  Leaches,  the  Somers,  and  many 
other  solid  men,  all  of  whom  became  my  fast  friends.  One  incident 
occurred,  while  I  was  on  this  circuit,  that  afforded  some  amusement, 
and  even  to  this  date  causes  me  to  smile  when  I  think  how  the  young 
men  looked  as  they  came  marching  into  the  church  just  before  I 
commenced  the  service.  Some  of  the  prominent  women  of  Utica  had 
adopted  the  bloomer  costume  and  were  quite  conspicuous  on  the  streets 
with  their  short  dresses  and  pantalets.  Four  of  the  young  men  of  the 
village,  all  very  respectable,  came  to  me  and  expressed  a  desire  to 
attend  service  on  the  Sabbath  dressed  in  uniform,  calculated  to  strike 
a  death  blow  to  the  bloomer  craze  among  the  women.  I  cheerfully 
consented,  and  after  the  congregation  was  mostly  in  their  seats,  in  came 
the  young  dudes  in  their  newly  made  costumes,  and  took  their  seats  in 
the  amen  corner  of  the  church,  looking  as  dignified  and  behaving 
themselves  as  becomingly  as  any  Presbyterian  deacons  ever  did.  They 
wore  white  cambric  pantaloons,  made  very  large"  from  the  waistbands  to 
the  ankles  and  drawn  tight  around  the  ankles  by  means  of  cord.  The 
rest  of  their  apparel  corresponded  with  their  pants;  when,  at  the  close 
of  service,  they  marched  deliberately  out  and  went  quietly  home,  and 
thus  ended  the  bloomer  craze  in  Utica. 

My  next  charge  was  Birmingham,  where  my  cousin,  Poppleton,  lived 

274  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

and  was  running  a  general  store.  Many  of  my  old  friends  and  several 
of  my  kindred,  such  as  uncles,  aunts,  and  cousins,  were  members  of 
my  congregation,  and  all  seemed  very  much  pleased  with  the  appoint- 
ment, and  did  not  seem  to  tire  of  my  preaching,  even  though  I  was 
a  prophet  in  my  own  country  and  among  my  own  kindred.  The  farm 
upon  which  I  was  raised  lay  within  three  miles  of  the  village,  and  the 
entire  circuit  covered  territory  with  which  I  had  been  familiar  since  I 
was  eight  years  of  age,  and  I  had  known  many  of  my  parishioners  during 
all  of  those  intervening  years.  We  had  no  very  great  men  on  this  charge, 
nor  men  who  aspired  to  become  great.  We  were  so  near  Detroit  on 
the  one  side,  and  Pontiac  on  the  other,  that  our  great  men,  as  well  as 
the  ambitious  ones,  gave  us  the  go  by  and  settled  in  one  of  those 
thriving  cities.  My  next  charge  was  Detroit  city  mission  and  my 
appointments  were  all  suburban,  and  in  making  my  rounds  I  encircled 
the  city,  which  at  that  time  was  a  trifle  smaller  than  it  is  today.  City 
missionary  as  I  was,  I  had  the  pleasure  of  forming  an  acquaintance 
with  such  men  as  J.  C.  Holmes,  C.  I.  Walker,  Philo  Parsons,  John 
Owen,  Judge  Koss  Wilkins,  Bela  Hubbard,  Thomas  W.  Palmer,  and 
Dr.  Duffield,  who  for  a  number  of  years  was  the  successful  pastor  of 
the  First  Presbyterian  church  in  that  city,  and  who  finally  received  a 
sudden  call  from  pulpit  to  the  church  of  the  first  born,  which  is  with- 
out spot  or  wrinkle,  before  the  throne  of  God.  He  was  a  grand  man, 
and  lives  in  my  memory  as  he  does  in  the  memory  of  many  others, 
who  knew  him  but  to  love  him,  in  the  days  of  his  prosperity  as  a 
faithful  minister  of  the  gospel  of  Christ. 

My  next  move  was  to  Battle  Creek,  where  I  spent  two  of  the 
pleasantest  years  of  my  itinerant  life.  Here  I  made  the  acquaintance 
of  Erastus  Hussey,  Victor  P.  Collier,  John  and  Benjamin  F.  Hinman, 
and  E.  C.  Manchester.  I  also  made  the  acquaintance  of  Dr.  O.  C. 
Comstock  and  A.  O.  Hyde,  of  Marshall.  Battle  Creek  has  always  been 
a  very  dear  spot  to  me,  since  the  fall  of  1855,  when  I  left  there  and  took 
my  next  appointment  to  Jackson,  where  I  served  as  pastor  of  the  church 
one  year  and  was  then  appointed  by  the  board  of  prison  inspectors  as 
chaplain  at  the  prison,  where  I  remained  for  three  years  and  preached 
to  the  men  in  stripes.  Kinsley  S.  Bingham  was  our  governor,  and 
William  Hammond  was  agent  of  the  prison,  now  called  "  warden."  At 
Jackson  I  made  the  acquaintance  of  Hon.  Austin  Blair,  Judge  Gridley, 
Judge  David  Johnson,  Col.  Michael  Shoemaker  and  his  brother  Joseph, 
Peter  B.  Loomis,  Fidus  Livermore,  and  many  other  solid  men  includ- 
ing lawyers,  doctors,  merchants,  and  ministers  of  the  several  denomina- 
tions of  Christians,  including  Mr.  Grinnel  of  the  Episcopal  church,  and 


Dr.  Asa  Mahan  of  the  Congregational  church;  both  grand  men,  and  I 
shall  never  forget  their  kindness  to  me  and  the  help  they  gave  me  in 
my  work  at  the  prison.  Gov.  Bingham  was  a  man  with  a  large  heart, 
and  he  was  full  of  sympathy  for  the  friends  of  convicts,  who  were 
constantly  pleading  for  pardon  for  their  friends.  But  he  had  good 
judgment  and  exercised  his  pardoning  power  with  extreme  caution,  with 
one  single  exception,  and  that  was  a  peculiar  case  and  I  did  not 
censure  him  for  doing  as  he  did  in  that  peculiar  case,  but  I  did  have 
some  sport  with  him,  which  he  enjoyed  as  well  as  myself  and  others. 
An  old  lady  came  all  the  way  from  the  state  of  New  York  to  plead  for 
her  only  boy  who  had  been  sentenced  for  five  years  for  larceny.  She 
went  to  see  the  governor  several  times  at  his  home  in  Kensington,  and 
he  invariably  promised  her  he  would  pardon  her  boy  if  she  would 
bring  a  recommend  for  his  pardon  from  the  warden  and  chaplain. 
But  this  she  failed  to  get  every  time.  After  letting  matters  rest  for  a 
few  weeks  she  put  out  for  another  interview  with  the  governor.  Going 
to  Ann  Arbor  on  the  afternoon  train,  she  footed  it  from  Ann  Arbor  to 
Kensington,  reaching  the  governor's  home  about  eleven  o'clock.  She 
rang  the  bell  and  the  governor  responded  with  a  light  in  his  hand,  and 
he  at  once  recognized  the  familiar  face  of  Mother  McAllister,  and  the 
poor,  tired  old  woman,  after  a  walk  of  seventeen  miles,  burst  into 
tears  and  said:  "Governor,  I've  come  after  my  boy,  can  I  have  him?" 
"  Well,"  said  he,  "  you  go  to  bed  and  rest  you  the  balance  of  the  night 
and  we'll  see  about  it  in  the  morning,"  and  in  the  morning  after 
breakfast  he  made  out  the  papers  and  mailed  them  to  the  Secretary  of 
State  at  Lansing,  and  sent  her  away  happy  in  the  prospect  that,  as 
soon  as  the  papers  could  get  around  to  Jackson,  she  would  take  her 
darling  and  hie  away  with  him  back  to  her  home  in  the  state  of  New 
York.  The  day  after  she  returned  from  Kensington,  she  took  her  way- 
ward son  and  departed,  and  that  was  the  last  we  knew  of  them.  A 
few  days  after  her  departure,  the  Governor  came  to  visit  us,  and  he  was 
sitting  in  the  agent's  office  talking  with  Mr.  Hammond  as  I  entered 
the  office  on  my  return  from  dinner.  He  looked  at  me  as  much  as  to 
say,  I  wonder  what  he  has  in  store  for  me?  He  met  me  with  a  hearty 
hand  shake,  as  he  always  did,  and  after  the  usual  salutation,  I  said  to 
him,  "Well,  Governor,  you  have  given  me  an  insight  into  one  passage 
of  scripture  that  I  never  fully  comprehended  until  now.  'Lest  by  her 
continued  coming  she  weary  me,  I'll  revenge  her  of  her  adversary.' ' 
His  reply  was,  "  Well,  chaplain,  I  guess  if  she  had  called  you  up  at 
eleven  o'clock  at  night  after  a  walk  of  seventeen  miles  in  the  dark,  and 
your  wife  had  joined  in  her  plea,  as  mine  did,  you  would  have  yielded," 

276  ANNUAL,  MEETING,   1893. 

and  I  said,  "Amen,  God  bless  you,  Governor,"  and  the  agent  responded, 

At  the  close  of  three  years,  I  retired  from  the  chaplaincy  of  the 
prison  and  was  stationed  at  Niles,  where  I  stayed  but  one  year,  for 
reasons  I  will  not  stop  to  explain,  except  to  say, ,  that  the  people  of 
Ionia  asked  the  bishop  for  my  appointment  to  their  charge,  and  he 
said  he  would  grant  their  request  if  I  would  consent  to  the  change,  and 
I  did  so,  greatly  to  the  annoyance  and  grievance  of  the  most  of  my 
congregation  at  Niles;  and  while  I  had  a  warm  reception  and  a  pleas- 
ant pastorate  of  two  years  at  Ionia,  I  have  always  regretted  that  I 
consented  to  the  change.  We  had  one  of  the  most  gracious  revivals  in 
Niles  of  any  one  year  of  my  ministry,  and  the  converts  were  all  well 
cared  for  by  my  successor,  Rev.  Hiram  Law.  While  at  Niles,  I  made 
the  acquaintance  of  Hon.  Schuyler  Colfax,  of  South  Bend,  Indiana,  a 
village  about  ten  miles  south  of  Niles.  Our  acquaintance  soon  ripened 
into  a  friendship  as  lasting  as  life,  and  no  one,  outside  of  his  own 
immediate  kindred,  could  have  felt  his  sudden  death,  while  in  his  vigor- 
ous manhood,  more  deeply  than  I  did.  At  Ionia  I  formed  the  acquaint- 
ance of  Hons.  Hampton  Rich,  Sandford  Yeomans,  George  and  Jack 
Webber,  Hon.  Albert  Williams,  John  C.  Blanchard,  Esq.,  and  W.  W. 
Mitchell,  Esq.;  John  0.  and  I  could  agree  in  our  religious  views  but  in 
politics  we  had  several  tilts.  It  was  during  my  first  year's  pastorate  at 
Ionia  that  the  rebellion  was  inaugurated,  and  when  the  news  reached  us 
of  the  attack  upon  Sumpter,  John  C.  came  to  me,  with  blood  in  his  eye, 
and  charged  me  with  having  a  hand  in  dividing  the  Union,  as  I  had 
been  somewhat  outspoken  against  the  abominable  system  of  slavery. 
But  I  told  him  the  Union  was  not  divided  and  would  not  be,  but  that 
slavery  was  now  doomed  to  die,  and  the  slaveholders  had  themselves 
inaugurated  the  measures  that  were  destined  to  do  the  work  of  its 
destruction,  and  I  hoped  he  and  I  might  live  to  see  the  work  com- 
pleted, and  we  did.  Was  I  a  true  prophet?  John  C.  was  an  official 
member  of  my  church  and  gave  me  his  hearty  support,  and  before  the 
year  was  ended  was  making  war  speeches,  and  aiding  to  raise  volunteers, 
and  finally  went  himself  as  a  sutler  in  one  of  the  regiments,  and  on 
his  first  visit  home,  declared  if  he  had  the  matter  in  hand  he  would 
raise  an  army  of  3,000,000  and  drive  the  whole  southern  confederacy 
into  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  But  after  the  war  closed  he  sort  of  cooled 
off,  and  since  then  it  is  hard  telling  what  his  politics  have  been.  My 
next  appointment  was  Kalamazoo,  where  I  first  met  Judge  Hezekiah 
G.  Wells,  of  precious  memory;  also  Hon.  Charles  E.  Stewart,  General 
Dwight  May,  Lieut.  Gov.  Charles  May,  Dr.  Jas.  A.  B.  Stone,  William 


A.  Wood,  N.  A.  Balch,  Thos.  C.  Brownell,  and  Henry  Gilbert.  My 
next  appointment  was  Albion,  the  home  for  many  years  of  Rev.  W.  H. 
Brockway,  who  had  his  last  meeting  with  us  two  years  ago  this  month 
and  was  obliged  to  leave  before  our  final  adjournment.  Perhaps  some 
of  you  remember  how  gracefully  he  took  his  leave  as  he  retired  never 
to  meet  with  us  again.  We  miss  him  as  we  do  some  others  who  were 
with  us  at  that  reunion,  for  instance,  Dr.  Shepard,  Hon.  O.  Poppleton, 
and  A.  D.  P.  Van  Buren.  At  the  end  of  one  year  I  was  appointed 
presiding  elder  of  Cold  water  district  and  moved  to  Coldwater,  where  I 
had  a  pleasant  home  for  four  years.  The  district  extended  from  White 
Pigeon  on  the  west  to  the  meridian  line  of  the  State  on  the  east,  the 
eastern  boundary  of  our  conference,  and  embraced  the  counties  of 
Hillsdale,  Branch,  and  the  largest  part  of  St.  Joseph;  and  took  in 
White  Pigeon,  Mottville,  Centreville,  Constantine,  Sturgis,  Burr  Oak, 
Bronson,  Coldwater,  Girard,  Quincy,  Allen,  Jonesville,  Hillsdale,  Osseo, 
North  Adams  and  Pittsford,  Beading  and  Cambria;  so  you  see  my 
chances  for  extending  my  acquaintance  were  greatly  enlarged,  and  well 
improved.  I  will  mention  but  few  of  the  many  I  met  for  the  first  time  as 
I  took  the  rounds  of  my  district.  Hon.  Charles  Upson,  Hon.  Caleb  D. 
Randall,  Harvey  Haynes,  Ex-Gov.  Cyrus  G.  Luce,  S.  C.  Coffinberry,  Esq., 
Henry  H.  Riley,  Esq.,  Witter  J.  Baxter,  E.  O.  Grosvenor,  Judge  East- 
man Johnson,  Harvey  Warner,  Esq.,  Jonn  Wolf,  Wm.  Allman,  and 
Comfort  Tyler.  At  the  end  of  my  four  years  term  as  presiding  elder, 
I  was  appointed  pastor  at  Centreville,  where  I  had  already  become 
acquainted  with  nearly  everybody  residing  within  the  bounds  of  this 
charge,  and  where  resided  some  whose  names  I  have  already  mentioned, 
therefore  I  will  only  ask  you  to  remain  here  one  year,  and  then 
take  you,  with  me,  back  to  Jackson  prison,  where  I  was  appointed  chap- 
lain by  the  board  of  inspectors,  and  here  I  spend  another  three  years, 
under  the  administration  of  Gov.  Baldwin,  with  Henry  E.  Bingham  as 
a^ent,  he  having  acted  as  clerk  of  the  prison  during  the  time  of  my 
former  chaplaincy;  and  I  think  if  Latimer  had  been  an  inmate  at  that 
time  he  would  not  have  succeeded  in  getting  that  clerk  to  bring  him 
prussic  acid,  not  knowing  whether  it  was  poison  or  something  good, 
with  which  to  flavor  his  lemonade  and  render  it'  more  palatable,  as  was 
the  case  with  clerk  Tabor,  recently.  We  had  prison  discipline  when  he 
was  clerk,  and  prison  discipline  when  he  was  agent.  He  resigned  while 
I  was  serving  as  chaplain,  and  John  Morris  of  Charlotte  was  appointed 
to  succeed  him,  who  still  held  the  office  when  I  resigned.  During  this 
term,  clerk  Hulin,  a  man  in  whom  we  all  placed  confidence,  was 
detected  in  th'e  embezzlement  of  a  large  amount  of  the  money  belonging 

278  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 


to  the  State,  and,  after  trial  and  conviction,  was  sentenced  for  five 
years  penal  servitude.  I  had  known  him  since  my  first  pastorate  in 
the  church  in  Jackson.  His  wife  was  an  honored  member  of  my  church, 
and  he  was  a  regular  attendant  on  the  services  and  contributed  as 
largely  toward  my  support  as  any  member  of  the  church,  being  at  the 
time  a  hardware  merchant  and  having  a  good  trade.  He  afterwards 
failed  in  business,  then  was  elected  justice  of  the  peace,  and  when  Mr. 
Bingham  was  made  agent  of  the  prison  he  recommended  him  to  the 
board  of  inspectors  for  the  clerkship  of  the  prison,  and  he  was  appointed, 
and  still  held  the  office  under  Mr.  Morris  at  the  time  of  his  detection. 
A  careful  examination  of  the  books  revealed  the  fact  that  he  commenced 
his  embezzlement  soon  after  entering  the  office,  and  had  carried  it  on 
successfully  and  without  suspicion  from  the  first,  until  some  transaction 
caused  Mr.  Morris  to  suspect  him,  and  his  foot  was  soon  in  the  trap 
adroitly  set  for  his  capture.  I  don't  think  there  was  an  officer  of  the 
prison  who  did  not  weep  like  a  child  when  we  saw  him  come  through 
the  gate  under  the  guidance  of  the  sheriff  of  Jackson  county.  He 
served  his  term  and  was  discharged  with  a  broken  spirit,  and  only 
lived  a  few  months  after  his  liberation. 

On  my  retirement  from  the  chaplaincy  of  the  prison  in  the  fall  of 
1872,  I  recommended  the  appointment  of  Rev.  George  Hickock,  a 
Baptist  minister,  as  my  successor  and  that  you  may  see  whether  I  made 
a  mistake  in  my  judgment  of  his  fitness  for  the  position,  I  am  proud 
to  say,  that  he  has  given  such  general  satisfaction  that  he  still  holds 
the  office,  and  probably  will  until  he  resigns  from  choice,  unless  death 
shall  call  for  him  before  he  tenders  his  resignation.  If  I  had  the  time, 
I  would  like  to  give  you  some  of  my  experience  in  dealing  with  con- 
victs, but  this  I  cannot  do  as  I  must  hasten  around.  My  next 
appointment  was  at  St.  Joseph,  where  I  spent  two  years  very  pleas- 
antly, and  formed  the  acquaintance  of  Hon.  A.  H.  Morrison,  whose 
name  appears  among  the  deceased  members  of  this  Society,  having 
joined  it  in  1877.  He  was  at  that  time  general  manager  of  the 
Chicago  and  West  Michigan  railroad.  During  the  first  year  I  was 
there,  I  was  on  board  a  train  returning  from  Grand  Eapids,  having  but 
one  passenger  coach  and  a  baggage  car,  and  while  rounding  a  curve  the 
forward  trucks  of  our  coach  left  the  track,  and  the  coupling  between 
it  and  the  baggage  car  gave  way  and  our  car  rolled  down  an  embankment, 
making  one  revolution,  and  I  turned  a  sort  of  somersault  and  fell  upon 
the  floor  face  downward,  with  the  stove,  well  loaded  with  fire,  across  my 
back,  spilling  some  of  the  coals  on  the  left  side  of  my  neck  and  face, 
causing  my  whiskers  to  appear  very  much  demoralized.  I  was  laid  up 


for  about  four  weeks,  and  after  I  was  fully  restored,  Mr.  Morrison 
called  me  into  his  office,  and  after  introducing  me  to  the  attorney  of 
the  road,  Mr.  Nims,  he  asked  me  what  damages  I  intended  to  demand. 
I  replied,  "not  any."  "Why,"  said  he,  "you  are  entitled  to  damages 
according  to  law."  "  Yes,"  said  I,  "I  suppose  I  am,  but  my  half  fare  pass 
has  certain  conditions  printed  on  the  back,  which  I  accepted  when  I 
received  the  pass."  "  Yes,"  said  he,  "  but  that  don't  amount  to  anything 
according  to  law."  "I  am  well  aware  of  that,"  said  I,  "but  if  I  should 
demand  damages  you  would  refer  me  to  those  conditions,  and  say, 
*  what  about  the  moral  question  involved  in  your  demand, '  wouldn't 
you?"  "Perhaps  I  should,"  said  he,  "but  I  intend  to  give  you  some- 
thing." "Very  well,"  said  I,  "give  me  what  you  please  and  I'll  not  refuse 
your  donation."  "  Well,"  said  he,  "I  propose  to  give  you  $50  and  a  pass 
for  yourself  and  family  while  you  remain  on  the  line  of  our  road,  will 
that  be  satisfactory?"  "Anything  that  will  satisfy  you,  will  satisfy  me," 
was  my  reply.  He  then  turned  to  his  clerk  and  told  him  to  order  a 
car  load  of  four  foot  wood  delivered  at  the  M.  E.  parsonage,  and 
another  carload  next  year,  if  Mr.  Crawford  remained  in  it,  and  I  did, 
and  the  wood  came,  and  of  good  quality.  Our  next  move  was  to 
Allegan,  where  we  spent  two  very  pleasant  years,  forming  many 
acquaintances  and  securing  new  friends.  Among  these  were  Judge 
Stone,  Judge  Littlejohn,  Judge  Williams,  Judge  Arnold,  Dr.  H.  F, 
Thomas,  Don  C.  Henderson,  Esq.,  Duncan  McMartin  and  Joseph  Fisk. 
The  most  of  these  are  gone  to  swell  the  majority  on  the  other  side, 
while  Stone,  Thomas,  Williams  and  Henderson,  are  still  here  in  active 
service,  and  are  held  in  high  esteem  by  men  of  all  political  parties 
and  religious  creeds.  Our  next  move  was  to  Cedar  Springs,  a  little 
village  on  the  Grand  Rapids  and  Indiana  railroad,  twenty-two  miles 
north  from  Grand  Eapids.  Here  we  spent  a  pleasant  year,  and  was 
then  appointed  presiding  elder  of  Ionia  district,  and  returned  to  renew 
old  acquaintances,  and  form  a  great  many  new  ones,  at  Greenville, 
Stanton,  Portland,  Hubbardston,  Carson  City,  Lyons,  Pewamo,  Muir, 
Woodland,  Bowne  Center,  Saranac,  and  Lowell;  among  whom  was 
Hon.  Jas.  W.  Belknap,  Westbrook  Divine,  Col.  Ellsworth,  John  Lewis, 
Esq.,  and  many  others  whose  friendship  I  highly  prize.  After  spend- 
ing four  very  pleasant  years  at  Ionia  in  district  work,  I  was  returned  to 
the  pastorate,  and  appointed  at  my  own  request  to  East  Street,  Grand 
Kapids.  Here  I  succeeded,  after  much  effort,  in  building  a  new  church, 
to  take  the  place  of  the  little  chapel,  where  we  worshiped  for  two 
years.  Our  new  church  cost  us  when  completed,  including  furnishing, 
$5,000  and  I  had  the  pleasure  of  occupying  its  pulpit  all  of  my  third 

280  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

year,  and  at  the  close  of  my  term,  had  the  entire  indebtedness  pro- 
vided for,  and  only  three  hundred  dollars  remaining  unpaid,  which  was 
soon  wiped  out  by  my  successor,  Rev.  Mr.  Carlisle.  We  left  many 
warm  friends  at  East  street,  when  we  were  appointed  to  Ames  church, 
another  charge  in  another  part  of  the  same  city,  and  where  we  spent 
three  very  pleasant  years.  While  serving  these  two  charges  I  made 
the  acquaintance  of  Dr.  Charles  Shepard,  Henry  Fralick,  T.  D.  Gil- 
bert, Judge  Champlin,  Harvey  J.  Hollister,  J.  C.  Fitzgerald,  Allen 
Durfee,  Henry  Spring,  and  Major  Watson,  and  a  host  of  others  I 
cannot  take  time  to  name.  At  the  close  of  this  pastorate,  and  at  the 
completion  of  forty-six  years  continued  service,  I  took  a  superannuated 
relation  for  the  purpose  of  taking  a  trip  to  Oregon  and  Washington, 
to  spend  a  few  months  with  our  friends  on  the  Pacific  coast.  We  left 
home  the  last  of  October  and  returned  the  first  of  August  following, 
having  had  a  most  delightful  visit  with  our  friends,  and  a  view  of 
much  grand  scenery,  going  via  Union  Pacific  railroad,  and  returning  via 
Northern  Pacific,  from  Seattle  to  St.  Paul,  and  from  thence  to  Chicago, 
via  Wisconsin  Central,  and  from  Chicago  to  Grand  Kapids,  via  Chicago 
and  West  Michigan.  We  made  the  entire  trip  without  accident  or  delay 
on  either  route,  except  one-half  hour  in  Bear  River  valley,  on  Union 
Pacific,  from  a  heated  journal,  which  was  easily  made  up  in  the  next 
run,  so  that  we  were  at  all  stations  on  schedule  time.  At  the  next 
session  of  our  conference,  I  was  returned  to  the  effective  list  and 
appointed  to  Holland  City,  twenty-five  miles  southwest  from  Grand 
Rapids.  At  the  close  of  one  year,  having  received  a  meagre  support, 
and  finding  myself  advancing  in  years,  I  thought  best  to  retire  from 
effective  work  and  took  a  superannuated  relation,  designed  to  be  perma- 
nent, and  returned  to  Grand  Rapids  for  our  permanent  home,  where  a 
generous  friend,  Mrs.  Jas.  Dolbee,  built  a  good  commodious  house 
known  as  "The  Cottage  in  the  Orchard,"  and  presented  us  with  a  life 
lease  of  the  same;  and  we  find  ourselves  nicely  settled  for  the  balance 
of  our  lives,  among  our  East  street  friends  and  our  East  street  church, 
our  place  of  worship.  Soon  after  our  return  to  Grand  Rapids,  I  was 
invited  by  General  Pierce  to  act  as  chaplain  at  the  Soldier's  Home, 
where  my  duties  were  to  consist  of.  one  sermon  on  the  Sabbath  and 
attend  all  funerals  of  soldiers  dying  at  the  home.  I  took  this  work 
in  hand  on  the  6th  of  April,  and  continued  the  work  until  the  25th  of 
October,  the  second  year,  when  I  resigned,  as  I  had  supplied  the  work 
by  proxy  since  the  28th  of  June,  at  which  time  I  held  my  last  service 
with  the  veterans,  being  prostrated  with  malarial  fever,  from  the  effect 
of  which  I  could  not  rally,  and  resigned,  feeling  that  I  must  be 


relieved  of  the  responsibility  of  looking  after  the  work  of  supplies  for 
funerals  and  sabbath  services.  Meantime,  I  had  done  some  successful 
canvassing  for  some  valuable  books,  but  now  laid  upon  the  shelf  by 
sickness,  my  little  salary  at  the  Soldier's  Home  cut  off,  and  being 
unable  to  do  any  canvassing  for  the  sale  of  books,  things  from  my 
human  standpoint  looked  a  little  dubious,  but  thus  far  God  has  been 
better  to  us  than  our  fears;  and  our  friends  have  shown  themselves 
friendly  in  many  substantial  ways.  At  the  celebration  of  our  golden 
wedding  one  year  ago,  many  of  our  friends  outside  of  Grand  Rapids 
sent  their  congratulations  in  substantial  form,  which,  added  to  those  of 
our  city  friends,  netted  over  three  hundred  dollars,  which  made  us  feel 
almost  as  rich  as  did  Father  Clark,  when  his  little  dowry  came  from 
England,  but  we  did  not  pray,  "Lord  keep  us  rich,"  but  we  did  pray, 
"  Lord  make  us  worthy  of  such  friendships."  At  the  time  of  our  last 
pioneer  meeting  in  June,  one  year  ago,  I  was  unable  to  attend,  and 
thought  it  quite  probable  that  I  should  never  look  into  your  faces 
again,  until  I  should  greet  you  on  the  other  shore.  But  I  am  here,  in 
much  better  health  than  I  enjoyed  two  months  ago,  and  from  present 
indications  I  am  encouraged  to  hope,  that  by  the  time  of  our  next 
annual  reunion,  "  Bichard  will  be  himself  again."  But  what  the  future 
has  in  store  for  me,  no  finite  mind  can  tell,  but  I'll  try  and  keep  on  in 
the  service  of  my  Master,  who  has  borne  with  my  weaknesses  for  these 
fifty-two  years;  and  I  am  sure  I  shall  find  mercy  at  his  hands,  when 
he  comes  to  sign  my  release,  whether  this  year  or  the  next,  or  many 
years  thereafter;  and  in  the  sweet  bye  and  bye  I  shall  hope  for  a  reunion 
with  all  of  my  pioneer  friends  who  have  gone  before,  or  may  go  before, 
and  all  who  may  come  after  my  transfer  to  the  church  triumphant, 
which  is  without  spot  before  the  throne  of  God. 


BY    C.   T.    MITCHELL. 

Mr.  Chairman,  Ladies  and  Gentlemen — I  have  a  short  paper  to  read 
on  the  cost  of    transportation   back  in   the   forties   and  at    the   present 
time,  showing  the  great   progress  that    has    been   made    in    cheapening 
transportation  in  the  last  fifty  years. 

282  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

I  went  to  Hillsdale  to  live  in  the  spring  of  1843,  first  of  May.  The 
Michigan  Southern  railroad  was  completed  there  in  October  of  that 
year  by  the  State  of  Michigan,  at  a  cost  of  about  $1,400,000,  with 
wooden  superstructure  and  flat  rails.  The  superstructure  consisted  of, 
first,  a  mud  sill  six  by  ten  inches,  on  that  cross  ties  about  three  by 
six  inches,  in  which  a  groove  was  cut,  and  a  wooden  rail  five  by  seven 
inches  placed  with  the  inner  edge  champered  off,  and  to  which  was 
spiked  down  a  flat  iron  bar  three-quarters  of  an  inch  in  thickness  and 
two  inches  wide. 

The  State  simply  transported  the  produce  and  merchandise  but  did 
not  handle  it.  The  State  charged  for  hauling  wheat  to  Monroe,  sixty- 
seven  miles,  twelve  cents  per  bushel. 

I  owned  and  operated  a  large  warehouse  and  there  were  five  others 
in  town.  The  warehouseman  got  three  cents  for  storing  and  shipping, 
one  cent  for  buying,  which,  added  to  the  twelve  cents  freight,  made 
sixteen  cents,  and  three  cents  for  storage  at  Monroe  made  nineteen 
cents,  the  cost  to  the  farmer  to  take  his  wheat  from  the  team  at 
Hillsdale  and  place  it  on  board  of  a  vessel  at  Monroe,  sixty-seven 
miles.  A  load  for  a  freight  car  was  one  hundred  bushels  and  that 
in  bags. 

Now,  what  have  the  great  railroads,  or  as  they  say,  the  great 
monopolies,  done  for  the  farmers?  They  take,  today,  his  wheat  from 
Chicago  to  New  York  all  the  way  by  rail,  and  deliver  it  in  Liverpool 
for  less  than  it  cost  to  transport  it  from  a  team  in  Hillsdale  and  place 
it  on  board  of  a  vessel  at  Monroe  forty-five  years  ago,  and  yet  they 
think,  or  seem  to  think,  these  great  railroads  their  enemies,  and  are 
ready  to  make  war  on  them  in  every  possible  way.  The  railroads 
barely  get  justice  from  a  jury  of  farmers. 

Now  another  item  of  progress  is  shown  more  completely  in  trans- 
porting the  mails.  At  the  time  I  speak  of,  the  Great  Western  mail 
from  New  York  and  New  England  came  up  by  stage,  along  the  south 
shore  of  Lake  Erie  in  winter,  by  boat  in  summer;  to  Hillsdale  by  rail 
from  Monroe,  and  was  transported  to  Chicago  on  the  boot  of  a  stage 
for  six  years.  Now  there  passes  every  evening  a  fast  mail  train  of 
eight  cars  with  twenty  or  thirty  postal  clerks,  and  another  on  the  Air 
Line,  besides  all  the  mail  carried  over  the  Michigan  Central. 

These  two  items  in  our  commercial  history  show  the  progress  this 
State  has  made  more  perfectly  than  any  other  I  know  of.  Here  was  a 
railroad  built  by  the  people  themselves,  the  State  of  Michigan,  and 
charging  the  farmer  more  for  transporting  and  handling  his  wheat 
sixty-seven  miles,  than  it  now,  this  seventh  day  of  June,  1893,  costs  to 


transport  it  one  thousand  miles  by  rail,  and  three  thousand  miles  by 
steamer  to  Liverpool  or  London,  and  yet  the  farmer  appears  to  think 
these  great  corporations  their  worst  enemies,  are  ready  to  fight  them 
on  all  occasions. 

I  suppose  it  to  be  true  that  the  two  great  railroads  of  this  State, 
the  Michigan  Central  and  the  Michigan  Southern,  are  managed  by  as 
hightoned,  honorable  business  men,  as  any  other  great  business 
interests  in  the  country;  that  any  party  having  a  just  claim  is  sure  to 
get  a  prompt  and  honorable  settlement.  It  only  discloses  an  unhealthy 
public  sentiment,  that  has  taken  hold  of  the  public  mind,  which  has 
largely  been  built  up  by  the  unthinking  public  press  and  ought  to  be 

The  Michigan  Southern  was  sold  to  a  company  in  the  winter  of  1846 
and  1847  for  $500,000,  having  cost  the  State  $1,400,000.  The  company 
had  ten  years  to  pay  it  in,  ten  per  cent  down  and  ten  per  cent  per 
year  payable  in  the  State  indebtedness,  which  was  then  worth  but 
forty-two  cents  on  the  dollar.  The  late  Henry  Waldron,  John  P.  Cook, 
C.  W.  Ferris  and  myself  took  $10,000  each  of  the  stock.  At  that  time 
we  could  not  have  raised  $10,000  all  together  but  we  still  thought  it  a 
good  business  venture.  My  first  $1,000  that  1  was  to  pay  down  cost  me 
$420.  The  next  year  the  road  earned  enough  to  pay  the  ten  per  cent, 
the  third  year  we  had  to  pay  eight  of  the  ten  and  then  the  road  was 
sold,  or  rather  a  majority  of  the  stock,  to  a  new  company.  Soon  after 
arrangements  were  made  for  its  extension,  supposing  we  would  be 
called  upon  to  pay  the  full  amount  of  our  stock  we  sold  out,  but  made 
handsomely  on  our  investment. 

At  the  time  I  speak  of,  the  south  part  of  the  county  was  a  substan- 
tial wilderness.  Land  three  miles  from  town  sold  for  three  dollars  to 
five  dollars  per  acre. 



In  undertaking  a  comparison  of  men  with  each  other  for  the  pur- 
pose of  determining  what  benefit  the  world,  or  their  fellow  men,  have 
derived  by  reason  of  their  having  lived,  demands  an  analysis  as  to  the 

284  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

prominent  characteristics  manifested  to  produce  the  results  achieved. 
Bonaparte  declared  that  "  circumstances  make  men,"  and  the  question 
is  often  mooted  whether  character  be  the  creation  of  circumstances  or 
circumstances  the  creation  of  character.  If  we  assume  that  circumstances 
create  character  we  eliminate  from  it  that  vital  causative  energy  which 
is  its  essential  characteristic,  or  to  assert  that  circumstances  are  the 
creation  of  character  is  to  endow  character  with  power  not  only  to 
create  but  to  furnish  the  material  for  creation.  The  results  of  both 
these  processes,  it  seems  to  us,  would  not  be  character  but  caricature. 
We,  therefore,  must  admit  that  circumstances  furnish  the  nutriment  for 
character,  or  the  food  which  converts  it  into  blood  which  is  the  pro- 
cess of  assimilation  and  supplies  individual  power  to  act  upon  circum- 
stances. In  all  the  departments  of  life  success  depends  upon  a  knowl- 
edge preceding  all  assimilating  of  the  circumstances  connected  with 
each  department. 

Man  standing  for  the  thing,  mastered  or  utilized,  all  its  forces  are 
in  himself  as  a  personal  power  and  a  personal  intelligence.  Character 
being  the  embodiment  of  things  in  persons,  it  is  obviously  limited  in 
its  sphere  to  facts  and  laws  it  has  made  its  own,  out  of  that  sphere  it 
is  comparatively  feeble. 

Many  able  lawyers,  merchants  and  generals  have  been  blunderers  as 
statesmen,  thus  injustice  is  often  done  to  the  real  merits  of  eminent 
men  who  have  been  enticed  out  of  their  strongholds  of  character  to 
venture  into  unaccustomed  fields  of  exertion  where  their  incapacity  is 
soon  detected.  But  confine  a  characteristic  man  to  the  matters  he  has 
really  mastered  and  there  is  in  him  no  blundering,  no  indecision,  no 
uncertainty,  but  a  straight  decisive  activity.  "  Sure  as  insight  and 
rapid  as  instinct,"  which  is  not  to  be  imposed  upon  by  nonsense  of  any 
kind,  however  prettily  you  may  bedizen  it  in  inapplicable  eloquence. 
The  perfection  of  character  depends  on  the  man's  embodying  the  facts 
.and  laws  of  his  profession  or  avocation  or  object  to  such  a  degree  of 
intensity  that  power  and  intelligence  are  combined. 

For  knowledge  unassimilated  does  not  form  part  of  the  mind  but  is 
only  attached  to  it  and  often  blunders  as  badly  as  ignorance  itself. 
While  character,  in  its  intrinsic  nature  is  the  embodiment  of  things  in 
persons;  the  quality  which  most  distinguishes  men  of  character  from 
men  of  passions  and  opinions,  is  persistency  and  the  power  to  continue 
in  its  exercise  until  the  end  sought  is  accomplished.  If  we  scrutinize 
the  lives  of  persons  who  have  become  eminent  in  any  department  of 
action,  we  find  it  is  not  so  much  their  brilliancy  or  fertility  as  their 
constancy  of  effort  that  makes  them  great.  The  heads  of  such  men  are 


not  merely  filled  with  ideas,  purposes  and  plans,  but  the  primary 
characteristics  of  their  natures  and  secret  of  their  success  is  that  labor 
cannot  weary  nor  obstacles  discourage  them. 

The  distinction  between  the  strong  and  the  weak  is  that  one  persists, 
the  other  hesitates,  falters,  trifles  and  at  last  collapses.  We  have  thus 
attempted  to  define  the  combination  of  the  elements  of  human  nature, 
and  to  indicate  the  great  vital  fact  in  human  affairs  that  all  influential 
powers  in  all  departments  of  practical,  intellectual,  and  moral  energy, 
is  that  expression  of  character  by  forcible  persisting  and  calculable 
persons,  who  have  grown  up  into  statures  more  or  less  colossal  through 
an  assimilation  of  material  or  spiritual  realities. 

This  fact  makes  production  the  test  and  measure  of  power;  it  also 
imprints  on  production  the  mental  and  moral  imperfections  of  that 
power  and  with  a  kind  of  sullen  sublimity  declares,  "  That  as  a  man  is 
so  shall  his  work  be."  The  possession  of  these  elements  and  the  results 
reached  by  their  exhibition  is  demonstrated  and  exemplified  in  the 
lives  and  acts  of  those  men  to  whom  Michigan  is  especially  indebted 
for  its  present  prosperous  condition. 

Among  those  names  first  associated  with. the  discovery  and  first  set- 
tlement of  Michigan  are  those  of  Sieur  de  la  Salle  and  de  la  Motte 

The  former  was  born  at  Rouen,  France,  in  1643,  of  an  honorable 
family,  and  named  Robert  Cavelier.  He  was  educated  among  the 
Jesuits,  but  being  dissatisfied  with  theology  he  chose  that  of  science, 
the  pursuit  of  which  led  him  at  the  age  of  twenty-three  to  sail  for 
Canada,  or  New  France,  where  he  first  met  Frontenac,  then  governor, 
between  whom  a  strong  friendship  was  formed  which  continued  until 
the  latter's  recall  to  France.  Parkman  says,  he  was  a  man  full  of 
schemes  of  ambition  and  gain.  Other  of  his  biographers  insist  that 
the  love  of  money  was  foreign  to  his  nature,  but  was  secondary  to  his 
desire  to  discover  a  passage  to  China  across  the  continent,  and  in  the 
event  of  failure  to  anticipate  the  Spaniards  and  English  and  colonize 
the  great  west  with  Frenchmen,  to  develop  its  resources,  make  friends 
with  the  Indian  tribes,  to  obtain  control  of  the  mouth  of  the  Missis- 
sippi, and  thus  secure  an  outlet  for  a  vast  trade  which  should  redound 
to  the  benefit  of  his  native  country.  The  last  would  seem  to  be,  in  the 
main,  the  ruling  object  of  his  life,  for,  while  he  did  not  find  a  direct 
route  to  China,  he  explored  the  whole  southwest  to  the  mouth  of  the 
Mississippi  and  established  posts  in  Michigan  and  at  numerous  inter- 
vening points  between  it  and  the  mouth  of  the  Mississippi  and  took 
possession  of  all  the  vast  territory  watered  by  the  latter  stream  in  the 

286  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893, 

name  of  the  king  of  France.  Unfortunately  he  was  not  permitted  to 
enjoy  the  fruits  planted  through  toil,  personal  pecuniary  loss,  and  the 
jealousies  and  persecutions  of  enemies  in  the  old  and  new  world,  for 
on  returning  from  France,  through  a  mistake  of  his  navigator,  the 
mouth  of  the  Mississippi  was  passed  and  he  landed  at  Matagorda  Bay, 
Texas,  where,  after  building  a  fort,  which  he  named  St.  Louis,  he 
remained  three  years  exploring  the  country,  and  while  on  one  of  these 
expeditions  was  murdered  by  one  of  his  own  men,  March  20,  1687. 

Antoine  de  la  Motte  Cadillac,  born  at  Toulouse,  France,  in  1661,  was 
educated  for  the  army  and  came  to  Quebec  in  1682,  was  appointed  to 
the  command  of  Michilimackinac  in  1694.  In  1699  he  visited  France 
and  laid  before  the  king  his  plans  for  the  establishment  of  a  permanent 
settlement  at  Detroit.  His  plans  meeting  the  approval  of  the  king,  he 
returned  and  July  24,  1701,  founded  the  first  settlement  of  a  civil  and 
permanent  character  in  Michigan. 

It  is  needless  to  enter  into  details  of  the  events  that  transpired 
during  the  nine  years  he  was  commandant  at  Detroit. 

It  is  sufficient  that,  against  the  wishes  of  the  Canadian  company  and 
in  opposition  to  the  intrigues  of  designing  men,  he  succeeded  in 
founding  a  town  composed  of  civilians,  who  made  substantial  improve- 
ments for  those  times,  that  he  succeeded  in  inducing  many  of  the 
Indians  to  adopt  the  customs  of  the  whites,  that  he  established  schools 
where  the  children  of  both  the  whites  and  the  Indians  received 
instruction,  that  he  encouraged  the  clearing  and  cultivation  of  the 
lands,  erected  mills,  that  from  time  to  time  he  sent  out  men  to  explore 
and  establish  posts  elsewhere  throughout  the  territory. 

In  short  he  did  more  to  civilize  the  surrounding  Indian  tribes  and  to 
excite  in  them  a  disposition  to  emulate  the  customs  and  habits  of  their 
French  neighbors,  than  did  all  his  successors  the  fifty-one  years  during 
which  Michigan  was  under  French  or  English  rule.  Both  La  Salle 
and  Cadillac  were  alike  courageous  and  determined  men  and  exercised 
great  influence  over  the  Indian  tribes,  but  each  manifested  it  differently. 
The  former  maintained  his  authority  over  the  Indians  through  their 
fear;  the  latter  held  them  through  their  love.  Both  had  incurred  the 
animosity  of  the  colonial  government  and  were  forced  to  appeal  to  the 
king.  Neither  profitted  pecuniarily  through  the  labor,  privations,  and 
dangers  they  encountered.  The  former  had  spent  over  twenty  years  in 
pursuit  of  his  grand  scheme  to  make  for  himself  fame  as  a  discoverer 
and,  doubtless,  looked  for  the  time  when  both  wealth  and  power  should 
be  his  reward.  His  heart,  however,  was  in  the  work  of  discovery  and 
in  this  field  there  are  no  brighter  names  in  American  history.  Cadillac 


had  given  the  best  years  of  his  life  in  his  endeavor  to  promote  civili- 
zation by  means  which  should  preserve  its  barbarous  inhabitants,  and 
the  measure  of  success  he  achieved  in  this  direction  is  strong  evidence 
against  the  heartless  theories  which  have  led  to  their  destruction,  His 
name  should  always  hold  a  prominent  place  in  Michigan's  history. 

As  but  little  notable  progress  was  made  in  the  way  of  civilized 
improvements  in  Michigan  after  the  removal  of  Cadillac,  we  pass  from 
that  period  through  French  and  English  rule  to  1813-14,  at  which  time 
Lewis  Cass  and  William  Woodbridge  became  prominently  connected 
with  the  affairs  of  the  territory. 


Lewis  Cass  was  born  at  Exeter,  New  Hampshire,  October  9,  1783. 
Was  appointed  military  governor  of  the  territory  of  Michigan,  October 
14,  1815,  and  the  following  year  made  permanent  governor,  with 
William  Woodbridge  as  secretary.  The  war  of  1812-15  had  but  closed, 
the  population  had  been  scattered  and  was  still  exposed  to  the  ravages 
of  the  hostile  Indians.  A  brave,  sagacious  and  firm  hand  was  therefore 
needed  to  restore  order  and  confidence,  as  well  as  to  rebuke  outrages 
perpetrated  by  the  English  authorities  in  Canada  under  the  plea  that 
they  had  a  right  to  invade  the  territory  in  search  of  and  arrest 
deserters  from  their  army. 

General  Cass  acted  in  these  emergencies  with  energy  and  promptness. 
What  the  territory  now  needed  was  more  people  and  he  immediately 
took  the  necessary  steps  to  induce  them  to  come  and  assuming  that 
the  survey  of  lands,  which  had  been  directed,  would  soon  be  completed, 
he  began  to  lay  out  that  portion  of  the  territory,  where  the  Indian 
iitle  had  been  extinguished,  into  Wayne  county  with  its  seat  of  justice 
at  Detroit,  and  to  divide  the  whole  territory  into  road  districts. 
Monroe  county  was  established  in  1817,  just  after  Indiana  had  been 
admitted  as  a  state.  Illinois  was  admitted  in  1818,  thus  leaving  Michi- 
gan territory  to  embrace  all  north  of  those  states.  In  all  the  measures 
in  bringing  about  these  results,  the  interests  of  Michigan  proper  were 
carefully  guarded  by  Governor  Cass  so  that  by  the  year  1818  the  terri- 
tory began  to  grow  in  population  and  in  substantial  improvements. 

In  1819  its  population  had  reached  the  number  authorized  under  the 
ordinance  of  1787  to  form  a  representative  government,  and  this  gave 
occasion  for  General  Cass  10  show  himself  in  advance  of  any  statesman 
of  his  time  in  his  ideas  of  popular  interference  in  the  selection  of 
public  officers,  adhering  as  he  did  with  great  tenacity  to  the  doctrine 
that  the  people  should  have  a  direct  voice  in  appointments  generally. 

288  ANNUAL,  MEETING,  1893. 

He  continued  to  hold  the  position  of  governor  until  1831.  During 
his  term  of  seventeen  years,  he  secured  the  respect  of  the  men  of  all 
parties,  which  he  retained  during  his  life,  notwithstanding  party  spirit 
at  times  ran  high  and  apparently  disregarded  personal  considerations  or 
relations  in  the  desire  for  party  success;  all,  however,  recognized  his 
devotedness  to  Michigan,  for,  whether  as  secretary  of  war,  secretary  of 
State,  or  as  minister  to  France,  or  as  United  States  senator,  he  ever 
manifested  for  Michigan  and  all  that  concerned  it,  that  it  was  ever  first 
and  uppermost  in  his  thoughts.  His  last  public  demonstration  evinced 
for  and  loyalty  to  it  and  the '  constitution.  He  died  at  Detroit  June 
17,  1866. 


Governor  William  Woodbridge,  a  native  of  Connecticut,  was  born 
August  20,  1780,  and  in  1791  removed  with  his  father  to  Ohio,  then  a 

He  studied  law  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1806.  In  1807  he 
was  a  member  of  the  Ohio  assembly  and  state  senator  from  1809  to 
1814,  when  President  Madison  appointed  him  secretary  of  the  territory 
of  Michigan. 

He  also  acted  as  governor  and  superintendent  of  Indian  agencies  in 
the  absence  of  the  governor  and  was  collector  of  customs.  In  1819  he 
was  the  choice  of  all  parties  for  delegate  to  congress,  inasmuch  as  the 
right  of  the  territory  to  be  represented  in  congress  was  obtained 
.through  his  efforts.  As  a  delegate  he  secured  an  appropriation  to  con- 
struct roads  from  Detroit  to  Fort  Gratiot,  Chicago,  and  through  the 
black  swamp  to  the  Miami  river  in  Ohio.  He  also  secured  the  settle- 
ment of  the  old  French  claims  and  was  instrumental  in  securing  aid 
for  General  Cass'  expedition  to  Lake  Superior  and  the  upper  Miss- 
issippi. Refusing  a  second  -election  as  delegate  to  congress,  he  acted 
as  secretary  until  1824,  when  he  was  appointed  one  of  the  commission- 
ers to  adjust  private  land  claims.  In  1828  President  Adams  appointed 
him  judge  of  the  supreme  court.  He  was  a  member  of  the  constitu- 
tional convention  in  1835,  and  state  senator  in  18H8-9,  and  was  elected 
governor  and  served  as  such  until  1841,  when  he  was  chosen  United 
States  senator,  both  Whigs  and  Democrats  uniting  in  his  election. 
After  serving  his  term  as  senator  he  retired  to  private  life.  He  died 
October  20,  1861. 

Gov.  Woodbridge  was  a  man  of  decided  opinion  and  firm  in  his  con- 
victions of  right  and  fearless  in  expressing  them.  While  occupying 
the  numerous  public  positions  of  honor  and  trust  he  was  distinguished 


for    the    impartial   and    just   manner    in    which    he    administered    and 
executed  the  requirements  they  imposed. 

Although  General  Cass  and  Governor  Woodbridge  differed  on  politi- 
cal questions,  neither  suffered  them  to  interfere  in  the  discharge  of 
their  respective  duties  and  obligation  to  public  interests  and  the  good 
of  Michigan.  Each  enjoyed  the  confidence  and  respect  of  all  classes  of 
the  people.  Both  came  to  Michigan  when  its  affairs  were  in  a  chaotic 
.state,  and  were  instrumental  in  bringing  them  to  that  condition  of 
order,  which  resulted  in  paving  the  way  to  its  present  proud  position 
among  its  sister  states.  Neither  of  them  became  personally  interested, 
pecuniarily,  in  large  enterprises,  yet  so  far  as  encouragement  and  weight 
of  influence  could  promote,  it  was  exercised  in  the  interests  of  all  that 
tended  to  advance  the  material  growth  of  the  State  and  the  develop- 
ment of  its  resources. 


While  his  parents  were  on  their  way  from  Vermont  to  the  west, 
through  Canada,  they  were  compelled  to  delay  at  New  Hamborough, 
Upper  Canada,  where  Captain  Eber  Brock  Ward  was  born  December 
25,  1811.  His  parents  brought  him  to  Michigan  and  with  them  he 
bore  the  privations,  trials  and  hardships  incident  to  pioneer  life. 

At  twenty-two  years  of  age  we  find  him  at  work  on  the  farm  of  his 
uncle  Samuel  Ward,  of  St.  Clair  county.  In  the  winter  of  1835-6  he 
assisted  his  uncle  in  getting  out  ship  timber,  and  in  the  spring  of 
1836  purchased  of  his  uncle  a  quarter  interest  in  a  small  schooner. 
Thus  commenced  a  partnership  which  continued  during  the  life  of  his 
uncle.  In  1840  the  firm  built  its  first  steamer,  and  in  1845  it  owned 
and  controlled  a  feet  of  twenty  steamers  and  sail  vessels.  In  the  latter 
year  he  ran  two  steamers  on  Lakes  Michigan  and  Erie  in  connection 
with  the  Michigan  Central  railroad.  This  service  he  continued  until 
that  road  had  reached  Chicago  and  the  Great  Western  road  was  com- 
pleted and  connected  with  it  at  Detroit.  The  Ward  vessels  afterward 
did  a  large  general  transportation  business  on  Lakes  Erie,  Huron, 
Michigan,  and  Superior.  During  a  portion  of  this  period  Capt.  Ward 
became  interested  in  the  mines  of  Lake  Superior,  and  also  in  the  pine 
lands  lying  along  the  shores  of  Lakes  Michigan  and  Huron,  and  soon 
afterward  projected  and  saw  completed  the  Flint  and  Pere  Marquette 
railroad  across  the  northern  portion  of  the  State.  In  1864  he  reduced 
his  vessel  interests  somewhat,  devoting  his  means  to  mining  and  manu- 
facturing and  in  the  course  of  a  few  years  had  rolling  mills  at 

290  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

Wyandotte,  Chicago,  and  Milwaukee,  and  had  established  large  manu- 
facturing industries  at  Ludington,  Toledo,  Saginaw,  and  Flint. 

Among  the  most  remarkable  characteristics  of  Capt.  Ward  was  his 
wonderful  business  ability  and  his  capacity  for  organizing  industrial 
enterprises.  Perhaps  no  single  individual  in  the  United  States  did  so 
much  to  disseminate  information  on  the  subject  of  promoting  home 
industries  as  Captain  Ward. 

As  he  has  often  repeated  to  the  writer,  he  believed  that  the  best 
philanthropy  of  the  age  was  that  which  afforded  the  greatest  amount 
of  remunerative  labor  to  the  working  men  of  the  country.  His  heart 
was  large,  his  charity  abundant,  his  forethought  and  foresight  wonderful, 
his  will  power  indomitable,  and  his  physical  and  moral  courage 

JAMES   F.    JOY. 

About  the  time  when  Capt.  Ward  had  successfully  established  his 
lines  of  steamers  upon  the  lakes  (1846),  James  F.  Joy  and  his  associ- 
ates had  negotiated  with  the  State  for  the  purchase  of  the  Michigan 
Central  railroad,  then  constructed  to  Kalamazoo.  In  consequence  of 
financial  embarrassment,  the  credit  of  the  State  was  so  impaired  as  to 
be  totally  unable  to  meet  its  obligations  or  to  provide  the  means  for 
completing  its  public  works  which  had  been  projected  and  commenced 
under  the  legislative  acts  of  1836-7.  The  Michigan  Central  railroad 
was  among  them. 

It  was  then,  when  the  State  was  on  the  eve  of  bankruptcy,  that 
Mr.  Joy  and  his  associates  came  to  its  rescue  and  purchased  this  road 
and  extended  it  to  Chicago.  At  this  time  it  was  the  first  great  line 
of  railroad  to  enter  that  city  with  a  population  of  between  8,000  and 

Having  reached  this  point,  Mr.  Joy  saw  that  the  Michigan  Central 
must  have  connections  west,  and  starting  from  Chicago  with  his 
engineers,  he  projected  the  present  Chicago,  Burlington  and  Quincy 
railroad  across  the  Mississippi  at  Quincy  and  the  Missouri  at  Kansas 
City;  made  its  connections  with  the  Hannibal  and  St.  Joseph;  thence 
extending  a  branch  to  Fort  Kearney,  Nebraska,  and  Fort  Scott,  Indian 
territory,  established  a  continuous  line  from  these  points  to  Detroit. 
In  the  extension  of  the  Hannibal,  and  St.  Joseph  road  to  Kansas  City 
he  spanned  the  river  with  the  first  iron  bridge  across  the  Missouri, 
and  constructed  the  Kansas  City,  Fort  Scott  and  Gulf  railroad  to  the 
Indian  territory  and  Kansas  City;  the  St.  Joseph  and  Council  Bluffs 
road  from  Kansas  City  to  Council  Bluffs.  When  returning  to  Michigan 


he,  between  the  years  1861  and  1870  projected  and  completed  the 
Detroit,  Lansing  and  Northern;  Detroit  and  Bay  City;  Air  Line,  from 
Jackson  to  Niles;  Jackson,  Lansing  and  Saginaw;  Chicago  and  West 
Michigan;  Kalamazoo  and  South  Haven,  and  the  Wabash  from  Detroit 
to  Chicago. 

He  is  at  present  the  president  of  the  Detroit  union  depot  and  its 
railway  connections,  and  planned  the  present  union  depot  buildings  in 
Detroit,  which  are  pronounced  to  be  the  most  complete  of  any  west  of 
New  York. 

From  1846  to  the  present,  Mr.  Joy  has  been  the  chief  factor  in  the 
construction  of  over  two  thousand  three  hundred  miles  of  railroads  in 
Michigan,  and  the  promoter  of  over  six  thousand  miles  of  the  railroads 
and  their  connection  entering  the  city  of  Detroit. 

Mr.  Joy  was  born  at  Durham,  New  Hampshire,  Dec.  2,  1810.  A 
kind  providence  has  permitted  him  to  live  and  retain  his  mental  and 
physical  powers  in  vigor  as  full  as  that  of  his  early  manhood,  and  to 
contemplate  the  changes  which  have  taken  place  through  his  instru- 
mentality, to  view  the  forests  disappear  and  to  be  replaced  by  prosper- 
ous cities  and  towns,  and  the  great  highways  constructed  which  con- 
nects and  promotes  their  growth,  to  witness  the  progress  of  art  and 
the  advance  of  learning  and  the  increase  of  an  intelligent  population. 

It  cannot  be  regarded  as  fulsomeness  when  we  say  that  both  the 
present  and  future  generations  of  Michigan  should  recognize  Mr.  Joy 
as  one  of  the  prominent  factors  in  promoting  many  of  the  changes 
which  have  occurred  within  fifty  years  in  Michigan,  as  well  as  in  the 
states. west,  directly  through  his  agency. 

The  characteristics  manifested  by  both  Captain  Ward  and  Mr.  Joy 
-are  similar  in  respect  to  their  great  undertaking,  for  what  seemed  to 
others  boldness  in  conception,  were  to  them  the  product  of  careful 
thoughts  and  well  matured  plans,  while  neither  permitted  ordinary 
obstacles  to  interfere  with  their  consummation,  at  the  same  time  both 
recognized  that  personal  interests  should  be  subordinate  to  public  good, 
•while  doubtless  personal  gain  entered  into  their  calculations,  still  the 
ruling  motive  with  them  was  to  meet  the  demands  of  general  business 

Both  found  in  Michigan  and  its  surroundings  a  field  for  the  exercise 
of  their  power  to  conserve,  perfect  and  complete  large  enterprises, 
where  millions  of  money  was  required  but  where  millions  of  men  and 
women  would  be  correspondingly  benefited. 

While  Captain  Ward  was  covering  the  waters  of  the  great  lakes  with 
liis  fleet  vessels,  Mr.  Joy  was  reducing  distances  with  the  iron  rail, 

292  ANNUAL,  MEETING,  1893. 

thus  cooperating,  they  afforded  the  workingman  compensating  employ- 
ment; the  farmer  and  manufacturer  ready  sale  for  their  products^  and 
commenced  the  facilities  for  transportation  and  paved  the  way  for  the 
development  of  all  the  natural  resources  of  this  great  State. 

Thus,  while  we  have  referred  to  these  few  names  of  Michigan's  pio- 
neers as  demonstrating  and  exemplifying,  in  their  lives  and  acts,  the 
possession  and  assimilation  of  those  elements  which  form  what  we  have 
sought  in  our  introduction  to  define  as  constituting  character,  there 
are  hundreds  of  the  pioneers  of  Michigan  whose  names  and  lives 
remind  us  as  having  manifested  the  possession  of  these  attributes,  to 
whom  Michigan  is  greatly  indebted  for  its  development  of  material 
wealth  as  well  as  in  literature,  and  an  educated  and  refined  population. 

Gladly  would  we  refer  to  them  and  detail  the  evidences  of  their 
influence  in  bringing  our  State  to  its  present  condition,  but  time  and 
space  will  not  permit  it. 


BY   JAMES   F.    JOY. 

The  territorial  legislature  of  Michigan,  as  early  as  1833,  passed  an 
act  to  incorporate  the  Detroit  and  St.  Joseph  railroad  company.  The- 
object  of  the  company  was  to  build  a  railroad  from  Detroit  to  St. 
Joseph,  on  Lake  Michigan.  This  was  the  first  mention  in  the  legisla- 
tion of  the  State  of  any  railroad  to  Detroit.  There  was,  at  that  time, 
but  little  railroad  constructed  in  the  whole  country.  The  Boston  and 
Lowell,  and  the  Boston  and  Worcester  were  all  in  New  England. 
Albany  to  Schenectady  and  a  commencement  of  the  road  from  Schenec- 
tady  west  only,  were  about  all  the  railroads  in  the  United  States  north 
of  Mason  aud  Dixon's  line.  What  a  difference  between  now  and  then! 

The  Detroit  and  St.  Joseph  railroad  company  was  commenced  and 
under  great  difficuties  was  in  progress  and  some  work  done  between 
Detroit  and  Ypsilanti,  in  1836,  when  the  State  determined  to  undertake 
to  build  that  road  through  to  St.  Joseph,  to  be  called  the  Central 


road,  and  also  one  from  Monroe,  and  one  from  the  foot  of  Lake  Huron, 
also,  to  Lake  Michigan.  The  terminus  of  the  Central  road  was  fixed 
on  the  Campus  Martius,  where  the  city  hall  now  stands.  It  came  into 
the  city  along  Michigan  avenue,  then  called  the  Chicago  road.  At  one 
time  it  extended  from  the  Campus  Martius  along  down  through  Wood- 
ward avenue  to  the  border  of  the  Detroit  river,  and  that  part  of  it  was 
constructed  by  Thomas  Palmer  (father  of  the  Hon.  Thomas  W.  Palmer) 
under  a  contract  with  the  railroad  commissioners  representing  the 
State.  It  was  a  singular  movement  and  illustrates  how  little  the 
business  to  come  was  understood.  To  build  a  railroad  through  the 
middle  of  the  street  and  on  to  the  river  at  the  foot  of  a  hill,  with  no 
station  or  station  grounds  upon  which  to  do  business,  and  with  no  plan 
to  acquire  any,  and  with  no  possibility  of  doing  so  for  such  an 
approach,  would  hardly  commend  itself  to  the  judgment  of  a  railway 
man  of  the  present  day.  It  is  needless  to  say  that  that  part  of  the 
road  was  never  used  for  any  purpose  and  was  soon  taken  up. 

In  March,  1837,  the  legislature  passed  an  act,  under  which  it  under- 
took the  construction  of  the  three  railroads  above  mentioned  across 
the  State,  and  authorized  a  State  loan  on  the  bonds  of  the  State  for 
$5,000,000  to  enable  it  to  build  them. 

Both  the  amount  of  money  which  was  thought  adequate  for  the 
construction  of  about  six  hundred  miles  of  railroad,  and  the  history  of 
the  negotiation  of  the  bonds,  proves  how  little  the  cost  of  railroads 
was  then  understood,  and  how  unfit  the  then  authorities  were  to 
manage  such  negotiations.  The  parties  with  whom  the  business  was 
transacted  failed,  and  as  the  sale  was  on  the  credit  of  the  State,  it 
never  received  but  a  portion  of  the  money,  and  was  involved  in  many 
difficulties,  both  embarrassing  its  own  work,  detrimental  to  its  credit, 
and  causing  it  to  be  treated  as  a  repudiating  State,  because  it  refused 
to  pay  bonds  upon  which  it  had  never  received  the  money  agreed  to 
be  paid  for  them. 

The  State,  however,  had  undertaken  the  work  of  internal  improve- 
ment. But  it  soon  became  bankrupt.  It  did  not  build  a  mile  of  the 
northern  road.  It  built  but  a  few  miles  of  the  Michigan  Southern 
from  Monroe  (now  Lake  Shore  and  Michigan  Southern).  In  the  course 
of  about  eight  years  it  did  build  the  Central  to  Kalamazoo.  It  was 
built  with  strap  rail,  so  called,  about  half  an  inch  thick,  laid  upon 
wood  stringers,  which  in  turn  were  laid  on  cross  beams  or  ties  sunk 
or  buried  in  the  ground.  To  accomplish  even  this  the  whole  means 
and  credit  of  the  State  were  exhausted.  It  used  its  credit  abroad 
where  it  had  any.  It  then  resorted  to  forced  loans  in  the  form  of 

294  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

bills  or  notes  of  the  State,  similar  to  bank  notes,  in  which  it  paid  for 
materials  and  labor  till  even  they  could  not  be  used.  In  1846  it  had 
become  so  utterly  without  credit  that  it  was  compelled  to  negotiate  the 
sale  of  all  its  public  works,  and  among  them  the  Central  road  from 
Detroit  to  Kalamazoo.  What  a  difference  again  between  the  condition 
of  affairs  then,  and  the  credit  and  ability  of  the  very  prosperous  and' 
great  State  of  Michigan  of  the  present  day! 

The  Michigan  Central  charter,  proposing  a  sale  to  a  corporation,  to- 
be  formed  to  take  and  complete  the  road  as  provided  and  agreed  in 
the  charter,  was  passed  in  1846.  The  company  was  to  finish  it  through 
to  the  lake  at  New  Buffalo,  instead  of  St.  Joseph,  within  three  years;; 
to  relay  the  already  built  road  as  well  as  the  new  with  sixty  pound- 
iron  rail;  to  change  its  eastern  terminus  from  the  Campus  Martius  and 
the  entrance  by  the  Chicago  road  (as  it  was  then  called),  over  a  new 
line  to  the  river,  where  it  should  acquire  adequate  yards  for  its 

The  company  which  took  the  road  was  a  strong  one.  It  complied 
with  its  charter,  and  within  the  three  years  the  road  was  built  to  New 
Buffalo  and  a  harbor  constructed  there,  and  the  through  business  by 
water  and  rail  between  Chicago  and  New  York  and  New  England 
commenced  over  the  road.  It  was  the  first  considerable  road  built  in 
the  west.  The  business  then  begun  has  been  every  year  increasing  in 
magnitude,  though  there  are  five  or  more  roads  from  Chicago  east,  all 
competing  for  the  through  business.  In  three  years  more  it  was 
extended  to  Chicago,  and  the  first  great  railroad  from  the  east  entered 
that  city,  then  containing  from  8,000  to  10,000  inhabitants,  hardly  as 
large  as  Detroit  at  the  same  time. 

The  sale  of  the  Central  road  to  the  corporation  and  the  resulting 
construction  of  the  road,  gave  great  impulse  to  the  progress  of  both  the 
city  and  State.  The  Southern  was  sold  and  also  constructed  through 
to  Chicago. 

The  Detroit  and  Pontiac  railroad  was  chartered  in  1834  to  build  a 
road  between  Detroit  and  Pontiac.  It  was  undertaken  with  inadequate 
means,  and  it  was  many  years,  even,  before  it  reached  Pontiac.  It 
originally  came  into  the  city  on  the  north  side  of  the  Campus  Martius, 
where  the  Detroit  opera  house  now  stands.  In  1850  it  was  authorized 
to  extend  to  the  river,  and  also  to  extend  through  Pontiac  and 
connect  with  the  Oakland  and  Ottawa  road,  which,  when  built,  was  to 
extend  to  Lake  Michigan.  This  plan  was  carried  through,  and  the  two 
roads  consolidated  constitute  the  present  Detroit,  Grand  Haven  and 
Milwaukee  railroad. 


A  charter  had  been  passed  by  the  legislature  for  the  construction  of 
a  railroad  from  Detroit  to  Toledo  at  the  session  of  1846,  to  be  called 
the  Detroit  and  Monroe  railroad,  and  some  efforts  were  made  to  build  it, 
but  all  failed,  and  the  charter  by  its  limitations  expired.  In  1855  the 
first  general  railroad  law  was  enacted,  and  under  it  the  Detroit,  Monroe 
and  Toledo  Railroad  Company  was  organized  in  the  same  year,  and  the 
road  constructed  by  the  Lake  Shore  and  Michigan  Southern  stockholders 
in  the  interest  of  that  company,  which  now  is  in  control  of  the  Lake 
Shore  and  Michigan  Southern  Railroad  Company. 

It  is  a  valuable  piece  of  the  property  of  that  prosperous  company. 
Now  came  on  a  panic  and  but  little  was  done  in  the  way  of  building 
railroads  for  several  years. 

In  1871  the  Detroit  and  Lansing  railroad  was  organized  under  the 
general  law  and  was  built  through  to  Lansing.  It  was  afterwards,  in 
1876,  consolidated  with  the  Ionia  and  Lansing,  and  now  constitutes  the 
Detroit,  Lansing  and  Northern  railroad.  It  is  an  important  and  valuable 
road  to  both  city  and  county. 

In  1871  the  Detroit  and  Bay  City  was  organized,  and  quickly  built 
through  to  both  Saginaw  and  Bay  City,  and  now  constitutes  a  portion 
of  the  line  from  Detroit  to  Mackinac.  These  two  roads  were  built 
largely  by  those  interested  in  the  Michigan  Central  Company. 

About  the  time  of  the  construction  of  these  two  roads,  or  perhaps 
earlier,  the  Canada  Southern,  and  Chicago  and  Canada  Southern  had 
been  undertaken  by  capitalists  living  in  New  York,  with  the  purpose 
of  erecting  a  shorter  line  between  Chicago  and  Buffalo,  as  well  as  one 
of  the  easiest  grades  to  cross  the  Detroit  river  at  Grosse  Isle.  The 
enterprise  proved  a  failure  and  the  company  became  bankrupt. 

The  whole  plan  fell  through.  The  Chicago  and  Canada  Southern 
being  partly  built  from  Trenton  west,  was  extended  from  Trenton  to 
Detroit,  and  subsequently  from  Trenton  to  Toledo,  and  became  the 
property  of  the  Michigan  Central  Company. 

The  Canada  Southern,  also  in  Canada,  having  been  insolvent  for 
some  years,  was  acquired  by  the  Michigan  Central  and  extended  from 
Essex  Center,  in  Canada,  to  Detroit,  and  now  constitutes  a  part  of  the 
through  line  of  the  Michigan  Central  from  Chicago  to  Buffalo,  all  the 
business  crossing  the  river  at  Detroit. 

Next  to  the  Michigan  Central  the  most  important  road  for  Detroit  for 
many  years  was  the  Great  Western  of  Canada,  extending  from  Windsor, 
opposite  Detroit,  to  Niagara  Falls. 

The  Michigan  Central  had  been  completed  to  Chicago,  and  had  been 

296  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

in  operation  several  years  before  the  Great  Western  was  undertaken. 
There  was  no  road  through  Canada. 

The  travel  and  business  was  across  Lake  Erie  on  magnificent  steam- 
ers, constituting  the  Michigan  Central  line  between  Detroit  and 
Buffalo.  A  splendid  line  of  boats,  and  constituting  a  most  pleasant  as 
well  as  magnificent  mode  and  route  for  both  pleasure  and  business. 

The  Great  Western  Railroad  Company  owed  its  origin  to  the  Michi- 
gan Central  Company.  The  men  at  the  head  of  the  latter  company 
were  its  promoters.  They  enlisted  with  them  the  New  York  Central 
Company,  and  started  into  life  the  interest  of  Canada  all  along  the  line 
of  the  proposed  road,  and  at  Detroit.  By  the  united  strength  of  all,  the 
required  life  was  given  to  the  enterprise,  and  the  road  was  built,  though 
with  immense  difficulty  and  effort.  It  was  the  first  road  built  in 
Canada.  It  was  injured  by  the  alliance  of  the  Michigan  Central  with 
the  Canada  Southern,  and  finally  fell  into  the  control  of  the  Grand 
Trunk,  of  which  system  it  is  now  a  part,  and  is  known  only  as  Grand 

The  Detroit  and  Port  Huron  branch  of  the  Grand  Trunk  road  was 
built  entirely  by  this  company  in  about  1855,  and  was  for  many  years 
its  main  line  for  all  through  business  connecting  with  the  Michigan 
Central  Road  at  West  Detroit,  and  for  many  years  all  the  large  busi- 
ness of  the  Grand  Trunk  to  and  from  the  west  was  done  by  that  road. 
It  is  now  reduced  to  a  mere  local  road  by  the  extension  of  the  Grand 
Trunk  connections  to  Chicago. 

The  Detroit,  Butler  and  St.  Louis  Railroad,  extending  from  Detroit 
to  Butler  in  Indiana,  was  undertaken  in  1880  by  public  spirited  citizens 
of  Detroit  to  connect  the  Wabash  Railroad  with  the  city  of  Detroit. 

It  was  undertaken  after  all  means  had  failed  to  bring  that  great  sys- 
tem to  Detroit.  Negotiations  had  been  had  to  use  one  of  the  lines 
between  Detroit  and  Toledo,  and  obtain  the  connection  that  way,  but 
it  was  found  impossible  to  accomplish  it,  and  no  other  way  remained 
but  to  build  a  new  road.  As  above  stated,  it  was  undertaken  by  citi- 
zens of  Detroit,  and  finally  the  road  was  completed  in  1881.  At  Butler 
it  connected  with  the  Wabash,  making  a  very  straight  line  by  that 
road  to  St.  Louis,  and  opened  the  southwest,  Indiana,  Illinois  and 
Missouri  to  the  business  of  Detroit,  and  brings  largely  the  productions 
of  those  fertile  states  to  and  through  Detroit. 

The  last  of  the  railroads  connecting  with  Detroit  has  been  the 
Canadian  Pacific.  It  is  another  road  from  Detroit  to  all  the  eastern 
centers  of  the  Dominion  of  Canada,  and  all  the  eastern  states  of  the 
United  States.  It  is  destined  to  become  one  of  the  great  through 


routes  of  the  country,  connecting  as  it  does  at  Detroit  with  both  Chi- 
cago and  St.  Louis  railroads,  and  by  them  reaching  the  whole  west  and 
northwest  of  this  country. 

The  condition  of  several  of  the  roads  connecting  with  Detroit  has 
made  necessary  many  depots  and  stations  for  their  accommodation.  To 
accomplish  their  establishment  and  construction,  several  of  the  citizens 
of  Detroit  have  united  together  and  established  at  first  the  Detroit 
Union  Railroad  Depot  and  Station  Company,  and  constructed  it  with  a 
connecting  railroad  through  the  western  section  of  the  city  to  the 
Wabash  and  other  railroads  there,  and  have  also  brought  about  the 
establishment  of  the  Fort  Street  Union  Depot  Company,  principally  as 
a  passenger  station.  This  brings  the  roads  nearer  to  the  center  of 
the  city  and  furnishes  as  convenient  a  passenger  station  as  is  perhaps 
possible.  These  depot  and  station  establishments  are  as  important, 
perhaps,  to  promote  the  convenience  of  the  public,  as  any  public 
improvement  which  has  been  undertaken  at  Detroit,  save  the  sale  of 
the  Central  railroad  to  the  company  now  owning  it. 

In  looking  back  over  the  progress  of  many  years  of  the  State  and 
city  in  prosperity,  the  transfer  of  the  Central  road  to  the  present  com- 
pany must  be  considered  the  most  effective  in  its  influence  upon  the 
prosperity  of  the  whole  State  as  well  as  of  the  city.  It  was  a  strong 
company.  The  influence  of  the  company  upon  property  was  immediate 
and  has  been  constant.  Its  strength  has  been  felt  in  the  construction 
of  many  other  railroads,  lateral  and  otherwise,  extending  largely  over 
the  State,  and  always  tending  to  bring  the  benefit  of  all  its  connections 
to  the  city.  While  contributing  greatly  and  immensly  to  the  interests 
of  the  whole  State,  it  has  equally  been  the  largest  factor  in  the  prog- 
ress and  prosperity  of  the  city  of  Detroit.  Each  new  enterprise  has 
done  much,  and  all  of  them  in  the  aggregate  have  contributed  to  carry 
forward  the  State  from  its  bankrupt  condition  to  its  present  state 
of  prosperity  and  wealth,  and  build  up  the  present  large  and  prosper- 
ous Detroit.  While,  therefore,  all  have  been  valuable,  the  Michigan 
Central  has  been  always  easily  the  most  important  factor  in  the  State's 

[Published  in  the  Detroit  Free  Press,  May  1,  1892.] 

Discoursing  with  Mr.  James  F.  Joy  on  early  railroading  in  the  west, 
apropos  of   the  recent  publication  in  the  Free  Press  of    the  experience 
of  Mr.  A.  B.  Priest  as  a  locomotive  engineer  for  forty-six  years  and  of 

298  ANNUAL,  MEETING,   1893. 

Mr.  Samuel  Skelding  as  a  conductor  for  a  somewhat  longer  period,  Mr. 
Joy  was  requested  to  relate  how  he  came  to  engage  in  railroad  work. 

"  In  the  summer  of  1845,"  said  Mr.  Joy,  "  Mr.  John  W.  Brooks  paid 
a  visit  to  Detroit,  bringing  letters  to  me  from  friends  in  New  England. 
He  came  to  the  office  of  Joy  &  Porter,  and  after  several  conversations 
upon  the  subject  of  the  Michigan  Central  railroad,  I  unfortunately  took 
the  step  which  led  me  away  from  the  practice  of  the  noble  profession 
of  law  to  become  a  railroad  man." 

Mr.  Joy's  eyes  twinkled  as  he  made  this  remark,  and  he  laughed 
quietly  as  his  interlocutor  looked  at  him  in  some  surprise.  "  Without 
judging  from  your  standpoint  about  that,  Mr.  Joy,  I  should  say  that  it 
was  a  fortunate  thing  for  Detroit  and  Michigan — for  the  rest  of  us — 
that  you  took  that  step." 

<llt  was  that  circumstance  of  meeting  with  Mr.  Brooks,"  continued 
Mr.  Joy,  "  which  engaged  me  in  railroad  work  and  took  me  into  such 
enterprises  deeper  and  deeper  until  they  engrossed  my  whole  time. 
Perhaps  if  we  look  further  back  it  may  have  been  some  articles  which 
I  published  in  the  Detroit  papers  quite  a  while  before  this,  advocating 
the  selling  of  the  railroads  then  owned  and  operated  by  the  State.  If 
you  will  look  into  the  old  files  you  will  find  several  letters  on  this 
subject  written  by  me,  a  long  time  before  the  visit  of  Mr.  Brooks  to 
the  office  of  Joy  &  Porter  in  1845,  and  without  any  thought  of 
having  personally  any  part  in  the  matter  except  as  a  citizen  favoring 
a  sound  and  proper  policy  for  the  State  government. 

"  You  must  understand  that  at  this  time  the  State  of  Michigan  was 
in  extreme  financial  difficulties.  It  was  overburdened  with  liabilities 
and  there  was  no  money  in  the  treasury.  It  could  not  meet  the  interest 
on  the  public  debt  and  there  was  serious  action  taken  looking  to  the 
repudiation  of  the  State's  bonded  indebtedness.  In  fact  in  financial 
circles  we  were  looked  upon  as  dishonest,  and  Michigan  was  charged 
with  being  a  State  repudiating  its  debts.  A  kind  of  state  treasury 
note  known  as  '  scrip '  circulated  hazardously  at  a  woeful  discount. 
That  was  all  the  money  within  the  State's  resources.  The  railroads 
owned  by  the  State  were  terribly  dilapidated  affairs.  The  rails  were  of 
flat  bars,  worn  and  broken  into  short  lengths  of  a  few  feet  or  yards, 
and  everything  was  getting  worse  and  no  prospects  for  improvement. 

"  I  will  tell  you  how  the  State  became  involved.  I  knew  of  it  from 
the  beginning.  It  started  in  1834-35.  I  was  in  Augustus  Porter's  law 
office.  The  men  who  were  influential  in  public  affairs  were  in  the 
habit  of  coming  to  the  office  to  talk  upon  subjects  relating  to  the 
welfare  of  the  infant  State.  I  heard  their  discussions  and  knew  of 


their  projects.  Stevens  T.  Mason  was  Governor — young,  impulsive, 
gallant  and  progressive — and  public  improvements  were  concluded  to  be 
a  most  necessary  thing.  A  proposition  was  brought  before  the  Legis- 
lature to  borrow  $5,000,000  for  this  purpose.  It  was  earnestly  dis- 
cussed. The  Legislature  held  its  meetings  in  the  old  capitol,  in  the 
building  now  somewhat  transformed  and  used  by  the  Detroit  high 
school.  I  remember  in  particular  the  earnestness  of  Representative 
Elisha  Ely  of  Allegan,  a  member  in  1835,  '36,  and  '37,  quite  an  old 
man  then,  with  a  young  wife,  whose  vigorous  speech  favoring  internal 
improvements  brought  down  the  House. 

"  The  loan  carried  and  Gov.  Mason  and  Theodore  Romeyn  were 
appointed  a  committee  to  negotiate  it.  They  went  to  New  York  and 
saw  the  officers  of  the  United  States  bank.  That  institution  was  then 
experiencing  the  stress  of  adverse  weather.  It  was  toward  the  close  of 
Gen.  Jackson's  administration  and  it  was  his  policy  to  abolish  the 
bank.  The  officers  of  the  bank  therefore  told  the  Michigan  envoys 
that  they  could  not  take  the  loan,  but  they  would  recommend  them  to 
the  Morris  Canal  and  Banking  Company. 

"  The  Morris  Canal  and  Banking  Company  was  a  New  Jersey  insti- 
tution, and  an  arrangement  was  soon  made  with  them  to  loan  the 
money  to  the  State  of  Michigan.  The  terms  were  not  at  all  favorable, 
but  they  were  the  best  that  could  be  had  at  the  time.  Mason  was 
not  a  good  business  man,  but  he  was  honest.  He  turned  over  to  the 
New  Jersey  company  bonds  to  the  amount  of  $5,000,000  and  received 
as  cash  in  hand  between  $400,000  and  $500,000.  I  do  not  now  remem- 
ber the  exact  sum,  but  this  amount  was  given  in  new  bills  issued  by 
the  Morris  Canal  and  Banking  Company.  As  I  said,  Mason  handed 
over  all  the  bonds;  Romeyn  should  have  known  better.  In  exchange 
they  received  a  trunk  full  of  the  new  bills,  amounting  to  $500,000,  or 
near  that  sum,  and  came  on  to  Detroit  with  the  money.  It  was  the 
first  installment  on  the  loan,  and  the  rest  was  to  be  forthcoming  later. 

"  The  New  Jersey  men  had  placed  a  private  mark  on  each  bank  note. 
Their  object  was  to  see  how  long  the  bills  would  remain  in  circulation 
in  the  western  country,  then  considered  to  be  so  remote,  before  they 
would  come  back  to  the  bank  for  redemption!  Mr.  Romeyn  did  not 
know  of  the  private  mark  on  the  bills. 

"  The  trunk  and  its  contents  were  taken  to  the  Michigan  State  Bank 
of  which  Mr.  Norton  was  then  the  cashier.  The  money  was  recounted 
and,  to  the  consternation  of  everybody,  found  to  be  $5,000  short.  A 
singular  thing  was  that  the  missing  $5,000  was  not  taken  in  complete 
packages,  but  bills  were  extracted  here  and  there  from  the  different 

300  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

packages  of  the  trunk.  Probably  this  careful  selection  was  done  with 
the  idea  of  avoiding  the  risk  of  tracing  bank  notes  consecutively  num- 
bered. At  any  rate,  bills  were  missing  from  the  several  packages,  and 
the  amount  was  $5,000. 

"  There  was  a  great  ado  over  this  discovery.  Gov.  Mason  was  greatly 
distressed  about  it.  He  finally  concluded  not  to  pay  out  any  of  the 
money.  The  trunk  full  of  new  bills  continued  to  remain  sealed  and 
undisturbed  in  the  custody  of  the  Michigan  State  Bank.  It  was  said 
that  the  Governor  met  Mr.  Komeyn  on  the  street  and  pointedly 
remarked  to  him:  'Bomeyn,  they  say  either  you  or  I  stole  that  $5,000. 
I  will  take  my  oath  that  I  did  not  steal  it.'  One  day,  quite  a  while 
later,  the  missing  money  was  returned  through  the  mail,  the  package 
bearing  the  stamp  of  the  postoffice  at  Cleveland,  O.  The  deficiency 
being  thus  made  good,  the  State  was  ready  to  make  a  beginning  on  its 
work  of  internal  improvements,  and  had  a  little  money  to  start  on. 

"  Before  all  the  five  millions  were  paid  over — I  think,  in  fact,  before 
as  much  as  two  millions  were  paid  over — the  United  States  Bank  had 
failed,  the  Morris  Canal  and  Banking  Company  had  failed,  and  over 
$5,000,000  of  bonds  had  been  sent  to  Europe  to  satisfy  creditors  of 
those  institutions  over  there.  Michigan  was  called  upon  to  pay  inter- 
est and  principal  on  five  millions  of  dollars,  and  had  realized  much 
less  than  half  that  amount  from  the  loan.  The  State  had  been  cheated, 
and  this  fact,  of  course,  gave  rise  to  the  indignation  and  complaint  of 
citizens,  the  danger  of  repudiation,  and  troubles  legislative,  political 
and  financial,  which  made  us  very  unhappy  for  a  long  time.  The  end 
of  it  was,  after  years  of  disagreement,  a  compromise;  the  State 
redeeming  principal  and  interest  at  the  rate  of  $483.89  for  each  $1,000 
bond  that  it  recognized  as  valid,  which  goes  to  show  that  it  had  not 
realized  much  more  than  forty  per  cent  of  the  whole  loan. 

"This  loan,  this  $5,000,000,  which  amounted  as  a  definite  sum,  paid  into 
the  State,  to  probably  not  more  than  $2,000,000,  was  to  be  used  to  con- 
struct three  railroads  across  this  peninsula  and  one  canal.  One  rail- 
road was  to  start  from  Monroe— the  southern  road;  one  was  to  start 
from  Detroit — the  central  road;  and  one  was  to  start  from  Port  Huron 
—the  northern  road.  The  canal  was  to  begin  at  Mt.  Clemens,  and  by 
utilizing  the  Clinton  river  and  lakes  and  streams  which  might  serve  as 
feeders,  connect  with  the  Grand  river,  and  reach  a  water  outlet  at  Lake 
Michigan.  Some  money — a  good  deal  of  money  for  those  days — was 
expended  on  all  of  these  projects.  The  Central  railroad  was  by  far  the 
most  advanced  in  construction  of  them  all,  the  day  John  W.  Brooks 
came  into  Joy  &  Porter's  office.  It  was  the  chief  trunk  line  of  the 


State.  It  extended  to  Marshall.  The  Southern  road  was  finished  after 
a  fashion  as  far  as  Hillsdale. 

"John  W.  Brooks  was  then  about  27  years  old,  a  man  of  great 
energy  and  ability,  of  ideas  and  industry,  educated  as  a  civil  engineer 
and  at  this  time  was  the  superintendent  of  the  Syracuse  and  Rochester 
railroad.  This  road,  now  known  as  the  'old  road'  of  the  New  York 
Central,  ran  from  Syracuse  via  Auburn  and  Canandaigua  to  Rochester. 
Previous  to  this,  at  the  age  of  25,  Brooks  had  worked  on  the  con- 
struction of  the  Boston  and  Maine  railroad  as  assistant  chief  engineer. 
When  that  railroad  was  completed  and  no  other  work  of  that  kind 
offered,  he  went  to  the  lumber  woods  of  Maine  and  was  energetically 
applying  himself  there  when  he  was  called  to  take  charge  of  the  road 
in  New  York.  As  the  superintendent  of  this  line,  he  soon  came  to  have 
a  knowledge  of  the  growing  west  and  the  sources  of  traffic  for  his  rail- 
road. Besides,  he  wanted  to  engage  in  some  great  enterprise.  My 
letters  to  the  newspapers  satisfied  him  that  the  State  would  never 
complete  the  Central  railroad  to  a  port  on  Lake  Michigan,  and  being 
ambitious  to  do  this  work  he  came  to  Detroit  to  look  over  the  ground 
and  confer  with  me.  I  consented  to  act  with  him,  drew  a  charter  for 
the  railroad  company  and  was  to  endeavor  to  get  the  legislature  to 
authorize  the  sale  of  the  road.  Brooks,  already  having  some  conditional 
or  partial  assurances  of  backing  from  capitalists  at  Boston,  was  to  pro- 
ceed to  organize  a  company  to  purchase  the  road,  complete  it  and 
operate  it. 

"  The  legislature  met  in  December.  The  strongest  opposition  imagin- 
able was  aroused  against  the  bill  to  sell  the  Central  railroad  to  a 
chartered  company.  The  opposition  was  incited  by  the  jealousies  of 
Monroe  and  the  counties  on  the  route  of  the  Southern  road  and  by 
Port  Huron  and  the  friends  of  the  Northern  railroad,  and  it  was  urged 
that  if  the  State  abandoned  the  Central  to  a  private  company,  the 
other  roads  would  be  crippled,  neglected  and  destroyed.  It  took  until 
about  the  last  day  of  the  session  to  pass  the  bill.  When  it  had 
passed  the  Monroe  people  hastened  to  have  a  similar  measure  adopted 
for  the  Southern  road.  Elisha  C.  Litchfield,  of  Detroit,  supported  by 
John  Stryker,  a  capitalist  of  Rome,  N.  Y.',  undertook  to  form  a 
company  for  the  Southern  road  and  succeeded  after  much  difficulty 
and  delay. 

"The  charter  of  the  Michigan  Central  provided  that  the  company 
should  pay  the  State  $2,000,000  for  the  road;  $500,000  within  six 
months,  and  $1,500,000  in  twelve  months  after  that,  with  interest  at  6 
per  cent.  A  new  trouble  arose  among  the  capitalists.  Many  of  those 

302  ANNUAL  MEETING,   1893. 

who  had  provisionally  decided  to  go  into  the  company,  refused  when 
it  came  to  the  pinch,  but  offered  their  good  will.  The  terms  of  our 
charter  were  not  enticing,  and  it  was  only  by  great  effort  and  at  the 
last  moment  that  the  company  was  solidly  organized  and  the  money 
paid  in. 

"John  M.  Forbes  was  the  first  president,  continuing  as  such  for 
many  years.  He  was  a  tea  merchant  who  had  amassed  a  fortune  in 
Hong  Kong  and  had  invested  much  of  it  as  a  partner  in  Russell  & 
Co.,  bankers  and  brokers  of  Boston.  John  E.  Thayer,  one  of  the  lead- 
ing bankers  of  Boston,  came  in;  John  C.  Green,  a  China  merchant; 
George  Griswold;  also,  Erastus  Corning,  a  great  iron  merchant  of 
Albany,  and  D.  A.  Neal.  This  was  in  1846.  William  Sturges,  whose 
great  wealth  had  been  acquired  in  the  fur  trade,  and  Alexander 
Duncan,  a  New  York  banker,  backed  out. 

"We  went  to  work,  Mr.  Brooks  as  general  superintendent,  and  in 
two  years  had  the  road  completed  to  New  Buffalo.  A  slip,  something 
like  our  ferry  landings  at  Detroit,  was  constructed  in  the  harbor  there, 
and  small  steamers  ran  across  the  lake  to  Chicago  in  connection  with 
the  railroad.  Capt.  E.  B.  Ward,  some  years  before  the  time  I  speak 
of,  had  solicited  my  assistance  in  forming  a  company  to  build  a  small 
steamer  for  the  St.  Clair  river  trade.  As  I  knew  nothing  of  the 
steamboat  business  I  did  not  engage  with  Capt.  Ward.  He  went  on 
and  built  his  boat  at  a  cost  of  $11,000,  monopolized  the  trade  between 
Detroit  and  Port  Huron,  and  soon  made  enough  to  build  the  Champion, 
one  of  the  boats  that  afterward  connected  our  line  with  Chicago.  Capt. 
Ward  also  provided  two  steamers  for  the  Lake  Erie  connection  and 
the  company  provided  one,  the  Mayflower.  Mr.  Brooks  found  a  field 
large  enough  to  take  up  his  best  energies,  and  was  happy. 

"As  we  were  getting  along  toward  the  Lake  Michigan  terminus,  it 
came  upon  us  by  degrees  that  the  water  route  was  only  an  expedient 
and  that  it  would  be  necessary  in  the  end  to  lay  our  rails  into  Chicago. 
The  Southern  company  was  languishing  at  this  time  and  we  might 
have  bought  them  out  for  a  small  sum.  Mr.  Brooks  and  I  went  to 
New  York  to  secure  the  approval  of  the  company.  They  refused  to 
accept  the  proposition,"  said  Mr.  Joy,  with  a  manifestation  of  his 
surprise,  which,  no  doubt,  the  course  of  events  since  that  proposal  was 
made  has  amply  justified. 

"  The  Michigan  Southern  could  get  no  suitable  port  on  Lake  Mich- 
igan unless  it  was  St.  Joseph,  and  this  was  not  satisfactory  to  them. 
Their  charter  required  them  to  go  through  Niles.  For  our  part  we 
wished  to  go  through  Indiana,  but  could  obtain  no  charter  in  that 


state.  A  railroad  had  been  chartered  by  the  Indiana  legislature  to  run 
across  the  northern  counties  of  the  state — taking  in  Laporte,  South 
Bend,  etc.,  and  it  was  known  as  the  Northern  Indiana.  Nothing  had 
been  done  on  this  road  arid  in  the  year  1848  I  negotiated  with  the 
Northern  Indiana  company  for  the  purchase  of  its  charter  for  $50,000. 

"  I  was  well  satisfied  with  this  purchase  and  so  was  Mr.  Brooks.  He 
wrote  me  a  letter  commending  it,  using  all  the  obvious  arguments  for 
an  all-rail  route  to  Chicago,  and  closed  with  a  prediction  that  in 
twenty  years  Chicago  would  have  a  population  of  200,000  people.  I 
hastened  to  New  York  and  saw  President  Forbes  and  the  directors. 
The  matter  apparently  received  favorable  consideration  until  that 
portion  of  Brooks'  letter  was  reached  prophesying  200,000  people  for 
Chicago  in  1868  and  the  prospects  of  traffic  with  such  a  city.  That 
unfortunate  prediction  spoiled  the  bargain.  I  remember  distinctly  the 
incredulous  attitude  of  the  directors.  They  were  undoubtedly  the 
foremost  business  men  of  their  day — the  men  engaged  in  the  largest 
enterprises,  and  they  scoffed  at  this  prediction.  They  looked  upon  the 
man  who  made  it  as  visionary,  so  lacking  in  judgment  that  they  would 
not  pin  their  faith  upon  him.  Therefore  they  rejected  the  proposition 
to  acquire  the  Northern  Indiana  for  $50,000,  and  we  continued  to  make 
connections  with  Chicago  by  boat  across  the  lake.  . 

"The  Michigan  Southern  people  stepped  in,  and  when  it  was  offered 
them  bought  the  charter  of  the  Northern  Indiana,  and  commenced  to 
lay  rails  through  that  state  from  White  Pigeon  to  Elkhart  through  for 
Chicago.  To  retrieve  the  Michigan  Central,  I  went  to  Indianapolis 
and  labored  with  the  Indiana  legislature  for  a  charter  to  cross  the 
state.  The  Michigan  Southern  people  fought  me.  I  retaliated  in  the 
Michigan  legislature  against  them  for  their  failure  to  run  to  Niles,  as 
provided  in  their  charter.  Stopping  at  White  Pigeon  was  a  long  way 
short  of  Niles.  They  called  upon  the  Northern  Indiana  towns — Elkhart, 
Laporte,  South  Bend,  Goshen — for  reinforcements.  Schuyler  Colfax, 
afterwards  vice  president  of  the  United  States,  joined  with  them.  I 
could  not  get  my  charter  through.  At  last  we  agreed,  both  sides,  to 
leave  Indianapolis  and  stop  the  fight. 

"  The  Indiana  legislature  had  chartered  a  road  called  the  New  Albany 
and  Salem  to  build  a  north  and  south  line.  The  road  had  a  few  miles 
constructed  on  its  southern  end.  Before  I  left  Indianapolis  these 
people  came  to  me  and  suggested  that  I  could  use  their  charter.  I 
examined  it  and  found  that  by  inserting  certain  amendments,  author- 
izing the  company  to  extend  its  line  to  a  point  or  points  off  from  the 
main  line,  to  locate  any  section  of  its  road  that  it  might  find  expedient, 

304  ANNUAL  MEETING,  1893. 

and  to  build  first  any  section  that   it  might    choose — in  short  a  roving 
charter — that  then  the  Michigan  Central  conld  avail  itself  of  it. 

"I  left  Indianapolis,  the  other  side  did  the  same.  The  New  Albany 
and  Salem  charter  amendments  passed  without  objection.  That  company 
laid  out  a  section  of  their  line  from  Michigan  City,  on  the  Michigan 
border,  to  the  Illinois  line.  The  Michigan  Central  Company  effected  a 
perpetual  lease  of  this  charter  for  the  sum  of  $500,000,  and  other 
engagements  in  the  nature  of  a  mortgage.  It  was  a  large  price,  but 
there  was  no  help  for  it. 

"I  went  east  the  second  time  within  a  year  with  this  patched  up 
charter  to  get  across  the  State  of  Indiana.  President  Forbes  did  not 
think  it  was  sufficient,  and  I  could  not  convince  him  that  it  was.  He 
sent  for  Judge  Benj.  K.  Curtis,  of  Massachusetts,  a  great  lawyer, 
afterwards  of  the  United  States  supreme  court — the  one  who  wrote 
the  famous  opinion  of  the  minority  of  that  court  in  the  Dred  Scott 
case — he  sent  for  Judge  Curtis  and  asked  his  counsel,  Judge  Curtis 
unhesitatingly  agreed  with  me.  Mr.  Forbes  and  the  directors  at  once 
accepted  the  charter  and  ratified  the  bargain  at  $500,000. 

"Being  now  free  to  build  our  line  across  Indiana,  I  said  to  Presi- 
dent Forbes  that  $500,000  was  a  high  rate  of  interest  to  pay  for 

"He  said  that  it  undoubtedly  was  but  that  he  could  now  easier  pay 
$500,000  than  he  could  have  paid  the  $50,000  when  that  proposal 
came  up. 

"Our  next  trouble  was  to  get  across  the  state  of  Illinois.  I  spent 
time  at  Springfield,  trying  for  a  charter  that  would  give  us  this 
privilege.  Although  I  was  ably  assisted  by  Abraham  Lincoln,  I  did 
not  succeed  in  my  efforts.  The  assistance  of  the  future  President 
Lincoln  availed  not  as  much  for  our  interests  in  Illinois  as  the  opposi- 
tion of  the  future  Vice  President  Colfax  availed  against  them  in 

"The  difficulty  was  met  by  diverting  the  route  of  the  Illinois 
Central,  a  duly  chartered  north  and  south  line,  by  allowing  it  to  come 
over  to  the  Indiana  border,  and  thence  into  Chicago.  This  was 
effected  by  an  amendment  to  the  charter.  An  agreement  was  made  by 
the  Michigan  Central  for  the  use  of  its  right  of  way,  and  the  joint 
purchase  and  occupancy  of  depot  grounds  in  Chicago.  That  is  how  it 
comes  about  that  these  two  roads  have  joined  together  in  all  their 
improvements  at  Chicago,  and  that  is  briefly  the  story  of  a  long  and 
bitterly  contested  struggle  to  get  the  Michigan  Central  into  Chicago.'* 



BY   HON.    GEO.   C.   BATES. 
[Published  in  the  Detroit  Free  Press  in  1877-8.] 

No.  I. 

"  Old  times  have  gone;  old  manners  changed." — Scott. 

Having  been  for  many  years  a  cosmopolitan  and  a  "  coast"  man,  as  all 
inhabitants  of  that  region  lying  west  of  the  Missouri  river  style  them- 
selves, on  the  hypothesis  that  "  The  Pacific  Coast "  reaches  clear  over 
to  the  big  muddy. 

I  long  since  learned  that  two  meals  each  day  are  much  more  health- 
ful and  better,  and  that  neither  man  nor  beast  can  work  well  on  a  full 
stomach;  so  I  put  away  as  far  as  possible  all  dinners  at  midday,  and 
taking  a  light  lunch,  dine  only  when  the  day's  work  is  over.  When- 
ever the  merchants,  bankers,  business  men  and  professionals  adopt  this 
rule,  and  work  by  it,  they  will  find  they  can  do  much  more  labor  from 
10  a.  m.,  to  4  p.  m.,  than  by  a  break  of  two  hours  in  midday,  and 
that  the  thousands  of  people  who  come  in  on  the  morning  trains  to 
business  and  return  in  the  evening  will  be  much  better  accommodated 
than  by  their  present  mode  of  business.  Courts  especially  that  sit 
from  9  a.  m.  to  4  p.  m.,  with  a  ten  minute's  recess  at  1  o'clock  can 
dispatch  more  business  in  one  day  than  in  three  with  a  recess  of  two 

Looking  for  a  light  lunch  at  1  p.  m.  yesterday,  I  saw  at  the  corner 
or  angle  of  Griswold  and  Fort  streets  the  word  •"  Restaurant "  in  large 
letters,  and  in  I  rushed  for  a  cup  of  caf£  au  lait  and  a  sandwich;  and  as 
I  sat  there  and  looked  through  the  rain  over  that  splendid  city  hall; 
that  exquisite  monument  to  the  bravery  and  blood  of  Michigan's  sons 
who  died  on  the  land  and  sea  during  the  war;  around  over  the 
Russell  House,  with  its  staring  array  cf  windows  and  blinds  and 
listened  to  the  clattering  of  the  street  cars  and  merry  tinkling  of  their 


bells;  and  saw  all  around  in  every  direction  the  great  magazines,  ware- 
houses and  shops  of  commerce  of  125,000  people,  memory,  bright  as 
the  morning's  sunlight,  carried  me  back  to  the  by-gones  of 


Sipping  my  coffee,  the  scene  changed,  and  I  saw  in  my  mind's  eye 
on  this  identical  location  including  that  occupied  by  the  city  hall,  the 
old  Baptist  church  and  all  of  this  high  ground  or  knoll,  a  herd  of 
wearied  cows,  muddy  and  worn  out  by  long  travel,  stretched  here  and 
there,  just  brought  from  Ohio  by  Mr.  Wight  for  his  milk  ranch  below 
town,  he  then  being  a  hale,  hearty,  middle  aged  man,  engaged  in  the 
milk  business,  while  today  he  is  a  retired  man  of  wealth,  slowly  pass- 
ing away,  and  shut  out  from  all  the  glories  and  beauties  of  this  great 
handiwork  of  God.  Between  that  herd  of  cattle  and  the  old  capitol, 
now  that  beautiful  union  school  house,  not  one  single  building  was 
erected,  either  on  Griswold  street  or  Michigan  avenue;  but  a  long  nar- 
row plank  walk  over  the  green  sward  (for  it  was  May,  1833),  to  the 
capitol,  where  the  "Supreme  Court  of  the  Territory  of  Michigan"  was 
then  in  session,  was  the  sole  isthmus  that  connected  Detroit  with  that 
beautiful  suburb. 

At  the  same  time  (1833)  on  the  west  side  of  Woodward  avenue,  just 
below  Woodbridge  street,  stood  a  low,  two  story,  old-fashioned,  wooden 
building,  probably  over  fifty  years  old,  standing  perhaps  ten  feet  back 
from  the  avenue,  with  a  steep  roof,  dormer  windows,  and  a  huge  brass 
knocker  on  the  door,  on  w.hich  was  cut  in  deep  letters  "James  Abbott." 
"  The  latch  string  of  the  old  door  was  always  on  the  outside,"  for  there 
lived  for  many  a  long  year  one  of  Detroit's  most  active  and  successful 
old-fashioned  merchants,  a  man  of  figures  and  of  wealth,  a  sturdy 
descendent  of  an  English  family,  born  in  Montreal  about  the  year  1791, 
who,  in  the  "fur  trade,"  in  commission  business  and  supplying  the 
military  posts  of  Michigan  and  the  Northwest,  had  accumulated  a  very 
large  estate,  for  he  owned  nearly  half  of  that  whole  block,  and  who 
always  maintained  to  his  death  the  character  of  the  fine  old  English 
gentleman,  "all  of  ye  olden  time,"  and  who  amidst  a  long  life  of 
business  entertained  with  true  baronial  hospitality  all  who  made  his 
acquaintance  and  sought  society  under  his  roof. 

In  those  days  the  merchant  princes  of  Detroit,  and  Mr.  Abbott 
especially,  lived  in  small,  snug,  cosy  houses,  richly  furnished  with  real 
mahogany  table  spread  with  solid  silver  and  the  finest  linen;  cellars 
full  of  pure  old  brandy,  Jamaica  rum,  London  port,  luscious  Maderia, 
and  sherries  that  would  make  the  blood  dance  in  one's  veins;  and  the 


richer  they  grew  the  more  hospitable  they  became,  the  more  they 
entertained  with  elegant  dinners.  After  business  was  over  splendid 
suppers  and  dancing  parties  were  the  order  almost  every  evening,  after 
navigation  was  closed  until  the  next  summer  came. 

No  better  representative  home  of  Detroit,  fifty  years  ago,  could  be 
found  than  that  of  James  Abbott,  on  Woodward  avenue,  and  he 
himself,  his  genial,  jolly  wife,  his  beautiful  daughter  Sarah,  too  soon 
to  die,  A  ant  Cad  Whistler,  an  antique  sister  of  Mr.  Abbott,  the  most 
graceful  dancer  and  waltzer  then  in  Detroit,  his  then  two  roystering 
wild  sons,  Madison  and  Bill  Abbott,  who  sometimes  in  grand  frolic 
rode  their  horses  up  into  the  old  Mansion  House  and  drank  julep  and 
toddy  with  Jack  Smith  from  the  counter  there.  All  these  grouped 
in  a  photographic  gallery  would  tell  the  story  of  "  By-gones  of 

But  commerce  had  increased.  The  old  steamers  Niagara,  Clay, 
Sheldon  Thompson,  had  given  way  to  the  New  York,  the  Michigan, 
and  such  floating  palaces.  The  docks  were  crowded  in  summer  with 
vessels  and  Judge  Abbott  found  that  he  must  move  away  from  the 
busy,  crowded  port  of  Detroit  to  a  quiet  retreat  in  the  country  remote 
from  all  business,  and  so  he  built  the  then  elegant  home  in  which  I  was 
now  sitting  taking  my  lunch.  At  that  time,  except  the  homes  of  John 
Palmer  and  James  Williams,  directly  opposite  and  where  the  Moffat 
block  now  stands,  and  a  small,  old,  wooden  building  at  the  rear  of 
what  was  the  Baptist  church,  then  occupied  by  Mason  Palmer  and 
Mechanics'  Hall,  then  a  small,  rickety  old  shanty,  there  were  no  build- 
ings in  the  neighborhood,  and  when  his  new  home  was  completed  Judge 
Abbott  flattered  himself  that  he  was  forever  outside  of  and  beyond  the 
reach  of  business  wants,  or  business  property;  that  in  future  years 
there  he  and  his  children  and  his  children's  children  could  have  a 
quiet  country  home,  where  in  peace  and  quiet  they  could  live  and  die. 
Of  the  house  itself,  it  may  be  said  that,  when  finished,  it  was  one  of 
the  most  substantial,  costly  and  elegant  buildings  in  Detroit. 

"Now  stands  it  there;  and  none  so  poor,  so  low  as  do  it  reverence." 

But  the  house  was  finished,  the  grass  plat  prepared,  and  the  rose 
bush  transplanted  from  the  old  home,  and  with  true  old-fashioned 
hospitality  there  must  be  a  "house  warming,"  and  so  invitations, 
written  in  Mr.  Abbott's  round  English  hand,  bespeaking  order,  firmness, 
health,  and  true  nobility,  were  sent  to  all  the  elite  of  Detroit  to  come 
and  help  dedicate  that  home  to  comfort,  enjoyment,  pleasure,  and 
hospitality.  And  they  came.  As  I  looked  into  my  coffee  cup,  nearly 


drained,  and  closed  my  eyes  to  the  present,  memory  and  fancy,  blessed 
gifts  to  man,  gave  me  back  that  brilliant  scene  and  replaced  it  in  those 
then  large  parlors,  dining  rooms,  chambers,  and  ante-rooms,  long  since 
gone,  never,  never  to  return. 

There  stood  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Abbott,  two  sturdy  specimens  of  the  old 
English  and  French  Canadian  stock,  most  richly  and  elegantly  dressed; 
not  in  the  Parisian  styles,  but  in  the  true  English  mode;  poor  Sarah 
Abbott,  such  a  beauty!  Miss  Whistler  as  an  aid-de-camp,  waiting  to 
receive  their  guests,  who  came  to  exclaim  from  their  very  heart  of 
hearts,  "  Peace  be  upon  this  house  and  all  beneath  it,"  and  who  were 
welcomed  without  ostentation  or  ceremony,  but  with  true  old-fashioned 
western  hospitality.  There  was  Gen.  Hugh  Brady,  one  of  the  noblest, 
bravest,  truest  soldiers  that  ever  trod  with  undaunted  .step  the  field  of 
battle,  in  full  uniform,  with  his  staff;  Gen.  Frank  Larned,  with  hi& 
suave  and  elegant  address;  Capt.  Backus,  the  son-in-law  of  Gen.  Brady; 
ex-Gov.  Thompson  Mason,  Gov.  Woodbridge,  B.  F.  H.  Witherell, 
Augustus  S.  Porter,  Judge  Goodwin  and  a  large  number  of  the  old 
lawyers  of  Detroit,  always  ready  for  a  big  fee,  a  frolic,  a  flirtation. 

Major  Bob  Forsyth,  a  superb,  elegant  paymaster,  United  States  army, 
Pierre  Desnoyers,  Chas.  Moran,  Chancellor  Farnsworth,  Edmund  Brush, 
all  in  complete  uniform;  Charles  C.  Trowbridge,  John  A.  Wells,  aye, 
all  the  men  and  women  of  that  day,  full  of  life,  hope,  joyous,  generous, 
fraternal,  hospitable,  were  gathered  there  and  then;  and  the  feast  of 
viands,  of  music,  and  of  joy,  and  of  wine  went  merrily  on.  Such  a 
supper  of  elk  steaks,  roast  venison,  prairie  chicken,  buffalo  tongues  and 
beavers'  tails,  was  never  excelled  in  Detroit;  and  the  claret,  and  sherry, 
and  Madeira  flowed  like  water,  while  Jamaica  toddies,  apple  toddies, 
egg  nogg,  Canadian  shrub,  and  hot  Scotch  and  Monongahela  whisky 
punches  came  and  went,  until  the  long  and  joyous  feast  was  over;  and 
even  now,  here,  as  memory  brings  back  the  aroma  of  that  old  Jamaica 
toddy  and  Monongahela  whisky,  my  red  ribbon  trembles  with  the 
pleasant  memory  of  long  time  ago. 

.  But  the  lights  are  gone,  the  music  has  passed  away  and  nearly  all 
that  gay  and  happy  crowd  sleep  the  last  sleep  in  Elmwood,  and  here 
I  sit  alone  a  stranger,  with  not  one  single  familiar  face  today  to  beckon 
me  beside  it,  not  one  friendly  hand  to  bid  me  to  that  table  where  so 
long  ago  I  was  a  welcome  guest.  Such  is  life.  Thompson  Mason, 
Gov.  Woodbridge,  Gens.  Brady  and  Larned,  and  Forsyth  and  Kercheval, 
and  Moran  and  Witherell,  and  Farnsworth  and  Berrien,  and  Brush, 
where  are  they  ?  And  of  all  this  crowd  around  '  these  tables  in  this 
restaurant,  what  one  single  person  either  knows  or  cares  that  they, 


these  gentlemen  and  ladies  of  "by-gone  times"  were  ever  here.  Pink- 
ney,  the  very  greatest  and  most  eloquent  lawyer  of  the  Union,  said 
that  "  Time,  which  changes  all  things,  changes  man  more  than  all 
other  things,"  and  it  is  true. 

And  here  in  the  Detroit  of  today,  with  its  broad  streets,  beautiful 
river,  magnificent  railways,  immense  and  growing  commerce,  we  find 
that  all  is  changed,  and  that,  though  wealth  has  increased  by  millions, 
business  of  all  kinds  outgrown  the  hopes  of  the  most  sanguine,  that, 
while  there  are  more  churches,  more  schools,  more  banks,  more  business 
places,  yet  that  in  elegant  hospitalities,  true  fraternity,  kindness  of 
heart,  and  the  practice  of  Christ's  most  beautiful  command,  "Thou 
shalt  love  thy  neighbor  as  thyself,"  the  by-gones  were  the  truest  and 
the  best.  My  coffee  was  ended,  my  sandwich  disposed  of,  and  as  I 
turned  from  the  doors  of  the  restaurant  I  felt  as  the  dove  did  when 
first  coming  from  the  ark,  it  found  no  resting  place  for  its  foot,  but  I 
offered  up  a  heartfelt  prayer  for  the  spirits  of  our  departed  friends, 
and  for  all  who  joined  in  that  house  warming  long,  long  time  ago  of 
the  Detroit  restaurant. 

No.  II. 

"Memory  is  the  purveyor  of  reason." — Johnson. 

"Why  seeks  he,  with  unwearied  toil, 
Through  death's  dim  walks  to  urge  his  way, 

Redeem  his  long  asserted  spoil, 

And  lead  oblivion  into  day?"— Old  Mortality. 

Forty  years  ago,  just  about  these  days,  as  the  almanacs  say,  or  used 
to  say,  the  old  democratic  and  whig  parties  of  Michigan  had  sounded 
their  respective  bugle  calls  to  action,  and  our  people,  then  a  State  not 
yet  admitted  into  the  Union,  were  summoned  for  the  first  time  to  elect 
their  State  and  county  officers  in  the  November  election  of  1837.  That 
was  the  beginning  of  the  political  existence  of  this  "Amcenam  Penin- 
sulani"  now  one  of  the  finest,  richest,  purest,  noblest  and  best  states 
of  our  grand  old  Union;  and  I  was  there  at  its  birth,  God  bless  it! 
Today  it  counts  a  million  and  a  half  of  inhabitants,  then  it  had  in  the 
entire  peninsula  not  more  than  sixty  thousand  people.  Today  its 
wealth  may  be  counted  by  hundreds  of  millions,  then  like  a  new  born 


child  it  had  nothing  to  cover  its  nakedness.  Today  its  commerce- 
sweeps  over  the  great  lakes,  whizzes  over  a  thousand  railways,  and 
whitens  all  seas,  then  a  few  old  steamboats,  a  dozen  sail  vessels  and 
scows,  and  flats  transported  all  its  products. 

Now  its  golden  harvests  will  yield  nearly  twenty  millions,  then  we- 
brought  from  Ohio  and  New  York  the  bread  we  ate.  Today  our  cattle- 
and  flocks  roam  over  ten  thousand  miles,  then  Ruckminster  Wight  and 
a  few  pioneers  furnished  us  with  herds  of  cattle  brought  from  Ohio,, 
and  droves  of  sheep  from  Ontario  and  Genesee  in  New  York.  Then  I 
could  count  the  humble  school  houses  of  Michigan  on  my  fingers* 
twice  told,  today  they,  rise  in  architectural  beauty  in  almost  every 
square  mile  of  the  State.  Then  here  and  there  plain  and  unadorned 
houses  dedicated  to  God  told  of  our  religious  culture,  today  temples- 
gorgeous  and  beautiful  in  architecture,  grand  and  sublime  in  style  and 
ornamentation,  costing  millions  of  money,  point  their  gothic  spires 
from  every  city,  town,  village  and  hamlet  upwards  toward  God's  throne 
and  thus  proclaim  to  the  world,  that  moral  and  Christian  education 
go  hand  in  hand  with  commerce,  science  and  art;  while  a  university r 
outnumbering  in  its  pupils  those  of  Cambridge  and  Oxford  and 
Gottingen,  where  every  branch  of  learning,  of  science,  and  of  art,  is- 
thoroughly  taught  by  professors,  savants,  and  scientists,  the  peers  of 
the  wisest  and  best,  gives  evidence  that  all  the  sons  and  daughters  of 
the  State,  now  in  its  youth  and  beauty,  are  bountifully  supplied  with 
the  means  requisite  to  make  them  all  educated  gentlemen  and  ladies. 

But  of  all  this,  "More  anon,  sir." 

Now  we  have  to  stop  a  moment  to  look  on  a  picture,  crude  but 
truthful,  not  ideal  but  realistic,  of  the  first  State  election  ever  held  in 
Detroit  or  the  State.  The  harvest  then,  as  now,  was  just  over,  the 
month  of  August  nearly  gone. 

When  the  gallant  whigs  were  invited  to  meet  in  State  convention 
at  Ann  Arbor,  there  to  nominate  candidates  for  governor  and  State 
officers,  to  be  voted  for  on  the  first  Tuesday  of  the  coming  November, 
the  democrats,  in  response  to  a  call  of  their  central  committee,  David 
C.  McKinstry,  John  Norvell,  Lucius  Lyon,  Marshall  I.  Bacon  and 
Henry  Newberry  had  taken  time  by  the  forelock,  and  determined  to 
carry  the  State  at  all  hazzards;  had  already  nominated  Stevens  T. 
Mason  for  governor  and  Edward  Mundy  for  lieutenant  governor,  and 
with  that  most  popular  ticket  had  thrown  down  their  gauntlet  of  defi- 
ance, and  under  such  a  splendid  leader  as  young  Mason  bade  their 
enemies  to  combat.  I  need  not  say  to  the  old  citizens  of  Detroit  that 
young  Mason,  just  now  twenty-one  years  of  age,  was  the  beauideal  of 


the  democratic  party,  the  cynosure  of  all  eyes,  for  he  was  as  fine  a 
specimen  of  a  young  Kentucky  blood  as  ever  stood  on  earth.  Hand- 
some almost  as  that  father  whom  the  Swedish  authoress  on  her  visit 
here  pronounced  "  the  most  elegant  American  gentleman  she  had  ever 
met;"  his  manners  were  courtly  and  lordly,  his  hospitality  boundless; 
with  talents  polished,  but  not  of  the  first  rank  in  oratory;  graceful, 
captivating,  and  majestic;  a  voice  uncommonly  sonorous,  sweet  and 
musical;  a  face  as  handsome,  but  more  robust  than  Edwin  Booth; 
manner  free  and  easy,  hail  fellow  well  met  with  all  men.  Tom  Mason 
was  the  very  impersonation  of  the  young  democracy  of  Jackson's  time. 
And  there  was  something  in  the  warm  grip  of  his  hand  and  the  jolly 
"How  are  you?"  that  was  worth  a  thousand  votes  in  every  precinct 
where  the  ballot  box  was  open. 

Bear  in  mind  that  in  the  fall  before  (1836),  Van  Buren  had  been 
elected  General  Jackson's  successor,  and  that  really  "Old  Hickory's"  will 
and  power  and  influence  still  ruled  and  governed  with  an  iron  hand, 
while  the  grand  old  whig  party  had  for  its  chieftains  brave  Harry  of 
the  west,  that  splendid,  gallant,  eloquent,  and  fiery  son  of  Kentucky; 
Daniel  Webster,  the  very  greatest  and  ablest  of  all  American  states- 
men; Willie  P.  Mangum,  of  North  Carolina;  John  N.  Berrien,  of 
Georgia;  Nat  Talmadge  and  Wm.  H.  Seward,  of  New  York;  Freling- 
huysen,  of  New  Jersey,  et  id  omne  genus.  Party  spirit  on  both  sides 
was  at  a  perfect  white  heat,  where  no  quarter  on  either  side  was  asked 
or  given,  and  we  cannot  appreciate  the  importance  of  the  first  great 
canvass  in  the  new  State  of  Michigan. 

Well,  we  met  in  the  old  court  house  in  Ann  Arbor,  just  now  about  to 
give  way  to  a  more  imposing  structure,  and  two  days  were  occupied  in 
making  the  journey  via  Plymouth  Corners,  where  we  passed  our  first 
night,  and  were  there  joined  by  Ebenezer  Penniman  and  others,  for 
Plymouth  was  the  only  whig  town  in  Wayne  county,  and  on  the  next 
day,  after  patriotic  resolutions,  earnest  and  eloquent  speeches  by  Jacob 
M.  Howard,  Hezekiah  G.  Wells,  James  Wright  Gordon,  and  others,  the 
convention  nominated  unanimously  Charles  C.  Trowbridge,  of  Wayne, 
for  governor,  and  Nathaniel  I.  Bacon,  of  Monroe,  as  lieutenant  gov- 
ernor, two  of  the  oldest  citizens  of  Michigan,  two  men  who  had  done 
as  much  and  contributed  as  much  to  the  rise,  progress  and  growth  of 
the  territory  as  any  two  men  ever  living  within  its  boundary.  Of  all 
those  nominees  at  that  election  Charles  C.  Trowbridge  alone  survives, 
and  his  life  and  labors  are  so  interwoven  with  the  conception,  birth, 
infancy,  youth,  manhood,  wealth,  and  greatness  of  our  State  that  they 
deserve  a  special  mention  in  some  future  sketch.  It  is  enough  now  to 


say  that  as  cashier  and  president  of  the  old  Bank  of  Michigan,  as 
secretary  to  Governor  Cass,  so  early  as  1820-22,  as  one  of  the  vestry- 
men and  founders  of  St.  Paul's  Episcopal  church  of  Detroit,  as 
manager  of  the  Detroit  and  Milwaukee  railway  company,  as  an  accom- 
plished gentleman  and  an  old-fashioned,  hospitable  citizen,  he  has  been 
well  known  all  over  the  lake  country  for  over  half  a  century.  On  that 
August  day  forty  years  ago,  in  that  old  court  house  at  Ann  Arbor,  the 
writer  hereof  made  his  debut  as  a  popular  speaker  in  his  maiden  effort 
in  behalf  of  Trowbridge  and  Bacon,  and  his  maiden  vote  was  cast  at 
the  election  in  Detroit,  in  November  of  that  year,  for  that  ticket ;  and 
now,  after  "life's  fitful  fever  is  almost  over,"  after  battling  the  match 
with  the  democrats  in  1840,  1844,  1848,  1852,  and  so  on  down  to  this 
very  day,  he  has  never  felt  any  regret  for  that  vote  and  speech. 

And  here,  in  "  Abbott's  restaurant,"  where  these  memories  come 
with  blinding  tears  as  he  recalls  the  fact  that  almost  all  that  grand' 
army  of  democrats  and  whigs  are  sleeping  in  beautiful  Elmwood,  he 
drinks  in  silence  and  alone,  in  clear,  cold  water,  to  "  Trowbridge  and 
Bacon,"  to  Clay  and  Webster,  to  Mason  and  Mundy,  to  Cass  and 

But  the  first  election  day  of  Michigan,  ]837,  has  come  at  last;  the 
leaves  have  fallen  but  we  have  an  old-fashioned  Michigan  Indian 
summer.  Those,  too,  are  now  gone  forever. 

Sunday  it  rained  all  day,  but  we  worked  hard  and  fast  on  Monday, 
when  the  sun  came  out  with  now  and  then  a  shower. 

And  the  streets  around  the  then  new  city  hall,  now  swept  away, 
were  deep  with  mud,  for  the  clay  streets  of  Detroit  were  unpaved  and 
locomotion  was  carried  on  in  the  common  carts  of  the  day,  and 
pedestrians  were  always,  clad  with  high  top-boots,  the  pantaloon 
strapped  under  the  feet  and  inside  the  boot  legs.  And  so  the  first 
Tuesday  after  the  first  Monday  of  November  came;  and  this  was  the 
"day  big  with  the  fate  of  CaB3ar  and  of  Borne,"  the  day  that  should 
determine  the  political  name  and  character  of  Michigan,  just  now  born 
into  the  family  of  states;  the  rains  had  ceased  but  the  clouds  hung 
low,  and  at  early  morning  the  hosts  of  democrats  and  whigs  were 
moving;  and  the  "shrill  fife  and  rattling  drum"  all  over  Detroit  called 
the  voters  to  their  respective  quarters.  But  one  voting  or  polling 
place  then  existed  for  all  the  voters  of  this  city,  and  that  one  was  the 
city  hall,  standing  half  way  between  the  Russell  House  and  the 
opposite  corner,  a  very  useful  but  not  stylish  or  tasteful  public  build- 
ing, in  which  the  butchers  cut  up  and  sold  meats  in  the  market  room 
on  the  first  floor,  while  on  the  upper  floor  were  the  courts  where  the 


lawyers  cut  up  their  clients  during  the  term,  and  in  off  days  it  was 
used  sometimes  as  a  lecture  room,  always  council  chamber  for  aldermen, 
a  then  political  club  room,  and,  if  I  am  not  mistaken,  sometimes  on  the 
sly  for  masked  balls,  fancy  balls  and  dances,  and  such  gay  amusements, 
which  even  then  wer^e  rife  in  the  City  of  the  Straits. 

It  may  be  that  many  of  the  old  citizens  of  Detroit  have  seen  a  .long 
time  ago  a  picture  not  altogether  like  one  of  Michael  Angelo's,  but 
realistic,  truthful  and  speaking,  the  outlines  of  which  were  taken  on 
the  ground  on  the  election  day  by  young  Burnham,  of  Boston,  which 
now  hangs  in  the  parlor  of  Mrs.  Gen.  Williams,  formerly  Mrs.  James 
W.  Tilman,  on  Woodward  avenue,  whose  first  husband  was  an  earnest 
whig,  and  so  long  as  he  lived,  treasured  the  picture  of  "The  By-gones 
of  Detroit,"  with  care  and  affection;  a  picture  which  ought  finally  to 
pass  into  the  care  and  custody  of  the  Historical  Society  of  the  city, 
for  it  tells  a  story  as  truthful  and  honest  of  that  election  as  a  photo- 
graph could  do,  if  such  a  thing  had  been. 

Let  us  quietly  enter  that  parlor  and  see  that  memorial  of  the  past 
election  of  Michigan.  One  of  the  most  prominent  figures  on  the  right, 
in  rather  heavy  coloring,  just  in  front  of  the  city  hall,  is  Col.  David 
C.  McKinstry,  then  chairman  of  the  democratic  central  committee,  a 
giant  in  size,  holding  in  his  right  hand  a  heavy  cane,  while  a  broad 
brimmed  slouch  hat  drops  over  his  right  eye,  the  deep  gray  eyes 
almost  covered  and  concealed  with  heavy  eye-brows.  He  was  in  full 
command  of  the  democratic  forces,  which  were  brought  early  on  the 
ground  and  gathered  around  the  ballot  box  and  inspectors  of  election, 
who,  with  the  talesmen  and  challengers  of  both  parties,  are  grouped  in 
.the  vestibule  or  deep  recess  existing  in  front  of  the  market,  but  inside 
the  door.  It  must  be  borne  in  mind  that  at  the  time  none  of  us  wore 
red  ribbons  and  McKinstry,  the  Tallerand  of  democracy,  who  was 
always  in  close  communion  with  his  democratic  friends,  while  not  a 
drunken  man  by  any  means,  was  a  free  and  easy  drinker,  could  carry 
on  election  day  even  his  full  quota  of  inspiration.  His  right  hand  is 
raised  as  he  gives  his  orders  to  Major  Stillson,  who  is  mounted  on  a 
splendid  charger  covered  and  caparisoned  like  the  circus  horse  with 
which  the  clown  makes  his  grand  entree,  while  he  himself  in  the 
undress  uniform  of  a  brigadier  general  of  militia,  sits  as  Jackson  did 
in  quiet  command  at  New  Orleans.  Stillson  was  an  auctioneer,  a 
fellow  of  soldierly  bearing,  stentorian  voice,  unblushing  effrontery,  and 
was  the  very  best  drill  sergeant  the  democrats  ever  had  in  Michigan. 
In  his  hand  he  carried  that  glorious  banner  which  caused  a  thrill  then 


in  every  democratic  heart.  "Stevens  T.  Mason,  for  governor;  Edward 
Mundy,  for  lieutenant  governor."  And  some  hundred  or  more  figures 
in  double  file  crowd  the  picture,  representing  true  as  life  the  bone  and 
sinew  of  the  party,  the  rank  and  file  of  the  democracy  of  Detroit. 

Major  Stillson,  while  listening  to  the  orders  of  McKinstry,  has  turned 
partly  aside  to  look  with  pride  on  his  young  chief,  Stevens  T.  Mason, 
who  (this  was  late  in  the  day),  with  a  hat  once  shiny  and  elegant,  has 
manifestly  been  in  a  heavy  wet,  whose  high  top-boots  covered  with 
mud,  and  full  dress  coat,  buttoned  at  the  top  with  the  wrong  button, 
give  him  very  much  the  appearance  of  Mr.  Pickwick  after  the  celebrated 
dining  party  with  his  club.  Mr.  Norvell,  neat  as  if  in  the  dress  of  the 
senate  of  the  United  States,  always  self-poised  and  self-possessed, 
stands  clear  down  in  the  corner  with  self-satisfaction  at  the  democratic 
crowd  as  it  rolls  on  and  on,  and  counting  too  truly  that  victory  which 
was  to  make  Mason  governor,  himself  senator,  and  send  Trowbridge 
and  his  troops  back  to  private  life,  while  Kingsbury,  from  Maine, 
shrieks  out:  "Three  cheers!  Three  cheers  for  democracy  and  Mason!" 
In  the  left  hand  of  the  picture  the  poor  whigs,  doomed  to  defeat,  are 
admirably  portrayed;  and  now,  after  forty  years,  as  I  study  that  picture 
those  "by-gones"  all  return. 

Frank  Sawyer,  a  scholar  and  a  good  fellow,  but  a  sort  of  a  whig 
giraffe,  ordinarily  very  staid  and  sober,  is  manifestly  now  full  of 
"  Trowbridge  and  reform,"  and  he  is  shouting  loud  and  long  to  his 
whig  comrades  to  "Hurry  up!  Come  on,  fellows,  and  give  your  votes, 
the  day  is  almost  won;"  while  still  further  in  the  background  stands 
honest  Jack  Howard,  with  Webster ian  brow  but  soiled  garments  and 
very  dirty  boots,  as  if  in  a  gale  at  sea,  looking  his  utter  contempt  at 
Stillson,  McKinstry  and  Mason,  as  if  he  would  and  could  exterminate 
them  all,  and  you  can  hear  him,  if  you  put  your  ear  close  to  the 
picture,  as  he  hisses  out  these  words:  "Vagabonds!  Hinds!  Throw  up 
your  greasy  caps,  but  we  will  beat  you  at  last."  But  we  did  not. 

In  the  very  front  of  the  picture,  clear  outside  the  crowd,  stands  the 
ship  "  Constitution."  A  splendid  boat,  in  full  ship's  rig,  named  the 
"Constitution,"  with  Captain  Bob  Wagstaff  in  the  chains,  heaving  the 
lead,  and  Eugene  Watson  in  the  shrouds,  like  Commodore  Farragut 
with  his  speaking  trumpet,  bawling  out:  "Whigs,  ahoy  there!  Give 
way!  Give  way,  lads,  for  the  Constitution,  Trowbridge  and  Bacon." 
In  the  dim  distance  Alanson  Sheley,  John  -Owen,  and  a  little  further  a 
crew  of  sailors  are  seen  in  the  grand  mel6e,  which  ended  the  day, 
when  the  democrats  rushed  on  to  the  polls  and  were  strewn  like 
autumn  leaves,  all  around  by  the  heavy  blows  of  Bob  Wagstaff,  Sheley 


and  Bill  Caverly,  the  mate  of  the  Michigan,  just  before  the  polls  were 
closed;  while  the  writer  hereof  in  a  seedy  hat,  torn  pantaloons  and 
wearied  actions  may  be  seen  as  a  sort  of  skirmisher,  evidently  safe 
himself,  driving  up  the  democrats  to  the  front  to  be  knocked  down 
by  the  whigs,  who  stood  backed  up  against  the  city  hall,  and  from 
whom  the  war  cry  came  often,  from  Sheley  and  Owen  especially: 
"  Give  it  to  them,  boys.'" 

But  the  picture  fades,  the  figures  have  nearly  all  sunk  away  into  the 
grave.  "They  heed  not,  they  have  fought  their  last  battle."  Mason 
was  elected  triumphantly.  The  democrats  carried  everything,  and  thus 
they  held  all  the  offices  of  the  government,  and  Charles  C.  Trowbridge 
retired  from  political  life. 

The  curtain  rings  slowly  down  and  the  picture  fades  gently  awayr 
while  in  the  dim  distance  we  can  read  on  the  headstones  of  the  graves 
the  names  of  Mason  and  Norvell,  McKinstry  and  Howard,  Sawyer  and 
Kingsbury,  Wagstaff  and  Bacon,  and  nearly  all  the  rest,  gone. 

No.  III. 


No.  Ill  of  "  By-gones"  is  published  in  Volume  2,  page  573,  Pioneer 
Collections,  and  consists  of  a  sketch  of  General  Hugh  Brady  and  his 
military  exploits  in  the  "Toledo  and  Patriot  wars. 

No.  IV. 

The  memories  that  cluster  around  Gen.  Hugh  Brady,  naturally 
suggest  the  life  and  times  of  the  Brady  Guards  whom  the  old  hero 
used  to  salute  as  Emperor  William  does  his  troops  as  "  my  children," 
and  no  body  of  men  who  ever  lived  in  Detroit  in  those  by-gones 
deserve  a  better  place  in  history  than  does  that  gallant  corps. 

The  original  organization  of  the  Brady   Guards   grew    out   of   an  old 


company  called  "  The  Detroit  City  Guards,"  which  existed  so  early  as 
1834 — was  commanded  by  Capt.  Charles  L.  Bull;  and  was  drilled  at 
times  out  on  the  commons,  where  now  stands  the  city  hall,  by  Col. 
Edward  Brooks,  who  had  been  a  gallant  soldier  under  Gen.  Jackson,  a 
Captain  of  Infantry  for  many  years,  and  who  was  a  true  soldier,  a 
thorough  drill-master,  and  one  of  the  most  humorous  and  witty 
auctioneers  that  ever  knocked  down  his  hammer. 

In  Judge  Campbell's  sketches  of  early  days  in  Michigan,  he  has  told 
in  his  own  luminous  and  classic  language  the  outlines  of  the  history  of 
the  controversy  between  Ohio  and  Michigan,  touching  the  southern 
boundary  of  the  State,  and  briefly  hinted  at  that  farcial  military 
uprising  called  "  The  Toledo  War." 

Gov.  Mason,  who  was  the  hero  of  that  grand  epoch  in  Michigan's 
history,  was  not  only  a  whole-hearted,  generous,  roystering  Virginian, 
but  under  the  discipline  and  influence  of  John  Norvell,  afterwards 
United  States  senator,  he  became  a  careful,  shrewd  diplomat;  a  sort  of 
sagacious,  far-seeing  young  Richelieu;  and  when  he  made  up  his  mind 
to  resist  by  force  the  aggressions  of  Ohio,  backed  up  by  the  general 
government,  it  was  all-important  to  enlist  under  his  banner  all  the 
whig  element  in  Michigan;  because  even  then  party  spirit  ran  very 
high  and  personal  encounters  between  ardent  whigs  and  zealous  dem- 
ocrats were  becoming  very  frequent.  Well,  the  leading  members  of 
the  bar,  the  merchants,  ship  owners,  sailors,  fur  traders,  and  most  of 
the  business  men  of  Michigan  were  ardent  whigs,  and  while  they 
admired  Mason  and  Norvell,  they  were  yet  very  hostile  to  the  demo- 
cratic party  and  its  policy.  Thus,  while  Charles  M.  Bull  was  a  sturdy 
democrat,  James  A.  Armstrong,  Jacob  M.  Howard,  Frank  Sawyer, 
John  Talbott,  the  writer  hereof,  and  nearly  all  the  rank  and  file  of 
the  "City  Guard"  were  very  earnest  whigs,  and  our  old  drill  sergeant, 
Edward  Brooks,  was  a  very  host  of  whigs  in  himself. 

The  time  had  finally  arrived  when  Governor  Mason  had  determined 
to  call  out  the  militia  of  the  territory,  and  with  an  armed  force  to 
resist  the  attempt  of  Ohio  to  steal  away  our  twelve-mile  strip  of  land 
on  the  south,  and  it  was  all  important  that  every  Michigan  heart 
should  be  fired  with  zeal  to  protect  the  territory,  that  no  division  of 
party  should  exist  among  its  sons  and  that  every  able  bodied  man  should 
come  cheerfully  to  the  front.  Accordingly,  one  afternoon  in  early 
September,  1835,  the  City  Guards  were  called  out  by  executive  order 
to  drill,  and  at  the  personal  solicitation  of  Col.  Brooks,  the  whig  young 
men,  Howard,  Sawyer,  Talbott,  and  that  set  went  to  the  commons  to 
exercise  and  perfect  themselves  in  the  company  evolutions.  Once  there, 


Col.  Brooks  put  us  through  the  school  of  the  soldier — the  manual — the 
school  of  the  company — the  school  of  the  battalion,  and  after  marching 
and  counter-marching,  we  were  quietly  taken  to  the  third  story  of  Capt. 
Bull's  store,  on  Jefferson  avenue,  next  adjoining  the  old  Farmers'  and 
Mechanics'  Bank,  and  then,  sentinels  being  placed  at  the  doors,  to 
prevent  egress  or  ingress,  an  executive  order  was  read  commanding  us 
to  move  on  the  following  morning,  with  arms  and  equipments,  to  Monroe, 
and  there  await  orders  from  Gen.  Joseph  Brown,  who  was  organizing 
troops  from  Lenawee,  Monroe,  Washtenaw  and  other  counties,  to  take 
military  possession  of  the  disputed  strip  of  land  and  hold  it  by  armed 
force.  Thus  the  City  Guards  became  a  body  of  forced  volunteers,  who 
went  bravely  forth  to  crusade  for  Michigan  in  Michigan's  Holy  Land. 

Well,  they  went,  and  of  "their  moving  incidents  by  field  and  flood" 
we  shall  learn  more  hereafter,  when  we  come  to  photograph  that  Toledo 
war,  but  now  we  have  in  hand  the  old  Brady s,  that  afterwards,  in  1839, 
completed  that  organization  as  an  independent  military  company  of 
Detroit,  with  Isaac  Kowland  as  Captain;  Edmund  Kearsley,  First  Lieu- 
tenant; James  A.  Armstrong,  Second  Lieutenant;  -  Ashley,  Third 
Lieutenant;  John  Chester,  Orderly  Sergeant,  and  with  John  Winder, 
George  E.  Hand,  Rev.  John  S.  Atterbury,  Henry  Doty,  George  Doty, 
Peter  E.  DeMill,  Christian  H.  Buhl,  Marshal  J.  Bacon,  and  over  one 
hundred  more  of  such  then  young  gentlemen,  as  rank  and  file. 

Taking  the  name  of  Hugh  Brady,  and  with  a  superb  full-length 
portrait  of  that  old  hero  on  their  flag,  no  sooner  was  it  unfurled  than 
their  ranks  were  filled  up  with  all  the  spirited  young  gentlemen  of 
Detroit,  and  their  reputation  and  name  soon  became  the  theme  of 
admiration  all  over  the  Northwest.  With  a  neat  but  striking  uniform 
of  cadet  grey,  trimmed  with  black  and  gold,  each  member  soon  became 
resolved  to  excel  every  other  member  in  the  style  and  brilliancy  of 
his  equipments,  and  with  the  old-fashioned  flint  lock  muskets  and 
burnished  barrels  the  strife  was  constant  to  excel,  and  in  many 
instances  from  $30  to  $50  was  expended  on  these  weapons  for  mahogany 
stocks,  extra  burnishing  and  scouring,  and  as  the  company  rapidly  grew 
in  numbers  it  increased  in  efficiency,  became  better  and  better  drilled, 
and  was  an  effective  command.  Capt.  Isaac  Rowland  had  been  at  West 
Point  .for  several  years  and  was  a  most  thorough  and  efficient  officer, 
while  Edmund  Kearsley  was  a  native  born  soldier,  and  Gen.  Alpheus 
S.  Williams,  a  soldier  by  nature,  has  since  proven  on  a  hundred  battle- 
fields what  a  capital  soldier  he  was,  even  then,  by  nature;  and  no 
better  drill  officer,  no  more  painstaking  man  ever  buckled  on  sword 
than  James  A.  Armstrong,  while  young  Ashley,  whom  we  soon  buried, 


was  an  active,  zealous,  and  good  officer.  His  place  was  filled  by  John 
Chester,  one  of  the  most  accurate,  industrious,  and  thorough  orderly 
sergeants,  and  who  combined  in  himself  the  attributes  of  a  brave  soldier, 
a  perfect  gentleman  and  a  true  Christian.  Scarcely  had  the  old  Bradys 
learned  the  manual  of  the  soldier,  the  evolutions  of  the  squad,  the 
section,  the  company,  when  real  work  called  them  to  sturdier  duties 
under  the  eyes  of  Gens.  Scott  and  Brady,  by  Gens.  Worth  and  Wool 
and  Col.  M.  M.  Payne,  three  of  the  most  thorough  martinets  that  ever 
drilled  troops  in  any  army,  and  there  is  not  an  old  Brady  today  in 
Detroit,  who,  if  he  heard  the  command,  "Attention!  Fall  in,  company! 
Eyes  right  and  dress!"  would  not  instantly  take  the  position  of  a 
soldier,  complete  his  alignment,  dress  by  the  right,  and  obey  all  the 
words  of  command  promptly  and  soldierly.  The  military  existence  of 
the  Bradys  had  been  short  when  the  incursions  of  the  patriots  arrested 
the  attention  of  the  General,  and  he,  having  no  regular  force  at  his 
command,  made  a  requisition  on  this  corps  for  services  as  United 
States  troops. 

The  question  was  taken  up,  and  by  the  unanimous  voice  of  officers 
and  men  they  were  mustered  into  the  service  of  the  United  States  as 
United  States  troops  for  three  months  in  the  fall  or  early  winter  of 
1836  or  1837,  and  for  three  successive  years  thereafter.  By  a  resolution 
of  the  company  it  was  determined  to  pool  the  pay  of  the  men  and 
officers,  and  to  expend  the  money  in  camp  equipage,  military  excursions 
and  drills;  and  so  they  were  soon  supplied  with  the  very  finest  camp 
equipage  in  the  United  States.  On  the  Fourth  of  July,  1837,  they 
visited  Niagara  Falls,  encamped  with  a  regiment  of  infantry  called 
Williams  Light  Infantry,  from  Rochester,  on  Goat  Island,  and  were 
afterward  entertained  by  the  city  of  Buffalo — Captain  Taylor  being 
then  mayor — in  magnificent  style  and  at  a  very  large  expense. 

Nor  were  the  citizen  soldiers  permitted  by  any  means  to  be  carpet 
knights  or  holiday  troops  or  household  guards.  Just  at  the  close  of 
navigation  in  1836  General  Brady  was  advised  that  the  Patriots  were 
about  to  cross  from  Canada  at  Port  Huron  and  take  possession  of  the 
military  stores,  arms,  cannon,  ammunition  and  munitions  of  war  at  Fort 
Gratiot.  There  was  not  one  solitary  soldier  stationed  there,  so  he  made 
•a  requisition  on  Captain  Rowland,  of  the  Bradys,  for  a  sergeant  and  five 
men  to  go  up  to  Fort  Gratiot,  take  all  the  material  there  and  transport 
it  to  Detroit  for  safety.  In  response  to  that  order  Captain  Rowland 
detailed  Colonel  Andrew  T.  McReynolds,  then  a  sergeant  of  the  Brady 
Ouards,  with  privates  Alpheus  S.  Williams,  Charles  M.  Bull,  George 
C.  Bates,  Benjamin  B.  Moore,  and  one  other,  who  were  dispatched  at 


once  on  board  the  old  steamer  Macomb  for  Port  Huron,  where  they 
arrived  in  safety,  after  having  been  frozen  in  on  the  flats  of  St.  Glair 
for  one  or  more  nights.  Pursuant  to  orders  they  took  possession  of 
Fort  Gratiot  and  commenced  loading  up  cannon,  arms,  equipments, 
small  arms  and  a  large  quantity  of  powder  in  kegs,  when  the  people 
of  Port  Huron  rose  up  as  one  man  and  by  hundreds  insisted  "  that 
they  would  resist  by  force  the  removing  of  these  stores,  as  they  needed 
them  there  for  protection  against  the  Patriots  themselves."  Here  was 
a  situation  for  our  old  friend  Colonel  McReynolds,  who  afterward  won 
glory  and  fame  at  the  gates  of  Mexico;  but  having  been  born  an 
Irishman  and  kissed  the  blarney  stone  of  Ireland,  he  negotiated  and 
treated,  and  parleyed,  until  they  yielded  to  the  five  old  Bradys,  and 
they  brought  away  all  the  arms  and  public  property,  reembarked  for 
Detroit,  were  frozen  in  on  Lake  St.  Glair,  went  ashore  on  the  ice,  and 
finally  brought  overland  to  Detroit  all  that  material  of  war  and  mili- 
tary supplies,  for  which  we  were  highly  complimented  in  general  orders 
from  Generals  Brady  and  Scott,  and  for  which  we  subsequently  received 
—each  of  us — 160  acres  of  land  as  a  military  bounty. 

During  these  three  years  of  United  States  military  service,  the 
Bradys  were  the  pets  and  students  of  Major  M.  M.  Payne,  United 
States  Artillery,  who  afterwards  was  wounded  in  battle  in  Mexico  and 
died  in  charge  of  the  Military  Hospital  at  Washington,  an  old  bachelor, 
a  Virginian,  a  martinet  and  as  thorough  a  soldier  as  ever  trod  the 
field  of  battle.  It  was  his  pleasure  to  turn  out  his  command,  some 
hundreds  of  United  States  recruits,  and  the  Bradys,  form  them  into  a 
battalion  and  drill  them,  and  occasionally  to  catch  them  by  an  order 
of  "By  right  of  companies  rear  into  column,  march!"— *by  the  most 
minute  inspection  of  muskets,  sabres,  side-arms,  cartridge  boxes,  etc., 
for  which,  if  he  discovered  any  defect,  he  would  send  a  Brady  to  the 
rear,  expose  him,  mortify  him,  then,  after  duty  was  over,  call  him  up 
to  his  quarters,  give  him  a  real  Virginia  toddy,  and  then  warn  him 
"  to  'look  out  in  future." 

During  that  same  year  and  the  succeeding  one  the  Bradys  were 
divided  into  detachments,  one  stationed  all  winter  at  the  Dearborn 
arsenal  to  guard  the  public  buildings  there — military  stores  of  large 
quantities  and  value — while  another  detachment  here  in  Detroit  did 
night  guard  duty  at  the  magazine  on  the  Riopelle  farm,  away  in  the 
northeastern  part  of  the  city,  where  afterwards  barracks  were  erected, 
and  where  the  headquarters  of  the  Second  and  Fourth  United  States 
Artillery  and  the  Fourth  and  Fifth  Infantry  were  for  many  years 
stationed.  In  fact,  until  regiments  of  the  regular  army  could  be  sent 


here  the  Brady s  and  recruits  constituted  the  sole  military  force  by 
which  Generals  Brady  and  Scott  preserved  the  peace  on  the  frontier. 

When  Brady  died  they  went  with  him  to  his  grave,  and  then 
disbanded  forever.  At  his  funeral  every  living  member  in  Detroit 
turned  out,  in  full  black  dress,  white  gloves,  white  belts  and  side-arms, 
and  constituted  the  mourning  escort;  and  there,  around  his  grave,  after 
the  firing  escort  had  discharged  their  guns,  some  one  hundred  and 
sixty  of  the  old  Brady  s  circled  around  the  grave  and  the  writer  hereof 
having  made  their  valedictory  to  their  old  chief,  they  were  forever 

Detroit  has  today  125,000  people  within  her  boundaries,  enterprising, 
energetic,  honest  people,  but  out  of  them  all  there  are  none  more 
worthy  of  memory,  none  more  deserving,  none  more